Local Bodies – Urban and Rural Notes 6th Social Science
6th Social Science Lesson 23 Notes in English
23. Local Bodies – Urban and Rural
1. Which is the oldest local Body in India?
The Chennai Corporation which was founded in 1688 is the oldest local body in India.
2. Which is the First Municipality in Tamil Nadu?
Walajahpet Municipality (Vellore District) is the first Municipality in Tamil Nadu.
3. Kanchipuram District has the most number of municipalities.
4. What are local Bodies?
Our constitution has provided certain structures to fulfill the needs of the people. Accordingly, the urban local bodies are categorized into City Minicipal Corporations, Municipalities and Town Panchayats, while the rural local bodies are categorised into Village Panchayats, Panchayat Unions and District Panchyats. These are together known as local bodies.
5. What is Municipality?
Those areas which have a population of more than one lakh and a high amount of revenue and is found in the level below the City Municipal Corporation is called a Municipality.
6. What is Town Panchayat?
A Town Panchayat has about 10,000 population. A Town Panchayat is between a village and a city.
7. Which is the first State to introduce Town Panchayat?
Tamil Nadu was the first state to introduce a town Panchayat in the whole of India.
8. Who were the Various officers in Municipality?
A City Municipal Corporation has a Commissioner, who is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer. Government officials are deputed as Commissioners for the municipalities. The administrative officer of a Municipality is an Executive Officer (EO).
9. What is a Village Panchayat?
The Village Panchayats are the local bodies of villages. They act as a link between the people and the government. Villages are divided into wards based on their population. The representatives are elected by the people.
10. Who were the Elected Representatives of Local Body?
- Panchayat President
- Ward members
- District Panchayat Ward Councillor
11. What is a Panchayat Union?
- Many village Panchayats join to form a Panchayat Union. A Councillor is elected from each Panchayat.
- Those councillors will elect a Panchayat Union Chairperson among themselves. A Vice Chairperson is also elected.
- A Block Development Officer (BDO) is the administrative head, of a Panchayat Union. The services are provided on the Panchayat Union level.
12. Villupuram District has the highest number of Panchayat Unions (22), while The Nilgiris and Perambalur Districts have the lowest number (4).
13. Explain about District Panchayat:
A District Panchayat is formed in every district. A district is divided into wards on the basis of 50,000 population. The ward members are elected by the Village Panchayats. The members of the District Panchayat elect the District Panchayat Committee Chairperson.
14. How the Local body in district level is governed?
They provide essential services and facilities to the rural population and the planning and execution of development programmes for the district.
15. What is a ward?
The local bodies are governed by the representatives elected by the people. The constituencies are called wards. People elect their ward members.
16. Who is a Mayor?
The Mayor of the City Municipal Corporation and the Municipal Chairperson are the elected representatives of the people. The people elect them. The Corporation Deputy Mayor and the Municipal Vice Chairperson are elected by the ward councillors”
17. What are the benefits of local bodies?
There are many benefits. The services provided can be divided as obligatory functions and discretionary functions. These are provided by the local bodies.
18. What are the Obligatory Functions?
- Water supply
- Street lighting
- Cleaning roads
- Drainage & sewage pipes system
- Laying down roads
- Activation of Central and State Government schemes
19. What are the Discretionary Functions?
- Playgrounds, etc.
20. Functions of the City Municipal Corporation:
- Drinking water supply
- Street Lighting
- Maintenance of Clean Environment
- Primary Health Facilities
- Laying of Roads
- Building flyovers
- Space for markets
- Drainage System
- Solid waste management
- Corporation schools
- Play grounds
- Birth and Death registration, etc.
21. How all these works are done?
As per the decisions taken in the city Hall meetings, the commissioner or officers assign these works to their subordinate officers or other servants. Thus, they all work in various levels to get these public works done.
22. Will the Government provide funds for these services?
The Government directly allots funds for these works. The local bodies also collect revenue.
23. What are all the Revenue of the Village Panchayat?
- House tax
- Professional tax
- Tax on shops
- Water charges
- Specific fees for property tax
- Specific fees for transfer of immovable property
- Funds from Central and State Governments, etc.
24. What are all the Revenue of the City Municipal Corporation?
- House Tax
- Water Tax
- Tax on shopping complexes
- Professional Tax
- Entertainment Tax
- Vehicle Charges
- Funds by Central and State Government, etc.
25. How are the Grama Sabha meetings held?
A Grama Sabha is formed in every Village Panchayat. It is the only permanent unit in the Panchayat Raj System. Grama Sabha meetings are held even in smaller villages. The Grama Sabha is the grass root level democratic institution in a Village Panchayat.
26. Who can attend Gram Sabha meeting?
Those who have attained the age of 18 years and whose names are found in the electoral roll of the same Panchayat can take part in a Grama Sabha meeting. Officers like the District Collector, the Block Development Officer, teachers etc., also participate in this meeting. The people can freely express their needs and grievances.
27. How Many Times Gram sabha Meeting Conducted?
The Grama Sabha meetings are conducted four times a year.
28. When are these meetings convened?
January 26, May 1, August 15 and October 2.
29. What is Special Gram Sabha Meeting?
Apart from these four days, the meetings can be convened as per need or during emergency. These are called Special Grama Sabha meetings.
30. What is Mahatma Gandhi thought on Panchayat Raj?
Mahatma Gandhi advocated Panchayat Raj as the foundation of India’s political system, as a form of government, where each village would be responsible for its own affairs.
31. When was Panchayat Raj Enacted?
The Panchayat Raj Act was enacted on April 24, 1992.
32. April 24 is National Panchayat Raj Day.
33. What are the Special features of Panchayat Raj?
- Grama Sabha
- Three tier local body governance
- Panchayat Elections
- Finance Commission
- Account and Audit, etc
34. What was the Role of women in the Local Self Government?
All local bodies have a reservation of 33% for women. In the 2011 Local Bodies election, 38% seats were won by women. As per the Tamil Nadu Panchayats (Amendment) Act, 2016, 50% reservation for women is being fixed in Panchayat Raj institutions.
35. Local Body Election:
The tenure for the representatives of local self Government is 5 years. The election to the Local Bodies is held once in five years by the State Election Commission. Every state has a State Election Commission. The Tamil Nadu State Election Commission is situated in Koyambedu, Chennai.
36. Tamil Nadu an Estimate:
- Village Panchayats – 12,620
- Panchayat Unions – 388
- District Panchayats – 31
- Town Panchayats – 561
- Municipalities – 145
- City Municipal Corporations – 15
37. Cities with Municipal Corporation: