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Human Rights Book Back Questions 9th Social Science Lesson 22

9th Social Science Lesson 22

22] Human Rights

Book Back Questions with Answer and Do You Know Box Content

Do You Know?

End of Apartheid: Apartheid was the highest form of discrimination that existed in South Africa. Places of residence were determined by racial classification. It was the governing policy in the country by the minority whites over the majority non-whites. The people of South Africa protested against racial discrimination. Nelson Mandela raised his voice against apartheid. When he organised defiant campaigns against the government, he was imprisoned. Amid growing domestic and international pressure and with the fear of a racial civil war, President F.W. de Klerk released him in 1990. The efforts taken by Mandela and de Klerk put an end to apartheid. In 1994, a multiracial general election was held, in which Mandela led the African National Congress to victory and became president.

Human Rights Day is celebrated every year on 10th December. October 24 is UNO day.

WRIT is a written order from the court or other legal authority ordering to do an act or not to do it.

Preethika Yashini won her right of employment by approaching the court according to the Right to Constitutional remedies.

Maintenance and welfare of parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007 is a legislation passed in 2007 by the Government of India. This Act is a legal obligation for children and heirs to provide maintenance to senior citizens and parents.

Malala: Nobel Peace prize laureate says: “I loved school. But everything changed when the fundamentalist took control of our town in Swat Valley. They said girls could no longer go to school. I spoke out publicly on behalf of girls and our right to learn. And this made me a target. In October 2012, on my way home from school, a masked gunman boarded my school bus and asked, “Who is Malala?” He shot me on the left side of my head. I woke up 10 days later in a hospital in Birmingham, England. After months of surgeries and rehabilitation, I joined my family in our new home in the U.K. I determined to continue my fight until every girl could go to school. Every day I fight to ensure all girls receive 12 years of free, safe, quality education. With more than 130 million girls out of school today, there is more work to be done. I hope you will join my fight for education and equality. Together, we can create a world where all girls can learn and lead. If you were Malala, what would you have done? Is Malala’s fight necessary? Are girl children treated and given education equally? The right of children to free and compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, means that every child has a right to formal elementary education. This right of children provides free and compulsory education till the completion of elementary education in a neighbourhood school. The child need not pay any kind of fee for completing elementary education.

The Kavalan SOS app is launched by the Government of Tamil Nadu for public use during emergencies. Anyone in a critical situation, not only women, can easily and directly access the State Police Control Room using this App.

POCSO Act – Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act. The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 regards the best interest of the child as being of paramount importance at every state.

Salient features of POCSO Act: The Act defines a child as any person below eighteen years of age, to ensure the healthy, physical, emotional, intellectual and social development of the child. When the abuse is committed by a person in a position of trust or authority vis-à-vis the child, like a family member, neighbours or any other acquaintances. The statement of the child is to be recorded exactly as the child narrates. A child not to be called repeatedly to testify. An ordinance providing the death penalty for rapists of girls below 12 years of age and other stringent penal provisions for rape has been promulgated in April 2018. The Criminal Law Amendment Ordinance, 2018, amended the Indian Penal Code. Another salient feature of this amendment is that the fine imposed shall be just and reasonable to meet the medical expenses and rehabilitation of the victim.

Kailash Satyarthi is a Nobel Peace Prize recipient and the founder of Bachpan Bachao Andolan, and many other child rights organisations. More than 86,000 children in India have been liberated by him and his team members from child labour, slavery and trafficking. An 80,000 km long Global March against Child Labour was led by Kailash in 1998 which turned the world’s attention towards the issue of Child labour. He received Nobel Prize for peace in the year 2014.

1098: Childline is India’s first 24 hours free emergency phone service for children in need of assistance. Special are is given for vulnerable children like those affected by child labour, child marriage and children affected by any abuse.

Child Rights in the Indian Constitution: Article-24: No Child below the age of 14 must be employed in hazardous employment. Article-45: Free and compulsory education for all children until they attain the age of 14 years.

Children are the foundation of any nation. When girls get married early, they lose many privileges like childhood happiness, availing education and a healthy life. The society in turn gets affected by child marriage. Thus child marriage should be avoided at any cost.

In Tamil Nadu, ancestral property rights were given to women through Hindu Succession (Tamil Nadu Amendment) Act 1989. The Central Government Amended the Hindu Succession Act in 2005. By this amendment, women are now given equal shares in inheritance of the undivided property.

Women Labourers’ Welfare and Ambedkar: Dr. B.R. Ambedkar framed many laws for women workers in India such as the “Mines Maternity Benefit Act”, “Women Labour Welfare Fund”, “Women and Child Labour Protection Act”, “Maternity Benefit for Women Labour” and “Restoration of Ban on Employment of Women on Underground Work in Coal Mines”.

Contribution of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Contribution to Labourers: Reduction in Factory Working Hours (8 hours a day) . Compulsory Recognition of Trade Unions. Employment Exchange in India. Employees State Insurance (ESI) . Minimum Wages for labourers. Coal and Mica Mines Provident Fund.

It is a great victory for female workers who stand all the time more or less 12-14 hours per day while they are working in shops and commercial malls. Female workers who are working in shops and commercial malls are not allowed to sit or even lean on the wall. They were allowed only 5 minutes of break two times a day to take rest. There was a strong voice against this inhuman practice among women workers for a long time. Considering this, the Government of Kerala has decided to redress by amending the Shops and Commercial Establishment Act in July 2018.

Choose the best answers:

1. “Apartheid” was followed by ___________

(a) South Sudan

(b) South Africa

(c) Nigeria

(d) Egypt

2. ______________ right exercise in the formation and administration of a government.

(a) Social

(b) Economic

(c) Political

(d) Cultural

3. A 10-year-old boy is working in a shop. Which right can you use to recover him?

(a) Right to equality

(b) Right to freedom

(c) Right against child labour exploitation

(d) Right to freedom of Religion

4. What is the time limit to get the information from RTI Act 2005?

(a) 20 days

(b) 25 days

(c) 30 days

(d) 35 days

5. Which of the following statements are true?

i) The State Human Rights Commission was established in 1993.

ii) It has the power of a civil court.

iii) It’s power extend beyond the state.

iv) It can also recommend compensation to victims.

(a) i and ii are true

(b) i and iii are true

(c) i, ii and iii are true

(d) ii, iii and iv are true

6. Consider the following statements:

Assertion (A): Rights and duties are the two sides of the same coin.

Reason (R): We have a right to freedom of religions. We have to promote harmony and the spirit of the people of other religions.

(a) Both A and R are correct and R explain A

(b) Both A and R are correct but R does not explain A

(c) A is correct but R is false

(d) A is false but R is correct

7. According to the UNO a child is a person who has no completed the age of ___________ years.

(a) 12

(b) 14

(d) 16

(d) 18

8. Kailash Satyarthi and Malala have been awarded Nobel Prize for ____________

(a) Literature

(b) Peace

(c) Physics

(d) Economics

Fill in the blanks:

1. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights contains _____________ articles.

2. The Fundamental Duties were incorporated in the Constitution by ______________ Amendment Act.

3. The National Human Rights Commission was established on ____________

4. Indian state to implement women ancestral property act in 1989 was ______________

Match the following:

1. Right to Vote – Cultural Rights

2. Right to form union – Right against exploitation

3. Right to preserve tradition – Political Rights

4. The Hindu Succession Act – Right to freedom

5. Child labour – 2005


Choose the correct answers:

1. South Africa 2. Political 3. Right against child labour exploitation 4. 30days 5. i, ii and iv statements are True 6. Both A and R are correct and R explain A 7. 18 8. Peace

Fill in the blanks:

1. 30 2. 42nd Amendment Act in 1996 3. 12th October 1993 4. Tamil Nadu

Match the following:

1. Political Rights 2. Right to freedom 3. Cultural Rights 4. 2005 5. Right against Exploitation

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