From Chiefdoms to Empires Notes 6th Social Science
6th Social Science Lesson 11 Notes in English
11. From Chiefdoms to Empires
1. Explain briefly about Gana – sanghas and Kingdoms
There were two kinds of government in north India during the sixth century BC (BCE)
- Gana – sanghas – non monarchical states.
- Kingdoms – monarchies.
2 . What is Mahajanapadas
Janapadas became republics or smaller kingdoms. The wide- spread use of iron in Gangetic plain created conditions for the formation of larger territorial units transforming the janapadas into Mahajanapadas.
3 . How was sixteen Mahajanapadas organized
Sixteen Mahajanapadas dotted the Indo- Gangetic plain in the sixth century BC (BCE). It was a transition from a semi – nomadic kinship – based society to an agrarian society with networks of trade and exchange.
4 . What are sixteen Mahajanapadas
Anga, Magadha, Vajji, Malla, Kasi, Kuru, Kosala, Avanti, Chedi, Vatsa, Panchala, Machcha, Surasena, Assaka, Gandhara and Kamboja.
5. What are the four major Mahajanapadas
- Magadha in Bihar .
- Avanti in Ujjain .
- Kosala in Eastern Uttar Pradesh.
- Vatsa in Kausambi, Allahabad.
6. What are the four dynasties ruled over Magadha Empire/ Dynasties of Ancient Magadha
- The Haryanka dynasty
- The Shishunaga dynasty
- The Nanda dynasty
- The Maurya dynasty
7. Buddhist council
8. who were called as Navanandas.
Nandas were the first empire builders of India. The first Nanda ruler was Mahapadma. Mahapadma Nanda was succeeded by his eight sons. They were, known as Navanandas (nine Nandas).
9. Explain Nalanda – UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Nalanda was a large Buddhist monastery in ancient kingdom of Magadha. It became the most renowned seat of learning during the reign of Guptas. The word Nalanda is a Sanskrit combination of three words Na + alam + daa meaning “no stopping of the gift of knowledge”.
10. sources of Mauryan Empire
He was the ambassador of the Greek ruler, Seleucus, in the court of Chandra Gupta. He stayed in India for 14 years. His book Indica is one of the main sources for the study of Mauryan Empire.
12. Explain Mauryan Empire
13. What is Grandeur of Pataliputra
The great capital city in the Mauryan Empire, which had 64 gates to the city with 570 watch towers.
14. Chandragupta Maurya
- Chandragupta Maurya established the empire in Magadha.
- Bhadrabahu, a Jain monk, took Chandragupta Maurya to the southern India.
- Chandragupta performed Sallekhana (Jaina rituals in which a person fasts unto his death) in Sravanbelgola (Karnataka).
- Real name of Bindusara was Simhasena.
- He was the son of Chandragupta Maurya. Greeks called Bindusara as Amitragatha, meaning ‘slayer of enemies’.
- During Bindusara’s reign Mauryan Empire spread over large parts of India.
- He appointed his son Ashoka as a governor of Ujjain. After his death, Ashoka ascended the throne of Magadha.
- Ashoka was the most famous of the Mauryan kings. He was known as ‘Devanam Piya’ meaning ‘beloved of the Gods’.
- Ashoka fought the Kalinga war in 261 BC (BCE). He won the war and captured Kalinga.
- The horror of war was described by the king himself in the Rock Edict XIII.
17. Which quotes describes Ashoka by H.G Wells.
“Ashoka shines and shines brightly like a bright star, even unto this day”
18. Explain about Lion Capital of Ashoka
The Emblem of the Indian Republic has been adopted from the Lion Capital of one of Ashokas pillars located at Sarnath. The wheel from the circular base, the Ashoka Chakra is a part of the National Flag.
19. How does the name “Dhammasoka” arises and what does it describes
After the battle of Kalinga, Ashoka became a Buddhist. He undertook tours (Dharmayatras) to different parts of the country instructing people on policy of Dhamma. The meaning of Dhamma is explained in Ashoka’s – Pillar Edict II
It contained the noblest ideas of humanism, forming the essence of all religions.
20. What are the principles of Ashoka’s Dhamma.
He laid stress on
- Obedience and respect for parents, preceptors and elders.
21. What is Dhamma-mahamattas
The Dhamma-mahamattas were a new cadre of officials created by Ashoka. Their job was to spread dhamma all over the empire.
22. What are the script of the inscriptions during Ashoka period
- At Sanchi – Brahmi
- At Kandahar – Greek and Aramaic
- At North Western part – Kharoshthi
23. What does the Rock Edicts II and XIII of Ashoka refers
The Rock Edicts II and XIII of Ashoka refer to the names of the three dynasties namely Pandyas, Cholas, the Keralaputras and the Sathyaputras.
24. Describe the Centralized Administration during Mauryan period
- The king was the supreme and sovereign authority of the Mauryan Empire.
- Council of ministers known as mantriparishad assisted the King. Assembly of ministers included a Purohit, a Senapathi, a Maha mantri and the Yuvaraja.
- King had an excellent spy system.
25. Describe the Revenue System during Mauryan period.
- The land was the most important source of revenue for the state. Ashokan inscription at Lumbini mentions bali and bagha as taxes collected from people. The land tax (bhaga) collected was 1/6 of the total produce.
- Revenue from taxes on forests, mines, salt and irrigation provided additional revenue to the government.
- Much of the State revenue was spent on paying the army, the officials of the royal government, on charities and on different public works such as irrigation project, road construction etc.
26. Describe the Judicial System during Mauryan period.
- The king was the head of the Judiciary. He was the highest court of appeal.
- King appointed many judges subordinate to him. The punishments were harsh.
27. Describe the Military Administration during Mauryan period.
The king was the supreme commander of the army.
A board of 30 members divided into six committees with five members on each, monitored
- Armoury ( transport and supply)
- The war chariots
- The war elephants
28. Describe the Municipal Administration during Mauryan period.
Board of 30 members divided into six committees. Each had 5 members to manage the administration of the city. Town administration was under Nagarika. He was assisted by Sthanika and Gopa.
29. What does the Junagarh / Girnar Inscription of Rudradaman describes.
The Junagarh / Girnar Inscription of Rudradaman records that the construction of a water reservoir known as Sudarshana Lake was begun during the time of Chandragupta Maurya and completed during Ashoka’s reign.
30. Explain the currency during Mauryan period
The punch marked silver coins (panas) which carry the symbols of the peacock, and the hill and crescent copper coins called Mashakas formed the imperial currency.
31. Explain the Trade and Urbanization during Mauryan period.
Trade flourished particularly with Greece (Hellenic) Malaya, Ceylon and Burma. The Arthasastra refers to the regions producing specialized textiles – Kasi (Benares), Vanga(Bengal), Kamarupa (Assam) and Madurai in Tamilnadu.
32. Explain the Art and Architecture of Mauryan
Mauryan art can be divided into two
- Indigenous Art: Statues of Yakshas and Yakshis
- Royal Art:
- Palaces and Public buildings
- Monolithic Pillars
- Rock cut Architecture
33. What is Yakshas and Yakshis
Yakshas were deities connected with water, fertility, trees, the forest and wilderness. Yakshis were their female counterpart.
A Stupa is a semi – spherical dome like structure constructed on brick or stone. The Buddha’s relics were placed in the centre of the dome.
35. Monolithic Pillar – Sarnath
The crowning element in this pillar is Dharma chakra.
36. Rock cut Architecture
- Rock – Cut Caves of Barabar and Nagarjuna Hills
- There are several caves to the north of Bodh Gaya. Three caves in Barabar hills have dedicative inscription of Ashoka. And three in Nagarjuna hills have inscriptions of Dasharatha Maurya (grand son of Ashoka).
37. Ancient name of places and its modern names
38. The Great Wall of China
It is an ancient series of fortification. During third century BC (BCE) emperor Qin-Shi Huang linked these walls on Northern border to protect his empire.
39. Temple of Zeus of Olympia
An ancient temple in Olympia, Greece, dedicated to the god Zeus, constructed during fifth century BC (BCE), It is one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.