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Origin And Evolution Of Life Book Back Questions 10th Science Lesson 19

10th Science Lesson 19

19] Origin And Evolution Of Life

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Do You Know?

Relationship between mutation and variation: Mutation and variation are two events involved in the process of evolution. Mutation arises due to errors occurring in DNA during replication or exposure to UV rays or chemicals. Mutation leads to variation. It brings about changes in a single individual.

Living fossils: These are living organisms that are similar in appearance to their fossilized distant ancestors and usually have no extinct close features. E.g. GinkoBiloba.

What is the Geologic time scale? The geological time scale is a system of chronological dating that relates geological rock strata to time, and is used by geologists, palaeontologists, and other Earth scientists to describe the timing and relationsips of events that have occurred during earth’s history.

Thiruvakkarai fossil wood park (villupuram district, Tamil Nadu) : 2 million years ago tree trunks that got buried along the river, incourse of time the organic matter was replaced by silica and was fossilized. They retained their colour, shape and texture and was converted into solid rocks. The annular rings, the annular rings, the texture, colours of the layers properties of plants are still visible.

NASA is developing the Mars 2020 astrobiologically relevant ancient environment on Mars, its surface geological processes and the preservation of biosignatures within accessible geological materials.

Choose the best answers:

1. Biogenetic law states that _____________

(a) Ontogeny and phylogeny go together

(b) Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny

(c) Phylogeny recapitulates ontogeny

(d) There is no relationship between phylogeny ontogeny

2. The ‘use and disuse theory’ was proposed by __________

(a) Charles Darwin

(b) Ernst Haeckel

(c) Jean Baptiste Lamarck

(d) Fregor Mendel

3. Paleontologists deal with

(a) Embryological evidences

(b) Fossil evidences

(c) Vestigial organ evidence

(d) All the above

4. The best way of direct dating fossils of recent origin is by

(a) Radio-carbon method

(b) Uranium lead method

(c) Potassium-argon method

(d) Both (a) and (c)

5. The term Ethnobotany was coined by

(a) Khorana

(b) J.W. Harsbberger

(c) Ronald Ross

(d) Hugo de Vries

Fill in the blanks:

1. The characters developed by the animals during their life time, in response to the environmental changes are called _______________

  1. Adulterated Characters
  2. Unaltered Characters
  3. Altered Characters
  4. None of the above

2. The degenerated and non-functional organs found in an organism are called _____________

  1. Vestigial organ
  2. Receptor organ
  3. Locomotive organ
  4. None of the above

3. The forelimbs of bat and human are examples of _____________ organs.

  1. Homologus
  2. Bi logus
  3. Heterologus
  4. None of the above

4. The theory of natural selection for evolution was proposed by ______________

  1. Khorana
  2. J.W. Harsbberger
  3. Ronald Ross
  4. Charles darwin

State true or false. If false, correct the statement:

1. The use and disuse theory of organs was postulated by Charles Darwin.

2. The homologous organs look similar and perform similar functions but they have different orgin and developmental pattern.

3. Birds have evolved from reptiles.

Match the following:

Column A Column B

(a) Atavism – Caudal vertebrae and vermiform appendix

(b) Vestigial organs – A forelimb of a cat and a bat’s wing

(c) Analogous organs – Rudimentary tail and thick hair on the body

(d) Homologous organs – A wing of a bat and a wing of an insect

(e) Wood park – Radiocarbon dating

(f) W.F. Libby – Thiruvakkarai

Answer:

Choose the correct answers:

1.Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny 2. Jean Baptiste Lamarck 3. Fossil evidences

  1. 4.Radio – carbon method 5. J.W. Harshberger

Fill in the blanks:

1.Acquired characters 2. Vestigial organ 3. Homologous 4. Charles Darwin.

True or False:

  1. False – The use and disuse theory of organs was postulated by Jean Baptiste Lamarck
  2. False – The homologous organs look dissimilar and perform dissimilar functions, but they have the same origin and developmental pattern
  3. True

Match the following:

  1. (c) rudimentary tail and thick hair on the body
  2. (a) caudal vertebrae and vermiform appendix
  3. (d) a wing of a bat and a wing of an insect
  4. (b) a forelimb of a cat and a bat’s wing
  5. (f) Thiruvakkarai
  6. (e) radiocarbon dating.

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