Bahmani and Vijayanagar Kingdoms Notes 11th History for Tnpsc Exam
11th History Lesson 7 Notes in English
7. Bahmani and Vijayanagar Kingdoms
Alaudin Hasan Bahman Shah (1347–1358)
Mohammed I (1358–1375)
1. Vakil-ussaltana or lieutenant of the kingdom, the immediate subordinate of the sovereign.
2. Waziri-kull, who supervised the work of all other ministers;
3. Amir-i-jumla, minister of finance;
4. Wasir-i-ashraf, minister of foreign affairs and master of ceremonies;
5. Nazir, assistant minister for finance;
6. Peshwa who was associated with the lieutenant of the kingdom;
7. Kotwal or chief of police and city magistrate in the capital, and
8. Sadr-ijahan or chief justice and minister of religious affairs and endowments.
Origin and Expansion
Vijayanagar – Bahmani conflict
The battle of Talikota
Society and Economy
More to Know:
1. Little Kingdoms in Ramanathapuram and Pudukottai
The kingdom of Ramnad was inaugurated by the Madurai Nayak Muthu Krishnappa in the early years of the seventeenth century. The inhabitants with martial tradition had served as soldiers under Pandyan, Chola and Vijayanagar kings, and were spread into Tirunelveli and other southern parts of Tamil country. They also served in the armies of Nayak rulers and were traditional Kavalkarars, whose responsibility was to give protection to village, temple and other administrative bodies. The temple at Rameswaram was under the protection of a kaval chief who also assumed the title of Udaiyan Sethupati (meaning the Chief who was lord of bridge or causeway, as he controlled the passage between Rameswaram and Ceylon). Pudukottai was a small principality situated between the Nayak kingdoms of Thanjavur and Madurai. It constituted a buffer between the Chola kingdom and the Pandyas. Like the inhabitants of Ramanathapuram, Pudukottai also had inhabitants belonging to martial tradition. Hence their region could attain the status of “little kingdom” under Tondaimans. The Tondaimans served great royal households of Raja Sethupathi and Nayak kings of Madurai and Thanjavur.
According to somelater-day tradition, Vidyaranya (also called Madhava), a renowned Saiva saint and Sanskrit scholar, is said to have persuaded the brothers to abandon their service to the Tughluqs and also to renounce Islam that they had adopted when they were imprisoned by the Sultanin Delhi. Vidyaranya is believed to have played an important role in the foundation of the Vijayanagara kingdom. This is doubt fulas, according to some inscriptions, Vidyaranya lived atthe end of the fourteenth century, nearly sixty years afterthe foundation of Vijayanagar.
The Raja Krishna Dev of the Kakatiya dynasty with Warangal as capital constructed the Golkonda Fort on a granite hill. During 1495–1496 the fort was handed over to Sultan Kali Kutub Khan as a Jagir (land grant). He reconstructed and rechristened the mud fort into a granite fort and called the place Muhammed Nagar. Later, the Golkonda fort came into the possession of the Bahmani dynasty. Still later, the Qutub Shahi dynasty took over and made Golkonda its capital. Golkonda fort owes much of its present grandeur to Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah, the fifth sultan of Qutb Shahi dynasty. The subsequent generations saw Golkonda being fortified further with several additions and the formation of a beautiful city within. By the 17th century, Golkonda was famous as a diamond market. It gave the world some of the best-known diamonds, including the ‘Kohinoor’. The Golkonda Fort is located about 11 kms from Hyderabad on a hill 120 meters hight. The Golkonda Fort is popular for its acoustic architecture. The highest point of the fort is Bala Hissar. There is said to be a secret underground tunnel which leads from the Durbar Hall to one of the palaces at the foot of the hills. The Golkonda Fort also houses the tombs of the Qutub Shahis. There are two individual pavilions on the outer side of Golkonda which serve as major architectural attractions. The Fort comprises four other small forts within itself. It has cannons, draw bridges, royal chambers, halls, temples, mosques, stables, etc. The Fateh Darwaza or the Victory Gate is the entrance to the fort. Aurangzeb laid siege to this Golkonda fort in 1687 for about eight months but in vain. It was due to the treachery of an Afghan gate keeper, the fort finally fell.
Turquoise is a semi-precious stone sky blue in colour. Turquoise throne is one of the bejewelled royal seats of Persian kings described in Firdausi’s Shah Nama.
The Vijayanagara kings issued a large number of gold coins called Varaha (also called Pon in Tamil and Honnu in Kannada). These gold coins have the images of various Hindu deities and animals like the bull, the elephant and the fabulous gandaberunda (a double eagle, sometimes holding an elephant in each beak and claw). The legend contains the king’s name either in Nagari or in Kannada script.