10th Science Lesson 21
21] Health And Diseases
Book Back Questions with Answer and Do You Know Box Content
Do You Know?
The ministry of women and child development championed the introduction of the protection of children from sexual offences (POCSO) Act, 2012. People who traffic children for sexual purpose are also punishable under the provisions relating to the Act.
Objectives of the POCSO Act, 2012: To protect children from the offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment, pornography. To establish special courts for speedy trial of such offences.
The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) was set up in March 2007 under the commissions for protection of child rights (CPCR) Act, 2005. This act emphasizes the principle of universality and inviolability of child rights and recognizes the tone of urgency in all the child related policies of the country. Protection of all children of all age group upto 18 years of age is of equal importance. Policies define priority actions for the most vulnerable children.
World Health organization (WHO) 1984 suggested the use of the term drug dependence in place of drug addiction or drug abuse.
International Day against Drug Abuse and illicit trafficking – June 26. Narcotic drugs and phychotropic substances act was introduced in 1985.
World health organization (WHO) 1984 suggested the use of the term drug. WHO issued a directive under which all cigarette advertisements and packs carry a statutory warning “Smoking is injurious to Health”.
Anti tobacco act was passed on May 1st 2004. By 2030 tobacco is expected to be single biggest cause of death worldwide accounting for 10 million deaths per year.
May 31st is observed as no tobacco day (World anti-tobacco Day)
One in every 8 individuals in India is a diabetic. The revised WHO estimates for the year 2025 is 57.2 million diabetics in India. The average age for the onset of diabetes is 40 years, while it is 55 years in other countries. World Health Organization projects that diabetes will be 7th leading cause of death by the year 2030.
According to WHO recommendation, if the fasting blood glucose is greater than 140 mg/dl or the random blood glucose is greater than 200 mg dl on more than two occasions, diagnosis for confirming diabetes is essential.
Flax seeds containing insoluble fibre, Guavas, Tomatoes and Spinach are foods which help reduce blood sugar levels.
Every 7 calories of excess consumption lead to 1 gm fat deposit and increase in body weight. Weight due to fat in adipose tissue exceeds more than 20% to 25% of body weight. An adult weighing 10% more than the standard weight is OVERWEIGHT and 20% more is OBESE.
HDL (high Density Lipoprotein) or “good” cholesterol lowers risk of heart disease while LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) or “bad” cholesterol increases risk of heart disease.
Desirable level for blood cholesterol should be less than 200 mg/dl for Indians. The risk of coronary heart disease increases slowly as blood cholesterol levels increases from 200 to 300 mg/dl.
World Cancer Day – 4th February.
National Cancer Awareness Day – 7th November.
Types of Tumours: Benign tumours or Non malignant tumours: Remain confined in the organ affected and do not spread to other parts of the Body.
Malignant tumours: Mass of proliferating cells which grow very rapidly invading and damaging the surrounding normal tissues.
Dr. Suniti Solomon, pioneered HIV research and treatment in India. She set up the first voluntary testing and counselling centre and an AIDS Research group in Chennai during 80’s. Her team was the first to document evidence of HIV infection in India in 1985 (First Indian AIDS patient in Chennai).
Many people are ignorant about AIDS and it has been said that – “don’t” die of ignorance”. In our country NACO (National AIDS Control Organization) and other NGO’s (Non-Governmental Organizations) are educating people about AIDS. Every year December 1st is observed as the “world AIDS Day”.
Choose the best answers:
1. Tobacco consumption is known to stimulate secretion of adrenaline. The component causing this could be
(b) Tannic acid
2. World ‘No Tobacco Day’ is observed on
(a) May 31
(b) June 6
(c) April 22
(d) October 2
3. Cancer cells are more easily damaged by radiations than normal cells because they are
(a) Different in structure
(c) Mutated Cells
(d) Undergoing rapid division
4. Which type of cancer affects lymph nodes and spleen?
5. Excessive consumption of alcohol leads to
(a) Loss of memory
(b) Cirrhosis of liver
(c) State of hallucination
(d) Supression of brain function
6. Coronary heart disease is due to
(a) Streptococci bacteria
(b) Inflammation of pericardium
(c) Weakening of heart valves
(d) Insufficient blood supply to heart muscles
7. Cancer of the epithelial cells is called
8. Metastasis is associated with
(a) Malignant tumour
(b) Benign tumour
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Crown gall tumour
9. Polyphagia is a condition seen in
(b) Diabetes mellitus
(c) Diabetes insipidus
10. Where does alcohol effect immediately after drinking?
(b) Auditory region
(d) Central nervous system
State true or false. If false, correct the statement:
1. AIDS is an epidemic disease.
2. Cancer causing genes are called Oncogenes.
3. Obesity is characterized by tumour formation.
4. In leukemia both WBCs and RBCs increase in number.
5. Study of cause of disease is called etiology.
6. AIDS is not transmitted by contact with a patient’s clothes.
7. Type 2 diabetes mellitus results due to insulin deficiency.
8. Carcinogens are cancer causing agents.
9. Nicotine is a narcotic drug.
10. Cirrhosis is associated with brain disorder.
Expand the following abbreviations:
1. IDDM 2. HIV 3. BMI 4. AIDS 5. CHD 6. NIDDM
Match the following:
1. Sarcoma – Stomach cancer
2. Carcinoma – Excessive thirst
3. Polydipsia – Ezcessive hunger
4. Polyphagia – Lack of blood flow to heart muscle
5. Myocardial infraction – Connective tissue cancer
Fill in the blanks:
1. Cirrhosis is caused in liver due to excessive use of ______________
- Pan Masala
- None of the above
2. A highly poisonous chemicals derived from tobacco is _______________
- Ethyl Alcohol
- None of the above
3. Blood cancer is called ___________
- None of the above
4. Less response of a drug to a specific dose with repeated use is called _______________
- Anti Microbial
- None of the above
5. Insulin resistance is a condition in _______________ diabetes mellitus.
- Type – 1
- Type – 2
- Type – 3
- Type – 4
Complete the analogy:
1. Communicable: AIDS: Non communicable: _________________
2. Chemotherapy: Chemicals: Radiation therapy: ________________
3. Hypertension: Hypercholesterolomia: Glycosuria: ________________
Choose the correct answers:
1.Nicotine 2. May 31 3. Undergoing rapid division 4. Leukemia 5. Cirrhosis of liver 6.
- Insufficient blood supply to heart muscles
7. Carcinoma 8. Malignant tumor 9.
- Diabetes mellitus 10. Central Nervous System
True or False:
- False – AIDS is a viral disease.
- False – Obesity is characterized by an accumulation of excess body fat with an abnormal increase in body weight.
- False – Leukemia is characterized by an increase in the formation of white blood cells in the bone marrow and lymph nodes.
- False – Study of a cause of the disease is called Pathology.
- False – In type 2 diabetes mellitus, Insulin production by the Pancreas is normal, but the target cells do not respond to insulin.
- False – Nicotine is a stimulant, highly harmful and poisonous substance, in Tobacco.
- False – Liver damage resulting in Fatty liver which leads to Cirrhosis and formation of fibrous tissues.
Expand the following:
- Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
- Human Immunodeficiency Virus
- Body Mass Index
- Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
- Coronary Heart Disease
- Non – Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.
Match the following:
1 – (e) Connective tissue cancer
2 – (a) Stomach cancer
3 – (b) Excessive thirst
4 – (c) Excessive hunger
5 – (d) Lack of blood flow to the heart muscle.
Analogy type questions: