Defence & Foreign Policy Notes 8th Social Science
8th Social Science Lesson 21 Notes in English
21. Defence & Foreign Policy
- India is a peace loving country. India has always maintained cordial relationship with all the other countries in general and with its neighbours in particular.
- At the same time, it has to strengthen its security to defend its border from any foreign aggression.
- So the Government of India has given higher priorities to the defence sector. Let us understand the various defence forces of our country.
Need for Defence System
- National Security is very essential for the political, social and economic development of any country.
- It is also important for the growth of a country’s peace and prosperity.
Indian Defence Services
The President of India being the head of the State occupies the highest position in our defence organisation. He is the supreme commander of the Armed forces in India.
Security Forces in India can be divided into
Indian Armed Forces – They are primary forces consist of country’s Army, Navy, Air Force and Coast guard. They serve under the Ministry of Defence.
Paramilitary Forces – They are Assam Rifles and Special Frontier Force.
Central Armed Police Forces – They are BSF, CRPF, ITBP, CISF and SSB. They serve under the authority of Ministry of Home Affairs. CAPF work along with both Army and Police in different roles assigned to them.
Indian Armed Forces
- The Indian Army is the land-based branch and it the largest volunteer army in the world.
- It is commanded by the Chief of Army Staff primary mission of the Indian Army is to ensure national security, national unity, defending the nation from external aggression, internal threats and maintaining peace and security within its borders.
- It conducts humanitarian rescue operations during natural disaster and calamities. The Indian Army has a regimental system.
- It is operationally and geographically divided into seven commands.
- The primary objective of the navy is to safeguard the nation’s maritime borders, and in conjunction with other Armed Forces of the union, act to deter or defeat any threats or aggression against the territory, people or maritime interests of India.
- The Chief of Naval Staff, a four-star Admiral, commands the navy. It has three Naval Commands.
- The Indian Air Force is the air arm of the Indian armed forces. Its primary mission is to secure Indian airspace and to conduct aerial warfare during armed conflict.
- The Chief of Air Staff, an air chief marshal, is a four-star officer and is responsible for the bulk of operational command of the Air Force. It has seven commands.
Indian Coast Guard (ICG)
- The Indian Coast Guard was established in 1978 by the Coast Guard Act, 1978 of the Parliament of India as an independent Armed force of India.
- It operates under the Ministry of Defence. The Coast Guard works in close cooperation with the Indian Navy, the Department of Fisheries, the Department of Revenue (Customs) and the Central and State police forces.
Paramilitary Defence Forces
- The Forces which help in maintaining internal security, protecting the coastline and assisting the army are known as “Paramilitary Forces”.
- The responsibility is the security of important places like Railway stations, Oil fields and refineries, water reservoirs lines.
- They also participate in the management of natural or man-made disasters.
- During peace time, the paramilitary forces also have the responsibility of protecting the international borders. a) The Assam Rifles (AR) b) The Special Frontier Force (SFF)
The Assam Rifles (AR)
- The Assam Rifles came into being in 1835 which was established by the British in the Assam region, as a militia called the ‘Cachar Levy’.
- There are currently 46 battalions of Assam Rifles. It is under the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).
The Special Frontier Force (SFF)
- The Special Frontier Force (SFF) is a paramilitary special force of India created in 1962.
- This force was put under the direct supervision of the Intelligence Bureau, and later, under the Research and Analysis Wing, India’s external intelligence agency.
The Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF)
- Following five forces which come under Ministry of Home Affairs were earlier considered paramilitary forces, but from March’ 2011.
- They have been reclassifled as Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) to avoid confusion.
- The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)
- Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)
- The Border Security Force (BSF)
- Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)
- Special Service Bureau (SSB)
The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)
- The mission of Central Reserve Police force shall be to enable the government to maintain Rule of law, public order and internal security effectively and efficiently, to preserve national integrity and promote social harmony and development by upholding supremacy of the Constitution.
- The Rapid Action Force is a specialised wing of the CRPF (Central Reserve Police Force) to deal with riot, crowd control, rescue and relief operations, and related unrest situations.
Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)
It is a border guarding police force. This force is specialized in high altitude operations. It is deployed for border guarding duties from Ladakh to Arunachal Pradesh (India – China border).
The Border Security Force (BSF)
The border security force is a Border Guarding Force of India. BSF is charged with guarding India’s land border during peace time and preventing transnational crimes.
Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)
The Central Industrial Security Force was set up under an Act of the Parliament of India on 10th March 1969. Its duties are guarding sensitive governmental buildings, the Delhi Metro, and providing airport security.
Sashastra Seema Bal/ Special Service Bureau (SSB)
Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB), in English the Armed Border Force is the border guardening force for Nepal and Bhutan border.
- The Indian Home Guard is a voluntary force, tasked as an auxiliary to the Indian Police. Home Guards are recruited from various cross sections of the civil society such as professionals, college students, agricultural and industrial workers, etc. who give their spare time for betterment of the community.
- All citizens of India, in the age group of 18–50, are eligible.
- Normal tenure of membership in Home Guards is three to five years. To protect and guard our nation, our armed forces are always kept ready.
- Youth should come forward to service and save the nation by joining the armed forces.
- Recruitment to the Defence services is open to all Indians. It is the duty of every citizen to have an opportunity to serve the country.
II. Foreign Policy of India
- A foreign policy is a set of political goals that define how a sovereign country will interact with other countries in the world.
- It seeks to secure the best interest of the people, territory and economy of the country.
- Our country’s external relation is based on certain principles and policies. India’s foreign policy was evolved with the background of her colonial sufferings.
Basic Principles of Foreign Policy
- Preservation of national interest
- Achievement of world peace
- Abolition of Colonialism, Racism and Imperialism
- Increasing the number of friendly nations
- Economic development.
- Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India was the chief architect of India’s foreign policy.
- Nehru was a supporter of world peace. Hence he gave utmost importance to world peace in his policy planning.
- He declared the five principles of peace, known as Panchsheel.
These principles included
1. Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty
2. Mutual non-aggression
3. Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs
4. Equality and mutual benefit
5. Peaceful co-existence.
- The word Non-Alignment was coined by V.K. Krishna Menon.
- Non-alignment has been regarded as the most important feature of India’s foreign policy.
- Non-alignment aimed to maintain national independence in foreign affairs by not joining any military alliance formed by the USA or Soviet Union in the aftermath of the Second World War.
- Nonalignment was neither neutrality nor noninvolvement nor isolationism. It was a dynamic concept which meant not committing to any military bloc but taking an independent stand on international issues.
- The founding fathers of Non-Aligned Movement: Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Tito of Yugoslavia, Nasser of Egypt, Sukarno of Indonesia, and Kwame Nkumarah of Ghana.
India’s Relation with Neighbouring Countries
- India’s position is unique in its neighbourhood. India has always favoured international and regional cooperation, because she believes that through cooperation all disputes and problems among nations can be sorted out peacefully.
- India’s foreign policy is based on the principle of developing friendly relations and cooperation with her neighbours.
India is a vast country with
- Pakistan and Afghanistan to the north-west
- China, Nepal, Bhutan to the north
- Bangladesh to the east
- Myanmar to the far east
- Sri Lanka (south-east)
- Maldives (south-west)
Neighbourhood First policy
- It is part of India’s foreign policy that actively focuses on improving ties with India’s immediate neighbours.
- India provides neighbours with support as needed in the form of resources, equipment and training.
- Greater connectivity and integration is provided so as to improve the free flow of goods, people, energy, capital and information.
Act East Policy
- South East Asia begins with North East India. Myanmar is our land bridge to the countries of the Association of the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
- The purpose is to ensure a stable and multipolar balance of power in the Indo-Pacific and to become an integral part of Asia.
- India is actively engaged in general economic diplomacy with its neighbouring countries as below.
- India believes in regional co-operation.
- To foster the bonds of brotherhood, co-operation and peaceful co-existence SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) was established. India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Afghanistan are the eight members of the SAARC.
This Bangladesh – China – India – Myanmar Economic corridor envisages the formation of a thriving economic belt, focusing on cross- border transport, energy and telecommunication networks.
- It refers Bay of Bengal Initiative for MultiSectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation.
- Its main objectives are to strengthen and improve the technological economic cooperation, international trade and foreign direct investment cooperation.
- The member countries are Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bhutan and Nepal.
- Bangladesh – Bhutan – India – Nepal has signed a framework to enable movement of passengers, cargo vehicles and for energy development.
- To summarise, India is a huge country with manifold cultures. It has high status in the South East Asia.
- India’s foreign policy is to maintain peace, freedom and mutual co-operation among the nations.
- Though India is not in any major military alliance, our relations with the major powers have acquired a strategic depth.
More to Know:
1. India shares a common land border with Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, China, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Burma. It also shares a common sea border with Sri Lanka
2. Nelson Mandela
- Leader of the African National Council of South Africa.
- A determined fighter against apartheid. Apartheid is the worst form of racial discrimination.
- It is against humanism and democracy. India fought against Apartheid and opposed all types of racial discrimination.
- The end of racialism in South Africa in 1990 was a great success for India’s policy.
3. National Cadet Corps (NCC)
- National Cadet Corps is a Tri-Services Organization, comprising the Army, Navy and Air Force, engaged in grooming the youth of the country into disciplined and patriotic citizens.
- The National Cadet Corps in India is a voluntary organization which recruits cadets from high schools, colleges and universities all over India. The Cadets are given basic military training in small arms and parades.
4. 15th January – Army Day
1st February – Coast Guard Day
10th March – Central Industrial Security Force Day
7th October – Rapid Action Force Day
8th October – Air Force Day
4th December – Navy Day
7th December – Armed Forces Flag Day
5. In 1025 AD (CE), Rajendra Chola I, the Chola king from Tamil Nadu launched naval on the city-state of expedition Srivijaya in maritime Southeast Asia, and conquered Kadaram (modern Kedah). Rajendra’s overseas expedition against Srivijaya was a unique event in India’s history.
6. The Madras Regiment is one of the oldest infantry regiment of the Indian Army, originating in the year 1758. The Regimental Centre is at wellington, Udhagamandalam, Tamil Nadu. In 1962, after the Sino-Indian War, the need to expand the number of officers was felt. Two Officers Training Schools (OTS) were established in Pune and Chennai to train officers for Emergency Commission into the Army. On 1st January 1988, the school was renamed as the Officers Training Academy (OTA).
7. Field Marshal – is a Five Star General officer rank and the highest attainable rank in the Indian Army.
8. Sam Manekshaw was the first Field Marshal of India and the second Field Marshal was K. M. Cariappa.
9. Arjan Singh was the first and the only office of the Indian Air Force to be promoted to Five Star Rank as Marshal.
10. The National War Memorial is a monument built by the Government of India to honour the Indian Armed Forces. The memorial is spread over 40 acres of land and is built around the existing chhatri (canopy) near India Gate, New Delhi. The names of armed forces personnel martyred during the conflicts are inscribed on the memorial walls.