10th Science Lesson 20
20] Breeding And Biotechnology
Book Back Questions with Answer and Do You Know Box Content
Do You Know?
Dr.G. Nammalvar (1938-2013) was a Tamil agricultural scientist, environmental activist and organic farming expert. He founded Nammalvar Ecological Foundation for Farm Research and Global Food Security Trust (NEFFFRGFST – Vanagam) to create public awareness about the benefits of organic farming.
Dr.M.S. Swaminatha: Dr.Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan is an Indian scientist known for his leading role in India’s Green Revolution. His research on potato, wheat, rice and jute are well known plant breeding experiments. Due to his efforts the wheat production increased from twelve million tonnes in 1960’s to seventy million tonnes now. He is aptly called as the “Father of Indian Green Revolution”.
Gamma Garden or atomic garden is a concept popularised after World War II for the peaceful use of atomic energy for crop improvement. This is a type of induced mutation breeding where ratio active sources particularly gamma rays from Cobalt-60 or Caesium-137 are used to induce desirable mutations in crop plants.
Cross breed of fowls: White leghorn X Plymouth Rock; Hybrid fowl – yield more eggs
Cross breed of cows: Developed by mating the bulls of exotic breeds and cows of indigenous breeds. Brown swiss X sahiwal; Karan Swiss – yield 2-3 times more milk than indigenous cows.
Plasmid is the small circular double stranded DNA molecule found in the cytoplasm of bacterial cell and separated from chromosomal DNA. It can replicate independently.
Restriction enzymes recognises a specific base pair sequence (palindromc sequence) in DNA CALLED AS restriction site and cleaves the phosphodiester bond within DNA.
Development of dolly: Dolly was the first cloned female sheep, developed by Dr.Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at the Roslin Institute, Scotland in July 1996. She was created by somatic cell nuclear transfer technique. She lived for 6.5 years and died in 2003 because of lung disease.
Eli Lilly and company, United States, in 1979 first started commercial production of human insulin by using rDNA technology.
Choose the best answers:
1. Which method of crop improvement can be practise by a farmer if he is inexperienced?
(a) clonal selection
(b) mass selection
(c) pureline selection
2. PusaKomal is a disease resistant variety of __________
(c) Cow pea
3. Himgiri developed by hybridisation and selection for disease resistance against rust pathogens is a variety of _____________
4. The miracle rice which saved millions of lives and celebrated its 50th birthday is ______________
(a) IR 8
(b) IR 24
(c) Atomita 2
5. Which of the following is used to produce products useful to humans by biotechnology techniques?
(a) enzyme from organism
(b) Live organism
(d) Both (a) and (b)
6. We can cut the DNA with the help of
(b) restriction endonuclease
7. rDNA is a
(a) Vector DNA
(b) Circular DNA
(c) Recombinant of vector DNA and desired DNA
(d) Satellite DNA
8. DNA fingerprinting is based on the principle of identifying ____________ sequences of DNA.
(a) single stranded
9. Organisms with modified endogenous gene or a foreign gene are also knowns as
(a) Transgenic organisms
(b) Genetically modified
(d) Both a and b
10. In a hexaploid wheat (2n = 6 x = 42) the haploid (n) and the basic (x) number of chromosomes respectively are
(a) n = 7 and x = 21
(b) n = 21 and x = 21
(c) n = 7 and x = 7
(d) n = 21 and x = 7
Fill in the blanks:
1. Economically important crop plants with superior quality are raised by _______
2. A protein rich wheat variety is _____________
3. ____________ is the chemical used for doubling the chromosomes.
4. The scientific process which produces crop plants enriched with desirable nutrients is called _________
5. Rice normally grows well in alluvial soil, but ___________ is a rice variety produced by mutation breeding that grows well in saline soil.
6. _____________ technique made it possible to genetically engineer living organism.
7. Restriction endonucleases cut the DNA molecule at specific positions known as _________
8. Similar DNA fingerprinting is obtained for ______________
9. ________________ cells are undifferentiated mass of cells.
10. In gene cloning the DNA of interest is integrated in a ______________
State true or false. If false, correct the statement:
1. Raphanobrasica is a man-made tetraploid produced by colchicinestreatement.
2. The process of producing an organism with more than two sets of chromosome is called mutation.
3. A group of plants produced from a single plant through vegetative or asexual reproduction are called a pureline.
4. Iron fortified rice variety determines the protein quality of the cultivated plant.
5. Golden rice is a hybrid.
6. Bt gene from bacteria can kill insects.
7. In vitro fertilisation means the fertilisation done inside the body.
8. DNA fingerprinting technique was developed by Alec Jeffrey.
9. Molecular scissors refers to DNA ligases.
Match the following:
Column I – Column II
1. Sonalika – Phaseolus mungo
2. IR 8 – Sugarcane
3. Saccharum – Semi-Dwarf wheat
4. Mung No.1 – Ground nut
5. TMV-2 – Semi-Dwarf Rice
6. Insulin – Bacillus thuringienesis
7. Bt Toxin – Beta carotene
8. Golden rice – first hormone produced using rDNA technique
Consider the statements given below and choose the correct option:
a. Assertion is correct and reason is wrong.
b. Reason is correct and the assertion is wrong.
c. Both assertion and reason is correct.
d. Both assertion and reason is wrong.
1. Assertion: Hybrid is superior than either of its parents.
Reason: Hybrid vigour is lost upon inbreeding.
2. Assertion: Colchicine reduces the chromosome number.
Reason: It promotes the movement of sister chromatids to the opposite poles.
3. Assertion: rDNA is superior over hybridisation techniques.
Reason: Desired genes are inserted without introducing the undersriable genes in target organisms.
Choose the best answers:
1.clonal selection 2. cow pea 3. wheat. 4. IR 8 5. both (a) and (b) 6. restriction endonucleases 7. recombinant of vector DNA and desired DNA 8. Repetitive transgenic organisms 10. n = 21 and x = 7
Fill in the blanks:
1. Breeding. 2. Atlas 66. 3. Colchicine. 4. Biofortification. 5. 2 rice 6. Recombinant DNA 7. Molecular scissors 8. Identical twins 9. Pleuripotent 10. Vector [plasmid]
True or False:
- False – The process of producing an organism with more than two sets of chromosome is called polyploidy.
- False – A group of plants produced from a single plant through vegetative or asexual reproduction are called clones.
- False – Iron fortified rice variety determines the iron quality of the cultivated plant.
- False – Golden rice is a genetically modified plant.
- False – In vitro fertilisation means the fertilisation done outside the body.
- False – Molecular scissors refers to Restriction Enzymes.
Match the following:
1 – (c) Semi – dwarf wheat
2 – (e) Semi – dwarf Rice
3 – (b) Sugarcane
4 – (a) Phaseolus mungo
5 – (d) Groundnut
6 – (h) the first hormone produced using rDNA technique
7 – (f) Bacillus thuringienesis
8 – (g) Beta carotene
Reason and assertion:
1.Assertion is correct and reason is wrong.
2. Both assertion and reason is wrong
3. Both assertion and reason is correct.