Social Justice Online Test 11th Political Science Lesson 13 Questions in English

Social Justice-11th Political Science Lesson 13 Questions in English-Online Test

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Question 1
  • Assertion (A): The Dominance of single group in a plural society is considered as unfair and unjust.
  • Reasoning (R): The dominant groups misuse the social rights of other groups by activating racial, religious and cultural feelings.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False
Question 1 Explanation: 
The negative values which are made by the society results in inequality and lavation among people. Among different communities in a plural society, dominance of a single group is considered as unfair and unjust. The dominant groups activate racial, religious, caste, lingual and cultural feelings and intend to misuse the social rights of other groups that may end in permanent hostility between different groups.
Question 2
How many Varna’s were followed in the ancient Indian civilization?
A
5
B
3
C
4
D
2
Question 2 Explanation: 
The ancient Indian civilization had evolved with the “Varnashrama Dharma” which kick-started the principle of hierarchy i.e. Upper and Lower strata. The Varna system is also called as “Four Varna System” by which people were divided as Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vysyas and Shudras.
Question 3
On what basis the Varna system was practiced in different phases of civilizations?
A
Religion
B
Color
C
Birth
D
Occupation
Question 3 Explanation: 
This division on the basis of birth has been inculcated and socialized along different phases of civilization from which inequalities surfaced in the society.
Question 4
In which year the United Nation passed a declaration for the Rights of minorities?
A
1992
B
1956
C
1989
D
1978
Question 4 Explanation: 
Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities has been adopted by the UN General Assembly on 18 December, 1992, without a vote. Its key provisions include that "Persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities (hereinafter referred to as persons belonging to minorities) have the right to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practice their own religion, and to use their own language, in private and in public, freely and without interference or any form of discrimination.
Question 5
Which of these Articles should not be an obstacle for the special policies for backward communities or minorities?
A
Article 29
B
Article 22
C
Article 21
D
Article 27
Question 5 Explanation: 
Article 29 (2) may not act as an obstacle in making special policy decisions for socially and educationally backward communities or SC/ST people.
Question 6
Which of these articles of the Indian Constitution deals with the reservation in appointments among backward communities?
A
Article 16
B
Article 22
C
Article 21
D
Article 27
Question 6 Explanation: 
Article 16 (4) of Indian Constitution will not prevent any sort of appointment or reservation among backward communities, if sufficient representation is not provided.
Question 7
What is the geographical nature of India?  
A
Tropical
B
Sub-Tropical
C
Plateau
D
Peninsula
Question 7 Explanation: 
India is a sub-tropical, sub-continent with varied geographical atmosphere. People speak different languages and follow unique hereditary values.
Question 8
Which of these provide the guidelines to develop the socio-economic conditions of the downtrodden communities in India?
A
The Legislation
B
The Judiciary System
C
The State Government
D
The Constitution
Question 8 Explanation: 
Albeit of these factors, inequality is existed due to the Varna System. It is in order to advance and develop the socio-economic conditions of the downtrodden communities; Indian Constitution is having its ideal guidelines with strong structural foundation.
Question 9
Which of this category were provided with the special privileges and laws in the States?
A
Downtrodden communities
B
Children
C
Women
D
Backward communities
Question 9 Explanation: 
According to Indian Constitution, States which are having low technological development or inadequate natural resources can make their own special policies for holistic advancement. In accordance with the existing constitutional provisions, the downtrodden and underprivileged communities were provided with special laws and privileges in all the states.
Question 10
Which of these policies will help to develop the marginalized sections?
A
Social Justice
B
Inclusive development
C
Self-sufficient growth
D
All the above
Question 10 Explanation: 
Ideas like all inclusive development and self-sufficient societal growth highly hinges upon social justice along with special arrangements for the marginalized sections.
Question 11
How the Social democracy can sustain in the society?
A
By Law
B
Equal Opportunity
C
Identification
D
Employment preference
Question 11 Explanation: 
Equal opportunity is the process and social arrangement by which social democracy can sustain and pluralism will be strengthened.
Question 12
What is the main reason for the wedge created in the European societies?
A
Economic Conditions
B
Religion
C
Occupation
D
Race
Question 12 Explanation: 
Economic condition and status is one among the reason for the wedge created in the European society. Whereas in India, the division is on the basis of purusasvktha of Rigveda and particularly Four Varna System.
Question 13
State the motto of the Indian constitution regarding Social justice.
A
Equal opportunity
B
Distributive justice
C
Reservation System
D
Directive principles of state policyThis Varna System prevents individuals from their exercise of rights and values. Indian Constitution in this regard is implementing all its supervisory mechanisms and also is delivering distributive justice which is the motto of the largest democracy. This justice intended to weed out the caste distinction (Varna System) and to establish equal society in India.
Question 13 Explanation: 
This Varna System prevents individuals from their exercise of rights and values. Indian Constitution in this regard is implementing all its supervisory mechanisms and also is delivering distributive justice which is the motto of the largest democracy. This justice intended to weed out the caste distinction (Varna System) and to establish equal society in India.
Question 14
What is the bed rock of the Indian democracy?
A
Inequality
B
plural thinking
C
Economic Inequality
D
Religious systems
Question 14 Explanation: 
In such a democratic atmosphere, the fabric of ‘plurality’ will be generated. Plural thinking and all-inclusive representations are considered as bed rock of Indian Democracy.
Question 15
Which of these inequalities are burdens of the Social justice?
A
Opportunities
B
Work places
C
Comforts
D
All the above
Question 15 Explanation: 
People accept equality as an essential phenomenon but still inequality and discrimination are serving as distributing factors. Inequality prevails in almost all spheres like opportunities, comforts and working atmosphere.
Question 16
What is the only solution for the individuals to prove them in the society?
A
Opportunities
B
Education
C
Economic conditions
D
Social status
Question 16 Explanation: 
Regardless of caste, gender, religion and other differences, people should be provided with appropriate opportunities to prove their talent and capacities in the individual life.
Question 17
State the main aspect of the Socio-political theories?
A
Democracy
B
Fundamental Rights
C
Socio-cultural differences
D
Inequalities
Question 17 Explanation: 
In socio- political theories, the distinction between the difference among individual and socio-cultural differences exiting among them is considered as an important aspect.
Question 18
What are the prejudices in the society?
A
Discriminatory practices
B
Inequalities
C
Social identities
D
All the above
Question 18 Explanation: 
Individuals should receive respect and reputation on the basis of their achievements and talents. It should not be on the basis of social identities. Inequalities and discriminatory practices which prevail in the society are artificial and are known as prejudices.
Question 19
How many types of inequalities were categorized by Amartya Sen in his work?
A
5
B
4
C
7
D
3
Question 19 Explanation: 
The article by Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen. His thought-provoking essay entitled Many Faces of Gender Inequality highlighted seven types of inequality. They are Mortality inequality, Natality inequality, Basic facility inequality, Special opportunity inequality, Professional inequality, Ownership inequality, Household inequality.
Question 20
In what ways the government can fairly distribute the resources among various societies?
A
Laws
B
Rules
C
Rights
D
Democracy policy
Question 20 Explanation: 
When we agreed to the idea that different people in a society must be treated differently, the subsequent question would be who and how we can ensure the Justice. Governments can and will enact laws to facilitate the just distribution of resources to individuals with in a society. Laws simply pave the way for the fair distribution of resources. Law enforcing agencies may have to monitor the process of the distribution itself. This is the ideal situation.
Question 21
  • Assertion (A): People must be given basic equality of life conditions and opportunities.
  • Reasoning(R): The Government should ensure a level playing field to establish justice.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False
Question 21 Explanation: 
Governments will have to ensure a level playing field in order to establish Justice. In other words, before the law brings us together, people should enjoy some basic equality of life conditions and opportunities.
Question 22
State the role of the government in creating a level playing ground for all citizens?
A
Legal
B
Moral
C
Constitutional
D
All the above
Question 22 Explanation: 
It is legal, constitutional and moral on the part of the government to create a level playing ground for all its citizens especially those who have been historically denied basic rights.
Question 23
  • Assertion (A): Level playing ground is created only in education and Employment opportunities.
  • Reasoning(R): The marginalized sections do not demand a level playing ground in everyday lives.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False
Question 23 Explanation: 
Level playing ground is aimed at creating equal opportunity only in education and employment opportunities for the disadvantaged communities. In many realms of our everyday lives, there is virtually no demand from the marginalized sections to provide a level playing ground.
Question 24
What is the integral part of the Indian constitution to create equal ground for all the citizens?
A
Modern Education
B
Employment
C
Equal opportunity
D
All the above
Question 24 Explanation: 
When modern education becomes the most significant resource and employment in government sector remains a major source of livelihood, the concept of level playing ground or equal opportunity was advocated and subsequently this idea became an integral part of our constitutional apparatus.
Question 25
Which of these may affect the professional abilities of the underprivileged sector candidates?
A
Modern education system
B
Reservation system
C
Merit system
D
Equality in Education
Question 25 Explanation: 
The idea of ‘merit’ would be invoked by the privileged sections of our country to argue that any attempt to ‘reserve’ seats for the underprivileged people would strongly damage merit based output of our education system; thus it would subsequently affect the professional abilities of the candidates.
Question 26
What are the concepts of the justice theories in politics?
A
Equality of resources
B
Common ownership theories
C
Entitlements
D
All the above
Question 26 Explanation: 
In conventional understanding of politics, there are a few major theories of Justice being discussed at length. Equality of Resources, Common Ownership theories and Entitlements are often referred while discussing Justice.
Question 27
Define the equality of resources.
A
Every individual has same effective resources.
B
The Dominance society has the majority of resources.
C
The weaker sections are allotted the major resources for their development.
D
Resources are allocated to the needy individual.
Question 27 Explanation: 
Equality of Resources: This perspective defines distribution of resources to be just; that is to say, if every individual has the same effective resources that amounts to Justice.
Question 28
Which of these are advocated by the concept of Equality of Resources?
A
Self-Ownership
B
Resource Ownership
C
Responsibilities
D
Resource dominance
Question 28 Explanation: 
If inequality exists it is singularly the result of individual choices – to be a productive earner or to be a person of leisure. This perspective effectively rejects self-ownership and resource ownership but strongly advocates only responsibilities and obligations.
Question 29
Which of these theories define that individual have same amount of resources in the initial stages?
A
Common Ownership theory
B
Entitlement theory
C
Equality theory
D
Distributive theory
Question 29 Explanation: 
Common Ownership Theories: These theorists argue that a fair distribution means each person in the initial stages must have the same amount of land or other valuable resources.
Question 30
How the substantial justice can be provided to the individuals?
A
Equality in law
B
Equal amount of abilities
C
Common ownership of resources
D
Both b and c
Question 30 Explanation: 
All individuals are endowed with equal amount of abilities. Therefore, by ensuring common ownership of resources, we can bring in substantial Justice.
Question 31
State the idea of the entitlements theory.
A
Resources allocation
B
Voluntary transfer of resources
C
Common ownership of resources
D
Distributive resources
Question 31 Explanation: 
Entitlements Theory: It defines just distribution when land or any other resources disbursed must be historically justified. Individuals who have never had the ownership of land or other resources can appropriate it by voluntary transfer between and among themselves. Transfer of resources, for them, must be absolutely voluntary.
Question 32
  • Assertion (A): Land and Knowledge are also considered as the resources.
  • Reasoning(R): Justice is possible in the society if it is distributive.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 32 Explanation: 
Resources could be for example, land as well as knowledge; human ability also plays a vital role for some theorists. There is a grand consensus that Justice in a society is possible only when it becomes distributive rather than retributive.
Question 33
Choose the correct statements regarding the principles of Retributive Justice.
  • i)Punishment must be proportionate to their level of the crime.
  1. ii) Punishment is moral good.
  • iii) The innocents should not be punished intentionally.
A
i only
B
ii only
C
iii only
D
All the above
Question 33 Explanation: 
Retributive Justice The concept of retributive justice is often invoked in several contexts. One can understand the framework of this form of justice by following certain principles. i). Those who have committed wrongful acts, serious crimes do deserve harsh punishment quite proportionate to their crime. ii). It is morally good; when the legitimate punisher gives the culprit a stern punishment what that person deserves; no matter whether the punitive action against wrong doers is compared with others or not, the punishment is necessary as moral good. iii). It does not encourage punishing the innocent intentionally and also disapproves inflicting large punishments on wrongdoers disproportionately.
Question 34
What are the features of Retributive justice?
A
Normative status of suffering
B
Ultimate justification
C
Proportionality
D
All the above
Question 34 Explanation: 
The idea of retributive justice played vital role in theorizing punishment and Justice for some time, some of its pivotal features such as proportionality, normative status of suffering and the ultimate justification for retribution become highly contentious.
Question 35
What is the wrong tactics of retributive justice in modern society?
A
Severe Punishments
B
Violence
C
Appealing Power
D
None of the above
Question 35 Explanation: 
In a country like India, there are a few who tacitly approve violence as a mean to achieve and establish Justice by advocating retributive justice for many wrong acts. This is highly untenable proposition in modern context.
Question 36
  • Assertion (A): The Indian Constitution firmly rejected the retributive justice.
  • Reasoning(R): Violent methods will not establish Justice in the society.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 36 Explanation: 
Retributive justice as a modes operandi to establish justice was firmly rejected in our constitution itself. The architects of our constitution firmly believed that violent methods will not bring in peaceful and enduring solutions to our problems nor does it establish sustainable Justice in our society.
Question 37
What was the Theory of Justice developed by John Rawls?
A
Equality
B
Justice as Fairness
C
Retributive Justice
D
Social Development
Question 37 Explanation: 
John Rawls is considered as one of the finest political philosophers of 20th century. He developed the theory of Justice based on the paradigm called Justice as Fairness.
Question 38
Which of the social values must be distributed equally according to John Rawls?
A
Liberty
B
Self-Respect
C
Opportunity
D
All the above
Question 38 Explanation: 
For him ‘all social values including liberty, opportunity, income, wealth, self-respect are to be distributed equally. In other words, injustice is ‘simply inequalities that not to the benefit of all’.
Question 39
Match the important works of John Rawls.
  1. Justice as fairness  i) 1971
  2. The law of People   ii) 1985
  3. Theory of Justice    iii) 1993
A
ii, iii, i
B
i, iii, ii
C
ii, i, iii
D
iii, i, ii
Question 40
State the Incorrect statements.
  • i)John Rawls describes an aspect of Veil of ignorance.
  • ii) People are aware of their position and status in the society.
A
i only
B
ii only
C
Both i and ii
D
Neither i nor ii
Question 40 Explanation: 
Rawls describes as thinking under a ‘Veil of Ignorance’. We are ignorant about our possible position and status in society; each person would decide the way they generally do – trying to have optimum self interest in the new society.
Question 41
What is the basic concept of Veil of Ignorance?
A
People are their usual rational selves.
B
People think for themselves
C
People chose their regard on their own interest.
D
All the above
Question 41 Explanation: 
The merit of the ‘veil of ignorance’ framework is that it expects people to just be their usual rational selves; they are expected to think for themselves and choose what they regard to be in their interest.
Question 42
  • Assertion (A): To arrive at a system of fair laws and policies wearing an imaginary veil of ignorance is the initial step.
  • Reasoning(R): It tries to latch the trust in human agency of rationality among people.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 42 Explanation: 
By wearing an imagined veil of ignorance is the first step towards arriving at a system of fair laws and policies. It tries to latch its trust in the human agency of rationality among people in contemporary world.
Question 43
Define the John Rawls theory for achieving social justice in the society.
A
Non-rational identities and sentiments play a major role in organizing the society.
B
Eliminating the retributive justice concept.
C
Rational beings to realize the spirit of justice in the society.
D
Enact fair laws and policies.
Question 43 Explanation: 
John Rawls theory premises upon the arrival of quintessential modern, rational beings to realize the spirit of Justice in our society; a society like ours wherein non-rational identities and sentiments play a major role in organizing the society, may have to toil to truly understand the spirit of Justice as emulated by John Rawls.
Question 44
  • Assertion (A): The United Nations member countries recognized the rights of the migrated people.
  • Reasoning(R): Refugees migrated and exiled people also exercise their vital rights in the alien nations too.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 44 Explanation: 
Migrated people are also having certain rights in the alien nations. Refugees, migrated and exiled are also exercising vital rights. The member nations of UN recognized those vital rights.
Question 45
Which of these are practiced by different groups in a diversified society?
A
Habitual factors
B
Cultural Values
C
Individual talents
D
All the above
Question 45 Explanation: 
Socio-Cultural Equality In the diversified society, people from different groups may practice their cultural values, habitual factors and improve individual talents. For this to happen, equality in society is an essential criterion.
Question 46
What must be eliminated to attain liberal society?
A
Unequal atmosphere
B
Fair opportunity
C
Cultural traditions
D
Individual Values
Question 46 Explanation: 
Every individual should be assured of fair opportunity in the society. To a large extent, unequal atmosphere should be wiped out for attaining liberal society.
Question 47
What are the basic facilities equally provided for an egalitarian society?
A
Education
B
Healthcare
C
Minimum emoluments
D
All the above
Question 47 Explanation: 
To put it in a nutshell, actions must be taken at least to reduce the unequal circumstances. For instance, a good healthcare, education, nutritious food stuffs, minimum emoluments are the basic needs to be provided to all without discrimination. Without these basic facilities, we may not call a society as egalitarian one.
Question 48
Which of these are benefits are refused for most of the Indian women?
A
Education
B
Employment
C
Right to property
D
All the above
Question 48 Explanation: 
Beliefs and practices on the basis of caste and religion are dastardly obstacles. In many parts of India, the status of women is at lower level - education, employment, right to property are refused to women.
Question 49
Which of these factors may prevent the path of equality in India?
A
Discrimination
B
Inequality
C
Low status of women
D
All the above
Question 49 Explanation: 
If this situation extends and established as our culture, a major catastrophe may not be averted in India. If inequality and discrimination is stamped as our cultural value, the path of equality may be at cross roads and cannot be attained at all.
Question 50
Which of these methods are not used to calculate the Economic equality status of a country?
A
Individual Income
B
Difference between rich and poor people in the society.
C
No of people below the poverty line.
D
Value of individuals property in a society.
Question 50 Explanation: 
Economic equality can be identified by individual’s income and the value of property, he possess in a society. Otherwise, the gap between rich people community and poor may indicate the status of economic equality.
Question 51
What kind of identification process is followed in various countries for eradicating the Economic inequality?
A
Calculating the number of Industries.
B
Calculating the number of Unemployed people.
C
Calculating the number of people under poverty line.
D
Calculating the number uneducated people.
Question 51 Explanation: 
By calculating number of people under poverty line, we may draw strong inferences and resolutions for the economic inequality. This kind of identification is widespread among all the nations.
Question 52
  • Assertion (A): Radical reformers in different phases of history created awareness about the unethical situations in the society.
  • Reasoning(R): Caste based discriminations may create precarious issues in the society.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 52 Explanation: 
Certain discriminations on the basis of culture and historical cum habitual practices, may create precarious issues in the concerned society. Radical reformers during different phases of history, has made wide awareness about these untoward and unethical happenings to the people.
Question 53
Who quoted that respecting human on the basis of caste is anti-human thinking?
A
Raja of Panagal
B
E.V.Ramasamy
C
Pitti. Theagarayar
D
Rettamalai Srinivasan
Question 53 Explanation: 
"Humans respected on the basis of caste which he belongs to, is barbarian and anti-human thinking", exclaimed E.V.Ramasamy alias Periyar in Tamilnadu
Question 54
  • Assertion (A): E.V.Ramasamy alias Periyar was against Patriarchal Chauvinism.
  • Reasoning(R): He condemned the cultural practices and habits which refuses equality in society.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 54 Explanation: 
Periyar also was against “Patriarchal Chauvinism” which subjugated women all along the history. He out- rightly condemned the cultural practices, habitual follow-ups and other so called values which refutes equality in all its aspects
Question 55
What is the basic feature of unequal society?
A
Education
B
Employment
C
Discrimination
D
Religious Discrimination
Question 55 Explanation: 
People who enjoyed all kind of privileges on the basis of dynasty, birth and descent so far has to come to end. Determining an individual’s capacity on accordance with the birth is the primary and precarious feature of the unequal society.
Question 56
Who were all restricted for voting’s in Modern nations?
A
Women
B
Poor people
C
Uneducated people
D
Both a and b
Question 56 Explanation: 
All are equal and individual’s capacity, if decided on the basis of merit, is the first step towards equal society. So far, number of modern nations refused to provide voting rights for the poor people. There are nations which restricts women education and public offices in the 21st century.
Question 57
  • Assertion (A): Lower strata people in India were permitted only for the benefit-less offices.
  • Reasoning(R): Caste-identity of Lower strata people did not permit them to occupy higher positions.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 57 Explanation: 
In India, lower strata people are permitted to work only in the clerical and other benefit-less offices. They were not permitted to occupy higher positions, because of their caste identity. Individuals and organization for the past centuries made onerous efforts to curb out in equal menace from the society.
Question 58
Which of these are identified rare in the society?
A
Truthful Equality
B
Injustice
C
Discriminations
D
Fair Justice
Question 58 Explanation: 
Truthful equality can be identified only in those rare occasions. Injustices unleashed in the past must be identified to know about what real or fair equality is.
Question 59
What was the initiative from the government to deliver equal justice?
A
Modern Education system
B
Reservation policy
C
Industrial policy
D
Justice to all
Question 59 Explanation: 
Reservation policy is a good initiative from the part of government in delivering equal justice. People, who were denied of education and employment opportunities so far, were provided with reservation for uplifting the condition and status.
Question 60
Choose the correct statements.
  • i)Discriminatory practices were followed for a long time in historical phases.
  • ii) Reforms happened in short time will be a good sign for the development of a nation.
A
i only
B
ii only
C
Both i and ii
D
Neither i nor ii
Question 60 Explanation: 
Discriminatory practices which were followed for long time in the historical phases may not be curbed out in a short span. Expecting the change within one or two generations is a utopian faith, stated researchers. If reforms happened in short time, it will be a good sign for the development of the entire nation.
Question 61
Which of these were practiced in ancient civilizations?
A
Equality
B
Religious tolerance
C
Dharma, Adharma
D
All the above
Question 61 Explanation: 
All civilizations were equipped with the awareness of their practices. The accepted practices are “Dharma” and the negative is “Adharma”. Those people who breach these practices will be punished by the king. Mistakes and related punishments are quite natural in all the countries.
Question 62
What are the discourses of Socrates?
A
Social Equality
B
Anti-justice people and their impacts
C
Types of Inequalities
D
Justice
Question 62 Explanation: 
Greek philosopher Plato and his disciples often debate and discuss about justice and its practices. Discourses and teachings of Socrates consist of anti-justice people and their impact in the society.
Question 63
  • Assertion (A): Justice brings out the entire development and advancement of a society.
  • Reasoning(R): Justice must do favor for certain individuals.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 63 Explanation: 
Justice and fairness may do only good things in a society. If justice do favor for certain individuals, that may not be considered and called as justice. Justice is all about the entire development and advancement of a society.
Question 64
What is the idea of Justice according to Socrates?
A
Fair justice is applicable to all people in a society.
B
Every Individual must be favored by Justice.
C
Justice does only good things in a society.
D
Justice is the part of the government and constitution.
Question 64 Explanation: 
Fair justice is applicable to all the people in a society, claimed Socrates.
Question 65
What is the main reason for the inequality in India?
A
Unemployment
B
Cast Hierarchy
C
Poverty
D
Religion
Question 65 Explanation: 
Caste hierarchy is the primary reason for inequality in our nation. Hence on the basis of the caste hierarchy, social justice has to be maintained. In categorization, we are having backward caste, most backward caste, scheduled caste and scheduled tribe for whom; governments’ policies are distributed accordingly.
Question 66
When the first commission for backward community was established in Independent India?
A
1964
B
1972
C
1953
D
1914
Question 66 Explanation: 
First Commission for backward community was established on 1953. Kaka Kalelkar was the first head of this Commission in Independent India.
Question 67
  • Assertion (A): Human beings identify themselves as part of their group as per the socio-psychologists description.
  • Reasoning(R): People feel prestigious and energetic when they are recognized as a part of their group.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 67 Explanation: 
As socio – psychologists describes, Human beings identify themselves as part of their group. They felt prestigious and energetic only when they are recognized as a part of their own group.
Question 68
What is the important factor in the discrimination groupings?
A
Wealth
B
Religion
C
Race
D
All the above
Question 68 Explanation: 
Discrimination means is that out grouping their own members from the membership of their group or ban their members from accessing natural resources. Indeed, wealth is an important matter. Someone of the group’s eligibility and self – respect indirectly defends of someone getting wealth.
Question 69
Which of these people belongs to the out-groups based on the human inequality ideology?
A
People with Low sense of Social recognition
B
Unemployed people
C
Economically weaker sections
D
Women and Children
Question 69 Explanation: 
Empirical studies confirm that persons with a low sense of social recognition display more out-group devaluation and group-focused enmity based on an ideology of human inequality.
Question 70
Which of these out-groups are not affected by the unspecific nature of discrimination?
A
Women
B
Children
C
Homeless and disabled
D
Religious minorities
Question 70 Explanation: 
Negative attitudes toward different out-groups (ethnic and religious minorities, women, and people who are disabled or homeless) are strongly correlated with each other, indicating the unspecific nature of discrimination.
Question 71
Who are all benefited by the principle of affirmative actions?
A
Socially disadvantaged people
B
Economically disadvantaged people
C
Women
D
All the above
Question 71 Explanation: 
The principle of affirmative action is to promote societal equality through the preferential treatment of socially and economically disadvantaged people.
Question 72
Which of the following is not included in the goal of the affirmative actions?
A
Improving the Economic capabilities
B
Addressing the social imbalance
C
Redressing the past wrongs
D
Increase access to Education
Question 72 Explanation: 
Support for affirmative action has sought to achieve a range of goals: bridging inequalities in employment and pay; increasing access to education; enriching state, institutional, and professional leadership with the full spectrum of society; redressing apparent past wrongs, harms, or hindrances and in particular addressing the apparent social imbalance left in the wake of slavery and slave laws.
Question 73
State the effect of affirmative actions in the United states of America by a research study in the year 2017?
A
Technology Advancement
B
Educational Equality
C
Increase in share of black employees
D
All the above
Question 73 Explanation: 
A 2017 study found that affirmative action in the United States of America "there is an increase in the share of black employees over time: in 5 years after an establishment is first regulated."
Question 74
What is the reason for the Civil Rights agitation in United States of America in later twentieth century?
A
Liberty developments
B
Economic development
C
Discrimination
D
Technology development
Question 74 Explanation: 
United States of America: Though there were developments in Liberty, Economy and Technology in United States of America, still there was sustained discrimination on the basis of color till the later period of Twentieth century. This raised Civil Rights agitations there.
Question 75
Who introduced the affirmative actions in the United States of America in 1960's?
A
Franklin Roosevelt
B
John Kennedy
C
Richard Nixon
D
Lyndon B. Johnson
Question 75 Explanation: 
Following this Affirmation Action was introduced by John F.Kennedy in 1960s in the United States of America.
Question 76
By which of this executive order the US government requested the employers not to discriminate the candidates on any basis?
A
11246
B
11452
C
10925
D
10364
Question 76 Explanation: 
This was called as Executive Order 10925. Through this order, Govt requested the employers not to discriminate their employees or candidates on the basis of race, creed, color, or national origin.
Question 77
When the Federal government of US commits to promote full equal employment in all department and agencies?
A
1965
B
1934
C
1977
D
1992
Question 77 Explanation: 
This order was replaced by another order 11246 in the year 1965. By this the Federal Government commit "to promote the full realization of equal employment opportunity through a positive, continuing program in each executive department and agency".
Question 78
Which of these Act pressurized the US affirmative action on nondiscrimination?
A
Civil Rights Act of 1866
B
Civil Rights Act of 1964
C
Civil Rights Act of 1960
D
Civil Rights Act of 1958
Question 78 Explanation: 
In the U.S., affirmative action's basic purpose was to pressurize institutions into compliance with the nondiscrimination mandate of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Question 79
When the United States extended its affirmative action for women?
A
1956
B
1973
C
1967
D
1983
Question 79 Explanation: 
Affirmation Action in US was extended to women in 1967.
Question 80
Which of these are eliminated in all countries through the affirmative actions of the United Nations?
A
All forms of Racial Discrimination
B
Educational inequality
C
Poverty
D
All the above
Question 80 Explanation: 
United Nations: The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination stipulates that affirmative action programs may be required for all countries that ratified the convention, in order to rectify systematic discrimination.
Question 81
According to the United Nations Human Rights Committee which of these must take affirmative action for the equality principle?
A
Legislation
B
State parties
C
Constitution
D
Judiciary system
Question 81 Explanation: 
The United Nations Human Rights Committee states that "the principle of equality sometimes requires State parties to take affirmative action in order to diminish or eliminate conditions which cause or help to perpetuate discrimination prohibited by the Covenant.
Question 82
When South Africa chose to implement affirmative actions through legislations?
A
1992
B
1987
C
1976
D
1994
Question 82 Explanation: 
Following the transition to democracy in 1994, South Africa chose to implement affirmative action through legislations to correct previous imbalances.
Question 83
  • Assertion (A): After the democracy South African employers were asked to employ disenfranchised groups of people.
  • Reasoning(R): The Companies were instructed to improve the workforce demographics.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 83 Explanation: 
All employers in South Africa were compelled by law to employ previously disenfranchised groups (blacks, Indians, and Coloured). By this the companies employing more than 50 people have to design and implement plans to improve the workforce demographics, and report them to the Department of Labor.
Question 84
Which of these was a part of South African companies Black economic Empowerment scorecard?
A
Employment Equity
B
Provident Funds
C
Health care Insurances for employees
D
Reservation system
Question 84 Explanation: 
Employment Equity also forms part of a company's Black Economic Empowerment scorecard. Moreover, the Supreme Court has ruled that in principle blacks may be favored.
Question 85
Which of these country followed affirmative actions for minorities in Education?
A
America
B
India
C
China
D
Germany
Question 85 Explanation: 
China followed some sort of affirmative action in education for minority nationalities.
Question 86
What is the system followed for University education in the former USSR?
A
Reservation System
B
Quota System
C
Religious System
D
Polling System
Question 86 Explanation: 
Quota systems existed in the USSR for various social groups including ethnic minorities, women and factory workers for access to university education, offices in the former Soviet Union.
Question 87
  • Assertion (A): The new education system in modern India did not allow the marginalized communities in the main stream.
  • Reasoning(R): Ancient Indian educational system allowed people to undergo education on basis of their caste.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 87 Explanation: 
The educational system which we had in Ancient India was discriminatory. People were permitted to undergo education on the basis of their own caste. After the introduction of new education system in modern India, the marginalized communities are not allowed in the main stream.
Question 88
Which of these introduced the modern education system in Southern India?
A
Christian Missionaries
B
French Trading Companies
C
French Trading Companies
D
All the above
Question 88 Explanation: 
In south India, new or modern education was introduced by Christian missionaries of European nations. In the initial part of 19th century, British established more number of Christian missionaries in many parts of India. Many communities, who were denied educational opportunities, utilized the choice for their development.
Question 89
Which of these systems were introduced by the British Empire in the 19th century Chennai Presidency?
A
Ryotwari
B
Modern Education System
C
Legislative system
D
Local Government
Question 89 Explanation: 
In the initial part of 19th century, Chennai presidency came under the direct rule of British Empire. Laws like ‘Ryotwari’ were made. Moreover, tax collecting system was introduced.
Question 90
Choose the Incorrect statements.
  • i)In 1858, English was declared as an official administrative language in India.
  • ii) Indians were also appointed in British Indian military forces.
  • iii) The non-Brahmins and deprived community was the majority people to join the military forces.
A
i only
B
ii only
C
iii only
D
All the above
Question 90 Explanation: 
Further, military forces were also instigated. In 1835, English was declared as official and administrative language in India. Indians were appointed in the British Indian military forces. Majority of the people who joined in military were non-Brahmins and deprived communities.
Question 91
  • Assertion (A): The British rule did not allow Indian languages in the Educational Institutions.
  • Reasoning(R):  People with English fluency were appointed in the Government services.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 91 Explanation: 
Although colonial British regime appointed Indians in military forces, it hesitated to permit Indian languages in the educational institutions. This untoward situation remained same until the end of the 19th century. People who are fluent in English were appointed in these services. Apart from the Europeans, Anglo- Indians and Brahmins were appointed in all government services.
Question 92
Who were categorized as the Caste Hindus by the Ryotwari system in 19th century India?
A
Landlords
B
Zamindhars
C
Dominant groups
D
All the above
Question 92 Explanation: 
Due to the establishment of ‘Jamindari’ and ‘Ryotwari’ system in the initial part of 19th century, ‘Landlords’, ‘Zamindars’ and other dominant groups spearheaded in entire India. All the above said are “Caste Hindus”. “Caste Hindus” domination in all villages greatly affected the villages and particularly, the downtrodden communities were kept aside from the lands in all villages of India.
Question 93
Which of these British officers submitted the Ryotwari System reports?
A
Lord Irwin
B
Francis Ellis
C
Robert Clive
D
Lord Rippon
Question 93 Explanation: 
A British officer ‘Francis Ellis’ was appointed to submit the status report regarding ‘Ryotwari System’. In similar way, another officer, ‘Thomas Munro’ also submitted a report related to the ‘Ryotwari System’
Question 94
What were the effects of the Ryotwari systems according to the British Officers reports?
  • i)Lands which were illegally occupied and acquired by ‘Zamindars’ and ‘Landlords.
  • ii) The deprived and downtrodden communities were checked-out of their lands.
  • iii) Quality-less farming and low level of yields so that Land Income Tax was also affected due to this acquisition.
A
i only
B
ii only
C
iii only
D
All the above
Question 94 Explanation: 
According to the reports, ‘Lands which were tilled by lower strata people, were illegally occupied and acquired by ‘Zamindars’ and ‘Landlords’ and thus caused quality-less farming and low level of yields. It is also reported that Land Income Tax was also affected due to this acquisition. Moreover, the deprived and downtrodden communities were checked-out of their lands and also their children denied admissions in the schools and other educational institutions.
Question 95
  • Assertion (A): In 1854, court directed not to restrict to admit lower caste groups children.
  • Reasoning(R): The Caste Hindus and other dominant communities obeyed the judgment of the court proceedings.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 95 Explanation: 
In 1854, court delivered direction that there may not be any restriction to admit children who belongs to lower caste groups. The Caste Hindus and other dominant communities, however, didn’t obey the judgment of the court proceedings.
Question 96
When did the British Parliament order to admit low caste groups children in Educational Institutions?
A
1854
B
1865
C
1858
D
1885
Question 96 Explanation: 
In 1865, Secretary of state for India in British Parliament ordered for admission of children who belong to lower caste groups but the condition remains unchanged.
Question 97
In which of this Presidency the government declared financial assistance for the downtrodden communities in 1885?
A
Kolkata
B
Mumbai
C
Delhi
D
Madras
Question 97 Explanation: 
In 1885, Madras Presidency Government declared financial assistance policies for the downtrodden communities and also the government oriented new schools for the lower caste people.
Question 98
What were the reports of Tremancre on the downtrodden communities of Chengalpet?
  • i)People of downtrodden community were at low level in social-economic, educational spheres.
  • ii) Lands were denied and they were not permitted to build houses for their own.
  • iii) Educational opportunities were rejected and they were sold as slaves.
A
i only
B
ii only
C
iii only
D
All the above
Question 98 Explanation: 
Tremancre, collector of Chengalpet district submitted a report on the downtrodden communities of Chengalpet. Those excerpts are: People of downtrodden community were at low level in all aspects, particularly social-economic, educational spheres. Lands are denied for them. They were not permitted to build houses for their own. Educational opportunities were rejected. They are sold as slaves. Lots of lands are kept barren. Due to this, income for the government has been diminished. To increase the income of the government, lands can be distributed to the people.
Question 99
When the Panchami land was distributed among the Lower caste people?
A
1892
B
1895
C
1823
D
1867
Question 99 Explanation: 
In 1892, this report was considered and accepted by the government. Accordingly 12 lakh acres were distributed to the lower caste groups. These lands are called as “Panchami.”
Question 100
  • Assertion (A): Panchamer schools are meant for the lower caste groups.
  • Reasoning(R): Panchamer means the people of excluded communities.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 100 Explanation: 
Schools for lower caste groups are called as “Panchamer School”. “Panchamer” means a person who is out of Varna System or excluded communities.
Question 101
Who opted the term Adidravidar schools?
A
Raja of Panagal
B
T. M.Nair
C
Ayothidasa
D
Rettamalai Srinivasan
Question 101 Explanation: 
‘Ayothidasa’ and ‘Singaravelar’ opined that “Panchamer Schools” can be called as “Adidravidar” schools. Since it is the traditional name carved to the category.
Question 102
  • Assertion (A): In the end of 19th century the Non-Brahmins and minorities demanded representation for lower caste groups in government services.
  • Reasoning(R): British India in the end part of 19th century supported Brahmin development in all spheres.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 102 Explanation: 
British India in the end part of 19th century supported Brahmin development in all spheres, whereas minorities were denied opportunities in education, society, power and employment sectors. The Non-Brahmins, particularly minorities (lower caste) who studied in the modern educational institutions were dissatisfied with the government’s biased stand. They demanded representation for lower caste groups in government services.
Question 103
Who were demanding the representation of lower caste groups in Government services?
A
Singaravelar
B
Pitti Theagarayar
C
Ayothidasa
D
All the above
Question 103 Explanation: 
The people who demanded for appropriate representation of lower caste groups in government services are Ayothidasa, Singaravelar, Rettamalai Srinivasan, Pitti Theagarayar, Raja of Panagal and many others.
Question 104
Which of these government order implemented community based representation in Chennai Presidency in 1892?
A
128(2)
B
129(2)
C
121(2)
D
127(2)
Question 104 Explanation: 
Demands put forth by these people were accepted in 1892.Community based representation order was issued in all departments of Madras Presidency. This order is called 128(2). The order has to be implemented in all parts of Chennai Presidency, declared the government.
Question 105
Which of these leaders took "Education to all “efforts of Tamil Nadu in Maharashtra?
A
Lokamanya Tilak
B
Sindhutai Sapkal
C
Jyotirao Phule
D
Dhondo Keshav Karve
Question 105 Explanation: 
The efforts taken towards “education to all” in Tamilnadu also spread over to other states of India. Leaders like Jyotirao Phule, Savithribai Phule took onerous efforts in Maharashtra for educating the depressed and downtrodden communities.
Question 106
Who was the head of Royal Commission in 1913?
A
Tremancre
B
Thomas Munro
C
Alexander Cardow
D
Francis Ellis
Question 106 Explanation: 
There were more applications forwarded in 1913 to Royal Commission which was headed by Alexander Cardow. Apart from Madras Presidency, Rangoon Thravi Association and others also submitted their application with demands to the commission.
Question 107
Which of these leaders were not associated in the report of minorities and low caste groups of India?
A
Dr. Natesan
B
Rettamalai Srinivasan
C
Pitti. Theagarayar
D
T. M. Nair
Question 107 Explanation: 
All applications emphasized for appropriate representation in employment for backward, downtrodden and religious minorities. Dr. Natesan, Pitti. Theagarayar, T. M. Nair tried to submit and a report on the burning issue of the minorities and low caste groups.
Question 108
In which year P.Theagrayar published his book "Non-Brahmin Manifesto"?
A
1905
B
1943
C
1957
D
1916
Question 108 Explanation: 
P. Theagarayar has written and published it as "Non-Brahmin Manifesto" in December, 1916.
Question 109
Name the federation started for the Welfare of Non-Brahmin Communities in 1916?
A
South Indian Liberal Federation
B
Madras Native Association
C
East India Association
D
Madras Mahajana Sabha
Question 109 Explanation: 
In 1916, Pitti. Theagarayar, T. M. Nair and others started South Indian Liberal Federation for the welfare of the Non-Brahmin communities.
Question 110
Justice was a name of a _______.
A
Magazine
B
Place
C
Act
D
None of the above
Question 110 Explanation: 
A magazine “Justice” was also published by this Federation to express their thoughts and ideas. Later on, this Federation was popularly known as “Justice Party”.
Question 111
When did the Justice Party demand to include Tamil and other languages in Higher Education instead of English?
A
1913
B
1915
C
1921
D
1932
Question 111 Explanation: 
In 1915, Justice Party submitted a petition in which it condemned the domination of English and Sanskrit in higher education. Further they demanded to include Tamil and other languages in higher education.
Question 112
What was the major demand of the various Associations to the British Empire in the year 1917?
A
Military Appointments of Indian Soldiers
B
Overseas Trade
C
Modern Education System
D
Fair Representation” for Non-Brahmin communities and minorities.
Question 112 Explanation: 
In 1917, 54 Associations met the representative members of British Empire and demanded “Fair Representation” for Non-Brahmin communities and other minorities. Moreover, “Communal Representation” was demanded during multiple conferences.
Question 113
  • Assertion (A): In 1921 the central government of India made a resolution for the communal representation in India.
  • Reasoning(R): The Justice Party continuously struggled for the demand of Communal representation.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 113 Explanation: 
During the rule of Justice Party in Chennai Presidency, the demand for communal representation reflected in vigorous manner. The prolonged struggle for communal representation by Justice Party and wide support from the people propelled the central government to make resolution in this regard in 1921.
Question 114
Choose the correct statements.
  • i)The Communal representation resolution was called as Communal Representation Decree.
  • ii) This decree gave confidence to the low caste groups and minorities to lead their life with self-respect and dignity.
A
i only
B
ii only
C
Both i and ii
D
none
Question 114 Explanation: 
The resolution for communal representation later on was called as Communal Representation Decree. It is the red lettered day in Indian history, lower caste groups, who were suppressed and deprived of Social and Economic condition for many centuries had fullest confidence to lead their life with self-respect and dignity by this decree.
Question 115
Which of these people were provided with employment opportunity by the resolution of Munusamy?
A
Christians
B
Muslims
C
Lower caste groups
D
All the above
Question 115 Explanation: 
A resolution was submitted by Munusamy the member of legislative assembly in Chennai. The Resolution reads; "Non-Brahmins with minimum educational qualification should be provided with employment opportunity. Non-Brahmins specifically, Christians, Muslims and lower caste groups to be appointed in all government services.
Question 116
Choose the correct statements.
  • i)A permanent order of communal representation should be legalized for 7years until it reaches 75% of the population.
  • ii) R.K.Shanmugam stated that the future generation may appreciate our efforts towards emancipation if this resolution is implemented.
  • iii) Dr.C.Nadesan voiced that “If fair representation is not provided for our people, we will not pay taxes”.
A
i only
B
ii only
C
iii only
D
All the above
Question 116 Explanation: 
For this, a permanent order should be legalized. If salary is above Rs.100, this order should be implemented for 7years until it reaches 75% of the population". With regard to this resolution, R.K.Shanmugam stated that “If this historical and land mark resolution is implemented, the future generation may really appreciate our truthful efforts towards emancipation”. In supporting this view, Dr.C.Nadesan voiced that “If fair representation is not provided for our people, we will not pay taxes”.
Question 117
In which conference Periyar demanded the communal representation in the Congress party?
A
Kanchipuram Congress Party Conference
B
Madras Congress Party Conference
C
Bombay Congress Party Conference
D
Madurai Congress Party Conference
Question 117 Explanation: 
Periyar, E.V.Ramasamy, a staunch supporter of congress party also eulogized the ideas of Justice Party, he expressed the same demand in Congress Party. In 1925, during the Kanchipuram Congress Party Conference, Periyar passed a resolution regarding communal representation in education and employment. Periyar came out of congress party, since his resolution was rejected by the high command.
Question 118
Which of this Justice party leader implemented the communal representation in the Government departments?
A
Dr.C.Nadesan
B
Singaravelar
C
R.Muthiah
D
Pitti Theagarayar
Question 118 Explanation: 
In 1928, during the leadership of R.Muthiah, (Justice Party), Communal representation was passed and implemented in all the government departments.
Question 119
In which of these cases the High Court verdict that Communal representation decree is against the Constitution?
A
Indira Sawhney & Others v. Union of India
B
Union of India v. Varpal Singh
C
M. R. Balaji v. State of Mysore
D
State of Madras v. Champakam Dorairajan
Question 119 Explanation: 
In the aftermath of the effective implementation of Indian Constitution, in 1951, Mr. Senbagarajan filed a suit in the High Court; related to the denial of Medical Seats. He also mentioned that, communal representation is the reason for the denial of his seat. The High Court gave its Verdict that Communal representation decree is against the constitution and to be abandoned. In addition to that, Supreme Court also sided with the same Verdict. Reservation Policy on the basis of caste was abandoned due to the Verdict.
Question 120
Which of these personalities were not involved in the extended amendment of Reservation Policy?
A
Kamaraj
B
E. V. Ramaswamy
C
Pitti. Theagarayar
D
Jawaharlal Nehru
Question 120 Explanation: 
State wide protests erupted in Tamilnadu against the Verdict. E. V. Ramaswamy demanded for an amendment in the constitution. It is due to efforts of Periyar; Tamilnadu congress committee President Kamaraj, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Ambedkar, an amendment was made related with the extension of Reservation Policy.
Question 121
Which of these Articles is related to the first Amendment of the Indian Constitution?
A
Article 15
B
Article 17
C
Article 14
D
Article 12
Question 121 Explanation: 
It is laid down in Article 46 as a Directive Principle of State Policy that the State should promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people and protect them from social injustice. In order that any special provision that the State may make for the educational, economic or social advancement of any backward class of citizens may not be challenged on the ground of being discriminatory, article 15(3) was suitably amplified. This was the first Amendment in the Indian Constitution. Due to this, backward and other communities retained the opportunity of reservation.
Question 122
What was the main aim of the Articles 15 and 16 of the Indian Constitution?
A
Untouchability
B
Special privileges to socially and economically backward people
C
Property rights for women
D
Equal employment to the minorities.
Question 122 Explanation: 
According to articles 15 and 16 of Indian Constitution, "Socially and economically backward people can be provided with special privileges". This provision made Nehru to come with First Amendment in the Indian Constitution.
Question 123
What was the percentage of reservation provided to the Backward communities by the first amendment of the Indian Constitution?
A
16%
B
10%
C
34%
D
25%
Question 123 Explanation: 
Accordingly, sub-sections 15 (4) and 16 (4) were included in the constitution. After the Amendment, from 1951 onwards Backward Communities receive 25% and Lower Caste 16% respectively due to reservation policy.
Question 124
Who was the Chairman of the Commission of backward community under the chief ministership of M.Karunanidhi?
A
Sattanathan
B
Sri Krishna
C
Muddiman
D
L.C.Gupta
Question 124 Explanation: 
Under the Chief Ministers hip of M.Karunanidhi, a commission was constituted under the Chairmanship of Sattanathan to take into account on the welfare of backward community.
Question 125
When the Sattanathan commission reservation policy was accepted by the Government?
A
1965
B
1982
C
1971
D
1954
Question 125 Explanation: 
It is on the basis of the recommendations of Sattanathan commission, backward community got 31% and SC/ST received 18% as reservation in 1971.
Question 126
What was the annual income of backward community fixed by the Social Welfare Department of Tamil Nadu in the year 1979?
A
Rs.50, 000/-
B
Rs.540, 000/-
C
Rs. 25, 000/-
D
Rs. 9,000/-
Question 126 Explanation: 
In 1979, Social Welfare Department of Tamilnadu Government issued an order (MS No.1156, Dated 02.02.1979). According to this order, annual family income of backward community was fixed as Rs.9,000/-. Later on, that order was repealed.
Question 127
What is the total reservation allotted for the backward community in Tamil Nadu?
A
31%
B
18%
C
50%
D
68%
Question 127 Explanation: 
A new order was issued, in which reservation for backward community was increased from 31% to 50% and for SC/ST it is 18%. To sum-up, 68% reservation came into effect in Tamilnadu.
Question 128
When did the 69% total reservation scheme come into effect in Tamil Nadu?
A
1989
B
1979
C
1994
D
1789
Question 128 Explanation: 
In continuum with this, in 1989, another suit filed in Supreme Court with regard to allotment of separate reservation for Scheduled tribe (ST) community. In this case, Supreme Court of India delivered the verdict by which, backward community, most backward, scheduled caste and scheduled tribes received 30%, 20%, 18% and 1% respectively. The entire reservation was changed combined and 69% came into effect in Tamilnadu.
Question 129
Under which Prime Minister of India the government issued a 27% reservation for Backward community?
A
Chandra sekhar
B
V.P.Singh
C
Rajiv Gandhi
D
Charan Singh
Question 129 Explanation: 
The central government under the Prime Ministership of V.P.Singh consented with the recommendations of Mandal Commission. The Government issued an order which confirmed 27% reservation for Backward Community in Central Government Services.
Question 130
Choose the correct statements.
  • i)Indira Sawhney opposed the Mandal commission recommendations as the order breaches the constitutional provisions.
  • ii) Supreme Court delivered a verdict that 27% for backward community in Central government services can be legalized.
A
i only
B
ii only
C
Both i and ii
D
Neither i nor ii
Question 130 Explanation: 
In opposing this order, Indira Sawhney, filed a suit stating the order breaches the constitutional provisions. She also added that reservation policy overrides the principle “All are equal before Law”. Supreme Court delivered a clear verdict that 27% for backward community in Central government services can be legalized. Further it states, “The reservation should not reach beyond 50%”.
Question 131
What is the highest ceiling of reservation as per the Supreme Court of India?
A
35%
B
50%
C
65%
D
25%
Question 131 Explanation: 
The Supreme Court of India fixed 50% as ceiling for reservation policy, whereas it was not mentioned in the constitution. Moreover, the highest ceiling of 50% can also be discharged.
Question 132
Which of these should not be provided more than 50% reservation as per the Supreme Court verdict?
A
Central Government Offices
B
Engineering and Medical Colleges
C
Private Sectors
D
State Government Jobs
Question 132 Explanation: 
A member of consumer trust, K.N. Vijayan from Tamilnadu filed a suit stating, 69% reservation in Tamilnadu is given against the Supreme Court Verdict. Supreme Court, however, in its Verdict mentioned that Engineering and Medical Colleges should not be provided reservation more than 50%. It also issued Interim prohibition for the reservation.
Question 133
Which of these articles were referenced for the reservation bill of the Tamil Nadu government?
A
Article 31
B
Article 15
C
Article 45
D
Article 27
Question 133 Explanation: 
It was similar with the untoward happenings during 1951, which prompted the state government under J.Jayalalitha who passed a bill in the state assembly by citing the reference from directive principles of state policy by the Article 31(c).
Question 134
What is the total reservation percentage in Tamil Nadu incorporated by the IXth schedule of the Constitution?
A
63%
B
69%
C
52%
D
50%
Question 134 Explanation: 
The bill on 30.12.1993 was given consent by the President of India 52% on 19.07.1994 by which 69% reservation received fullest legal protection. To avert further filing of suit against Tamilnadu Government, it endeavored to incorporate reservation policy in IXth schedule of the Indian Constitution.
Question 135
Which of these amendments incorporated the reservation policy of Tamil Nadu in the Constitution?
A
72th Amendment
B
74th Amendment
C
76th Amendment
D
77th Amendment
Question 135 Explanation: 
Parliament passed the 76th Amendment in which reservation policy of Tamilnadu Government was incorporated in IXth schedule of Indian Constitution. Further it came into retrospective effect from November 16, 1992.
Question 136
Choose the correct statements.
  • i)Reservation is a permanent effort to get attains Social equality.
  • ii) Caste hierarchy must be demolished to establish eternal equality.
A
i only
B
ii only
C
Both i and ii
D
Neither i nor ii
Question 136 Explanation: 
Reservation for different communities is a temporary effort to get place in power sector. To attain social change and social ideals, caste hierarchy has to be demolished and eternal equality to be established.
Question 137
  • Assertion (A): Inter-Caste marriages are one of the ways to attain permanent equality in the society.
  • Reasoning(R): Casteless marriages and lateral ideal thinking are the best contrivances for making radical social change.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 137 Explanation: 
One among the means to attain permanent equality is “Inter-Caste Marriages”. Marriages happening within caste may further strengthen caste system and serve as an obstacle for the equal society. Casteless marriages and lateral cum ideal thinking are the best contrivances for making radical social change.
Question 138
Which of these Articles allows the President of India to appoint a commission for the benefit of the backward class?
A
Article 340
B
Article 343
C
Article 245
D
Article 348
Question 138 Explanation: 
According to article 340 of Indian Constitution, President of India can appoint backward classes commission to identify socially and educationally backward groups and also to submit recommendation related to their standards and states.
Question 139
Name the first commission constituted for the Backward Community.
A
Mandal Commission
B
Sarkaria Commission
C
Kaka Kalelkar Commission
D
Mathur Commission
Question 139 Explanation: 
Kaka Kalelkar Commission was the first one constituted in 29.01.1953. There were 11 members including the Chairman Jawaharlal Nehru who tabled the report submitted by this commission in the Parliament.
Question 140
Who was the secretary of the Mandal commission?
A
S.S.Gill
B
Morarji Desai
C
Prasad Mandal
D
Sattanathan
Question 140 Explanation: 
Central Government under the Prime Minister-ship of Morarji Desai constituted Subindeswari Prasad Mandal Commission on 20.12.1978. This is the second such Commission established for the backward community. S.S.Gill was appointed as the Secretary of this Commission.
Question 141
When the Mandal commission was constituted to identify the condition of backward community?
A
1982
B
1971
C
1978
D
1989
Question 141 Explanation: 
It is in order to identify the condition of backward community; a group was constituted under the leadership of B.B.Mandal in 1978. The group travelled all over the nation. This Commission on the basis of 11 basic reasons identified 3743 castes which come under backward community.
Question 142
Which of the state is pioneer in communal representation according to the Mandal report?
A
Calcutta
B
Tamil Nadu
C
Mumbai
D
Gujarat
Question 142 Explanation: 
Mandal has written in the preface of the report which reads, “Madras is a pioneer state in communal representation. It has given representation for backward classes”. We may infer that Tamilnadu is the birth place for Social Justice and serve as a great pioneer for all other states.
Question 143
  • Assertion (A): Mandal report claimed 27% reservation for the backward communities in India.
  • Reasoning(R): According to this reservation the social and educational backward communities sectors entered into Central government services.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 143 Explanation: 
52% of the backward communities in India have to be provided with 27% reservation, remarked Mandal Report. This reservation was implemented by V.P.Singh Government on 13.08.1990 in all Government (Central) Services. Due to this order, backward communities who are backward in social and educational sectors entered into central services.
Question 144
Which was the second commission for the reservation policy in India?
A
B.P.Mandal Commission
B
Bimal Jalan Commission
C
Sarkaria Commission
D
Justice A.K Mathur commission
Question 144 Explanation: 
The Government of India appointed the 2nd Backward Classes Commission in 1979.It was headed by B.B.Mandal. Hence it was popularly known as Mandal Commission. It was asked to determine the criteria to identify the socially and educationally backward classes in our country and recommend steps to be taken for their advancement. One of the recommendations was that 27 per cent of government jobs be reserved for the socially and economically backward classes.
Question 145
When did the Mandal commission reports were submitted by its members?
A
1992
B
1980
C
1983
D
1995
Question 145 Explanation: 
It was in December 1980 members of Mandal Commission submitted their report to Zail Singh, the then Home Minister.
Question 146
Under which of these Prime Ministership the Mandal commission reports was reconsidered?
A
Chandra sekhar
B
Rajiv Gandhi
C
Vishwanath Pratap Singh
D
Charan Singh
Question 146 Explanation: 
Report was dusted up by the then National Front Prime Minister Vishwanath Pratap Singh (1931 – 2008) for implementation in 1990. Mandal Commission report became the single-most burning topic of controversy and heated discussion. There was total confusion in the national political arena and V.P. Singh was accused of indulging in the worst form of opportunism. No major political party supported the implementation of Mandal Commission recommendations.
Question 147
  • Assertion (A): The Mandal Commission recommendations were declared as valid by the Supreme Court in 1992.
  • Reasoning(R): The Supreme Court advised to exclude the well-to-do persons in backward classes from reservation.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 147 Explanation: 
Eleven judges of the Supreme Court heard arguments of both sides and by a majority, the Supreme Court judges in 1992 declared that the Mandal Commission recommendations were valid. At the same time the Supreme Court asked the government to modify its original order. It said that well-to-do persons among the backward classes should be excluded from getting the benefit of reservation.
Question 148
Which of these are also known as Mandal Commission case?
A
Indira Sawhney v. Union of India
B
Union of India v. Varpal Singh
C
State of Madras v. Champakam Dorairajan
D
M. R. Balaji v. State of Mysore
Question 148 Explanation: 
Indira Sawhney V. Union of India AIR 1993 SC 477 which is also known as Mandal Commission Case.
Question 149
Which of these Article deal with the backward class reservation commission in the year 1979?
A
Article 15
B
Article 18
C
Article 340
D
Article 340
Question 149 Explanation: 
On January, 1979 under the Chairmanship of B.P.Mandal, the second Backward Classes Commission under Article 340 was appointed by the Union Government headed by Prime Minister Morarji Desai.
Question 150
What was the major recommendation made by the Mandal commission?
A
45% reservation for the economically backward class.
B
27 % government jobs are reserved for the socially and economically backward classes.
C
25% of the private jobs to be reserved for the SC&ST
D
57% reservation in Govt jobs for OBC's
Question 150 Explanation: 
One of the major recommendations made by the commission was that, besides the SCs and STs, for other backward classes which constitute nearly 52% of the population, 27% government jobs are be reserved so that total reservation for all, SC, ST and OBCs, amount to 50%.
Question 151
How many percentage of reservation was declared by the Mandal commission recommendations?
A
13%
B
45%
C
51%
D
27%
Question 151 Explanation: 
On August 13, 1990, the V.P.Singh Government at the Centre issued an office memorandum accepting the Mandal Commission recommendation and announcing 27% reservation for the socially and educationally backward classes in vacancies in civil posts and services under the Government of India.
Question 152
What is the tool to achieve social justice?
A
Reservation policy
B
Independent Judiciary
C
Laws by Constitution
D
State government
Question 152 Explanation: 
In order to achieve social justice, it is often suggested that reservation policy is an important tool. We must realize that reservation in education and in jobs is one of the methods to achieve ‘Social Justice’ and not the only method. Social Justice must necessarily premise upon the idea of egalitarian philosophy that no one is inferior or superior to anyone by birth.
Question 153
  • Assertion (A): In modern India social justice is organically embedded in its ideology.
  • Reasoning(R): Radical transformation is required for India to become a modern nation.
A
Both A and R is True and R is the correct explanation of A.
B
Both A and R is True but R is not the correct explanation of A.
C
A is True but R is False.
D
Both A and R is False.
Question 153 Explanation: 
For India to become a modern nation, this radical transformation is required more than anything. That is why the social justice is organically embedded in the idea of modern India.
Question 154
Which of these Indian Constitution values protects and develop people equally?
A
Individual Rights
B
Fundamental Duties
C
Electoral process
D
Democratic values
Question 154 Explanation: 
The democratic values in Indian Constitution protect and delegate power to all the people equally to develop themselves in the socio-economic sectors.
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