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TNPSC Assistant Conservator of Forests 2022 Exam Pattern, Syllabus

TNPSC Assistant Conservator of Forests 2022 Exam Pattern, Syllabus

TNPSC Assistant Conservator of Forests 2022 Exam Pattern, Syllabus: Tamil Nadu Public Service Commission is to Conduct the Recruitment Exam for the Post of Assistant Conservator of Forests included in Group–IA Services. The Detailed Information is Given below. Candidates can Check and Download the Group 1A Service Exam Pattern & Topics PDF Link from this article below. Direct link for the complete syllabus is given in this post. Applicants can check the detailed selection process for the above recruitment from this article.

Summary For TNPSC Assistant Conservator of Forests 2022

Organization Tamil Nadu Public Service Commission
Job Category Tamil Nadu Government Jobs
Notification Advertisement No. 642 Notification No. 36/2022 Dated :13-12-2022
Post Assistant Conservator of Forests included in Group–IA Services
Vacancy 09
Start Date 13-12-2022
Closing Date 12-01-2023
Mode of Apply Online
Place Tamil Nadu

Selection Process For TNPSC ACF 2022

The Tamil Nadu Public Service Commission (TNPSC) will soon release the TNPSC Forest Apprentice Syllabus & Exam Pattern 2022 on its official website. The TNPSC Forest Apprentice Exam Pattern for the written exam has three papers. Paper-I and Paper-II will be Optional Subjects, Paper-III will be General Studies. Each paper will be conducted for 300 marks. The selection of the candidates will be done on the basis of the marks obtained by then in the written test and oral test.

Preliminary Examination

Main Written Examination

Physical Test


Certificate Verification

  • The selection will be made in four successive stages (i) Preliminary Examination for selection of candidates for admission to the Main Written Examination (ii) Main Written Examination (iii) Physical Test and (iv) Oral Test in the shape of an Interview.
  • The Preliminary Examination is meant to serve as a screening test only. The marks obtained in the Preliminary Examination by the candidates who are declared qualified for admission to the Main Written Examination will not be counted for determining their final order of merit.
  • The number of candidates to be admitted to the Main Written Examination will be 10 times the number of candidates to be recruited having regard to the rule of reservation of appointments. However, in each reservation group, all the candidates who secure the same marks as that of cut off marks of their reservation groups shall also be admitted to the Main Written Examination, though the number of candidates to be admitted to the Main Written Examination may exceed 1:10 ratio.
  • No supplemental list will be published in the place of rejected candidates (or) candidates who have failed to send documents for verification.
  • The final selection will be made based on the total marks obtained by the candidates in the Main Written Examination Paper-II, Paper-III, Paper-IV Paper-V and Oral Test taken together, subject to Rule of Reservation of Appointments.

CENTRES FOR PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION: Chennai 0101 , Madurai 1001 , Coimbatore 0201, Tirunelveli 2601, Tiruchirappalli 2501, Salem 1701, Thanjavur 1901.

CENTRE FOR MAIN EXAMINATION : The Main Written Examination will be held at Chennai (Code: 0101) only.

Exam Pattern For TNPSC Assistant Conservator Of Forest

Appearance in all the papers of the Main Written Examination, Physical Test and the Oral Test is compulsory. Candidates who have not appeared for any one or more papers of the Main Written Examination, Physical Test or Oral Test shall not be considered for further selection, even if they secure the minimum qualifying marks for selection.

Preliminary Exam Pattern For ACF TNPSC 2023

Subjects Number of Questions Maximum marks Time Duration
General Studies (Code No.003)
General Studies(Degree Standard)
175 300 3 Hours
Aptitude & Mental Ability
Test (SSLC Standard)
  • General Studies paper in the Preliminary Examination will be set both in English and Tamil languages.

Main Exam Pattern For ACF TNPSC 2023

Paper Subjects Maximum Marks Duration
Paper I Tamil Eligibility Test (SSLC Standard)
(Descriptive Type)
100 3 Hrs.
Paper II General Studies (Degree Standard)
(Descriptive type)
200 3 Hrs.
Paper III General English (SSLC Standard)
(Descriptive type)
100 3 Hrs.
Paper IV Optional Subject (Degree Standard)
(Descriptive type)
300 3 Hrs.
Paper V Optional Subject (Degree Standard)
(Descriptive type)
300 3 Hrs.
                                  Interview & Records 120
                                                                      Total 1020

Optional Subjects (Paper-IV & Paper-V) from the list of 21 Subjects is given below:
Candidates may Choose any two optional subjects from the following subjects given below with the conditions that the applicant shall not be allowed to take more than one subject in the same group.

Subjects : Forestry (Code No.283), Botany (Code No.268), Zoology (Code No.270), Physics (Code No.241), Chemistry (Code No.243), Mathematics (Code No.276), Statistics (Code No.274), Geology (Code No.239), Agriculture (Code No.284), Horticulture (Code No.278), Agricultural Engineering (Code No.280), Civil Engineering (Code No.261), Chemical Engineering (Code No.260), Computer / Computer Science Engineering (Code No.303), Electrical Engineering (Code No.259), Electronics Engineering (Code No.304), Mechanical Engineering (Code No.256), Computer Applications (Code No.288), Computer Science (Code No.286), Environmental Science (Code No.298), Veterinary Science (Code No.296)

TNPSC Assistant Conservator Of Forest Exam Syllabus

General Studies (Degree Standard) Topics for Objective Type


UNIT-I: GENERAL SCIENCE (i) Scientific Knowledge and Scientific temper – Power of Reasoning – Rote Learning Vs Conceptual Learning – Science as a tool to understand the past, present and future. (ii) Nature of Universe – General Scientific Laws – Mechanics Properties of Matter, Force, Motion and Energy – Everyday application of the basic principles of Mechanics, Electricity and Magnetism, Light, Sound, Heat, Nuclear Physics, Laser, Electronics and Communications. (iii) Elements and Compounds, Acids, Bases, Salts, Petroleum Products, Fertilizers, Pesticides. (iv) Main concepts of Life Science, Classification of Living Organisms, Evolution, Genetics, Physiology, Nutrition, Health and Hygiene, Human diseases. (v) Environment and Ecology.

UNIT-II: CURRENT EVENTS (i) History – Latest diary of events – National symbols – Profile of States – Eminent personalities and places in news – Sports Books and authors. (ii) Polity – Political parties and political system in India – Public awareness and General administration – Welfare oriented Government schemes and their utility, Problems in Public Delivery Systems. (iii) Geography – Geographical landmarks. (iv) Economics – Current socio – economic issues. (v) Science – Latest inventions in Science and Technology. (vi) Prominent Personalities in various spheres- Arts, Science, Literature and Philosophy.

UNIT- III: GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA (i) Location – Physical features – Monsoon, Rainfall, Weather and Climate – Water Resources – Rivers in India – Soil, Minerals and Natural resources – Forest and Wildlife – Agricultural pattern. (ii) Transport – Communication. (iii) Social Geography – Population density and distribution – Racial, Linguistic Groups and Major Tribes. (iv) Natural calamity – Disaster Management – Environmental pollution: Reasons and preventive measures – Climate change – Green energy.

UNIT– IV: HISTORY AND CULTURE OF INDIA (i) Indus valley civilization – Guptas, Delhi Sultans, Mughals and Marathas – Age of Vijayanagaram and Bahmani Kingdoms -South Indian history. (ii) Change and Continuity in the Socio – Cultural History of India. (iii) Characteristics of Indian culture, Unity in diversity – Race, language, custom. (iv) India as a Secular State, Social Harmony.

UNIT-V: INDIAN POLITY (i) Constitution of India – Preamble to the Constitution – Salient features of the Constitution – Union, State and Union Territory. (ii) Citizenship, Fundamental rights, Fundamental duties, Directive Principles of State Policy. (iii) Union Executive, Union legislature – State Executive, State Legislature – Local Governments, Panchayat Raj. (iv) Spirit of Federalism: Centre – State Relationships. (v) Election – Judiciary in India – Rule of law. (vi) Corruption in public life – Anti-corruption measures – Lokpal and LokAyukta – Right to Information – Empowerment of women – Consumer protection forums, Human rights charter.

UNIT-VI: INDIAN ECONOMY (i) Nature of Indian economy – Five year plan models – an assessment – Planning Commission and Niti Ayog. (ii) Sources of revenue – Reserve Bank of India – Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy – Finance Commission – Resource sharing between Union and State Governments – Goods and Services Tax. (iii) Structure of Indian Economy and Employment Generation, Land reforms and Agriculture – Application of Science and Technology in Agriculture – Industrial growth – Rural Welfare Oriented Programmes – Social problems – Population, Education, Health, Employment, Poverty.

UNIT-VII: INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (i) National Renaissance – Early uprising against British rule – Indian National Congress – Emergence of leaders – B.R.Ambedkar, Bhagat Singh, Bharathiar, V.O.Chidambaranar, Jawaharlal Nehru, Kamarajar, Mahatma Gandhi, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Thanthai Periyar, Rajaji, Subash Chandra Bose, Rabindranath Tagore and others. (ii) Different modes of Agitation: Growth of Satyagraha and Militant Movements. (iii) Communalism and partition.

UNIT- VIII: History, Culture, Heritage and Socio – Political Movements in Tamil Nadu (i) History of Tamil Society, related Archaeological discoveries, Tamil Literature from Sangam age till contemporary times. (ii) Thirukkural: (a) Significance as a Secular literature (b) Relevance to Everyday Life (c) Impact of Thirukkural on Humanity (d) Thirukkural and Universal Values – Equality, Humanism, etc (e) Relevance to Socio – Politico – Economic affairs (f) Philosophical content in Thirukkural (iii) Role of Tamil Nadu in freedom struggle – Early agitations against British Rule – Role of women in freedom struggle. (iv) Evolution of 19th and 20th Century Socio-Political movements in Tamil Nadu – Justice Party, Growth of Rationalism – Self Respect Movement, Dravidian Movement and Principles underlying both these movements, Contributions of Thanthai Periyar and Perarignar Anna.

UNIT – IX: Development Administration in Tamil Nadu (i) Human Development Indicators in Tamil Nadu and a comparative assessment across the Country – Impact of Social Reform movements in the Socio – Economic Development of Tamil Nadu. (ii) Political parties and Welfare schemes for various sections of people – Rationale behind Reservation Policy and access to Social Resources – Economic trends in Tamil Nadu – Role and impact of social welfare schemes in the Socio – Economic Development of Tamil Nadu. (iii)Social Justice and Social Harmony as the Cornerstones of Socio – Economic development. (iv) Education and Health systems in Tamil Nadu. (v)Geography of Tamil Nadu and its impact on Economic growth. (vi) Achievements of Tamil Nadu in various fields. (vii) E-governance in Tamil Nadu.

UNIT-X: APTITUDE AND MENTAL ABILITY (S.S.L.C STANDARD) (i) Simplification – Percentage – Highest Common Factor (HCF) – Lowest Common Multiple (LCM). (ii) Ratio and Proportion. (iii) Simple interest – Compound interest – Area – Volume – Time and Work. (iv) Logical Reasoning – Puzzles – Dice – Visual Reasoning – Alpha numeric Reasoning – Number Series.


UNIT – I: HISTORY: MODERN INDIA Advent of European invasion- Effect of British rule on socio-economic factors – Social reforms and religious movements – India since independence – Characteristics of Indian culture – India – a secular state – Organizations for fine arts, dance, drama, music – Growth of rationalist, Dravidian movement in Tamil Nadu – Political parties and populist schemes – National renaissance – Early uprising against British rule – 1857 Revolt – Indian National Congress – Emergence of national leaders – Growth of militant movements -Different modes of agitations – Era of different Acts & Pacts – World war & final phase struggle – Communalism led to partition – Role of Tamil Nadu in freedom struggle.

UNIT – II: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Basic concepts of Science- Natural disasters and safeguard measures – Chemistry of ores and metals – Fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides – Biochemistry and biotechnology – Polymers and plastics – Electrochemistry – Main concepts of life science – Nutrition and dietetics – Respiration – Excretion of metabolic waste – Bio – communication – Govt. policy /organizations on Science and Technology – Role, achievement & impact of Science and Technology – Energy – self sufficiency – oil exploration – Defence Research Organization – Ocean research and development – Genetics – the science of heredity – Environment, ecology, health and hygiene, Bio – diversity and its conservation – Human diseases, prevention and remedies – Communicable diseases and non – communicable diseases – Alcoholism and Drug abuse – Computer science and advancement – Genetic Engineering – Remote sensing and benefits

UNIT – III: INDIAN POLITY Constitution of India – Preamble to the constitution – Salient features of constitution – Union, state and territory – Citizenship – rights and duties – Fundamental rights – Directive principles of state policy – Fundamental duties – Human rights charter – Union executive – Union legislature – parliament – State executive – State legislature – assembly – Status of Jammu & Kashmir – Local government – panchayat raj – Indian federalism – center state relations – Judiciary in India – Rule of law /Due process of law – Emergency provisions – Civil services in India – Administrative Challenges in a welfare state – Complexities of district administration – Elections – Election Commission Union and State -Official language and Schedule – VIII – Amendments to constitution – Schedules to constitution – Administration of Union and States with special reference to Tamil Nadu.

UNIT – IV: INDIA Vs FOREIGN NATIONS India’s foreign policy – Foreign Affairs with special emphasis on India’s relations with neighbouring countries and in the region – Security and defence related matters – Nuclear policy, issues and conflicts -The Indian Diaspora and its contribution to India and the world.

UNIT – V: INDIAN GEOGRAPHY Earth and universe – Solar system – Atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere – Monsoon, rainfall, weather and climate – Water resources – rivers in India – Soil, minerals & natural resources – Natural vegetation – Forest & wildlife – Agricultural pattern, livestock & fisheries- Transport including Surface Transport & communication – Social geography – population – density and distribution – Natural calamities – disaster management – Bottom topography of Indian ocean, Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal – Climate change – impact and consequences – mitigation measures – Pollution Control.

UNIT – VI : CURRENT AFFAIRS National symbols – Profile of states – Defence, national security system and terrorism – World organizations and Pacts and Summits – Latest inventions on science & technology – Eminent personalities & places in news – Sports & games – Books & authors – Awards & honours – Cultural panorama – Latest historical events – Policy on environment and ecology – India and its neighbours – Latest terminology – Appointments – who is who? – Latest court verdicts – public opinion – Problems in conduct of public elections – Political parties and political system in India – Public awareness & general administration – Role of voluntary organizations & govt. – Welfare oriented govt. schemes, their utility – New economic policy & govt. sector – Mass media & communication.

UNIT VII : INDIAN ECONOMY Nature of Indian economy ‐ Five ‐ year plan models ‐ an assessment ‐Land reforms & agriculture ‐ Application of science in agriculture ‐ Industrial growth ‐ Capital formation and investment ‐ Role of public sector & disinvestment ‐ Development of infrastructure ‐ National income ‐ Public finance & fiscal policy ‐ Price policy & public distribution – Consumerism & Consumer protection ‐ Banking, money & monetary policy ‐ Role of Foreign Direct Investment ‐WTO – Liberalization, globalization & privatization ‐ Rural welfare oriented programmes ‐ HRD ‐ sustainable economic growth ‐ Economic trend in Tamil Nadu ‐Energy Different sources and development ‐ Finance Commission ‐ Planning Commission ‐National Development Council ‐ Poverty Alleviation Programmes – Impact of global economy on India.

UNIT VIII : SOCIO ECONOMIC ISSUES Population Explosion ‐ Unemployment issues in India & Tamil Nadu ‐ Child Labour ‐ Economic Issues (a) Poverty (b)Sanitation‐ Rural and Urban (c) Corruption in public life ‐ Anti ‐Corruption measures ‐CVC, Lok‐adalats, Ombudsman, CAG. – Illiteracy –Women Empowerment‐ Role of the Government Women Empowerment Social injustice to womenfolk ‐ Domestic violence, dowry menace, sexual assault ‐ Loss of cultural heritage due to economic development -Urbanization and its impact on the society ‐ Impact of violence on the growth of the nation – Religious violence, Terrorism and Communal violence ‐ Regional Disparities ‐Problems of Minorities ‐ Human Rights issues ‐ Right to information ‐ Central and State Commission ‐ Faith and conflict among legislature, executive, judiciary and media. ‐ Education – Linkage between Education and Economic Growth ‐ Community Development Programme ‐ Employment Guarantee Scheme ‐ Self Employment and Entrepreneurship Development ‐ Role of N.G.O’s in Social Welfare – Government Policy on Health.

Main Examination PAPER – III – General English (SSLC Standard) Topics For Descriptive 

UNIT–I: COMPREHENSION From a given passage (prose or poem) comprehend and identify the central theme and answer questions based thereon. The candidate would not be asked to evaluate or assessthe argument, its tone or style.

UNIT –II: USE OF VERBS, ARTICLES AND PREPOSITIONS Use of verbs, articles and prepositions in different contexts. Construction of sentence. Detecting common mistakes in the usage of verbs, articles and prepositions.

UNIT –III: VOCABULARY Knowledge of words, phrases and idiomatic expression in common English usage to describe different activities, situations and contexts. Differentiate between the usage and meaning of words having similar vocalization (example: flora/fauna; efficiency/efficacy/ effectiveness; price/prize; affect/effect; etiquette/ attitude etc.) and detect the commonly committed mistakes. Construction of sentence.

UNIT – IV: LETTER WRITING Writing letters on following themes: a) Seeking leave of absence from duty to attend to a personal work from the employer / official superior b) Writing a letter to the editor of the leading newspaper or magazine expressing candidate’s views on a topic of general or local importance c) Writing a letter of condolence to a friend or a colleague on the demise of a close relative or friend. d) Writing a letter congratulating a friend on his promotion or election to an office of prestige or influence or on his passing a public exam or on a happy event like wedding or birth in the friend’s family e) Writing a letter to a close friend or family member informing him or her about the candidate’s travel to an exciting place and witnessing an unusual event.

UNIT – V: PRÉCIS WRITING Read and understand a given passage, sifting the essential from the non-essential information and prepare a cohesive summary not exceeding 1/3rd the size of the given passage and give a suitable eye catching title.

UNIT – VI: ESSAY WRITING Write an essay of 250 to 300 words on a matter of topical interest (Political, economic, religious, cultural, environmental, social, socio-economic etc.)


UNIT- I: SILVICULTURE Forests – definition. Extent of forests in India and other countries. Forest types of India and Tamil Nadu – revised classification – pure and mixed stands – even and uneven aged stands. Role of forests. Factors of locality – climatic – edaphic – topographic – biotic – interaction of forest with the environment. Silviculture – objectives – scope – general principles. Regeneration – natural and artificial. Nursery techniques – containerised seedling production – techniques and methods. Vegetative and clonal propagation techniques and methods – macro and micro propagation techniques. Plantation forestry – reforestation and afforestation – maintenance of plantations – enrichment planting. Tending operations – weeding, cleaning, thinning, pruning, after care techniques; cultural operations – soil working. Silvicultural systems – clear felling, shelter wood, selection and coppice systems – improvement felling. Silviculture techniques for some important species – Tropical Species – Acacia spp (indigenous and exotics), Albizia lebbeck, Albizia falcataria, Ailanthus excelsa, Azadirachta indica, Bambusa bambos, B. balcooa, B. vulgaris, Casuarina equisetifolia, C.junghuhniana, Ceiba pentandra, Dalbergia latifolia, D. sissoo, Dendrocalamus strictus, Eucalyptus spp (E. tereticornis, E.camaldulensis, E. grandis, E. globulus), Grevillea robusta, Hardwickia binata, Leucaena leucocephala, Melia dubia, Pongamia pinnata, Populus deltoides, Prosopis juliflora, Pterocarpus santalinus, Santalum album, Syzygium cuminii, Shorea robusta, Tectona grandis, Terminalia spp.(T.chebula, T.bellerica, T.paniculata, T.tomentosa), Tamarindus indica. Temperate Species – Alnus nepalensis, Cedrus deodara, Pinus roxburghii, P. wallichiana, P. patula.

UNIT – II: FOREST MENSURATION AND MANAGEMENT Forest Mensuration – Definition and objectives. Measurement of diameter, girth, height, crown and volume of trees – methods and principles – tree stem form – form factor. Volume estimation of stand – age – basal area determinations Stem and Stump Analysis. Forest inventory – sampling techniques and methods – measurement of crops – sample plots. Yield calculation – CAI and MAI – volume, yield and stand tables preparation. Forest management – objectives and principles. Forest organisation. Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) – criteria and indicators of SFM – sustained yield – concept and management – arguments for and against sustained yield – Forest Certification – Standards, Procedures and agencies. Rotation – normal forest – increment – growth stock determination. Yield regulation – principles and concepts – Von Montel’s formula and its modifications – yield regulation in regular and irregular forests. Working plan – objectives and scope – constitution of working plan division. Enumeration and sampling. Regeneration survey – Plantation journal – divisional working plans – annual plan of operations. Joint forest management. Aerial photography and remote sensing – methods and techniques – GIS for forest management and modelling.

UNIT- III: FOREST UTILISATION AND WOOD TECHNOLOGY Logging – extraction of timber – felling rules and methods – conversion methods – conversion season. Implements used – cross cutting system – sawing – different types – extraction methods. Grading of timbers. Transportation of timbers – major and minor transportation methods Storage and sales of logs – sales depot – management of depots. Recent trends in logging – Ergonomics and RIL. Forest products – Timber – timber, fuel, pulp, paper, rayon and match. Wood Composites – plywood, particle board, fiber boards, MDF, hardboard, insulation boards – production technology. Non-timber forest products (NTFP) – collection – processing and storage of NTFP – fibres and flosses – bamboos and canes – katha and bidi leaves – essential oils and oil seeds – gums and resins – tans and dyes – drugs – insecticides – lac and shellac – tassar silk – role of tribal co-operative societies. Wood Science – Macroscopic character of wood – three dimensional structures – structure of heartwood and sapwood – hard wood and soft wood. Composition and structure of wood – chemical components and cell wall structure and formation. Anatomical structures of heartwood and softwood – reaction wood – wood and water relations. Properties of wood – physical properties – specific gravity, density of wood – mechanical properties – gross features of wood. Defects in wood – natural defects. Seasoning of wood – principles and objectives of seasoning – seasoning methods – air and kiln seasoning – seasoning defects. Wood preservation – principles and methods – wood preservatives – definition – kinds of preservatives – method of preservative application – pressure and non- pressure processes – classification of wood based on seasoning behaviour.

UNIT- IV: FOREST SURVEYING AND ENGINEERING Surveying – principles of surveying – errors in surveying – scope of surveying in forestry. Scales – linear measurement. Different methods of surveying – chain, prismatic, compass, plain table and topographic survey. Area calculation – instruments and principles – maps and map reading. Principles of forest engineering – levelling instruments – building materials and construction. Forest roads – objectives – principles and types of forest roads. Causeways and culverts. Bridges – construction of bridges – construction of timber, RCC, steel and suspension bridges – cable roadways and winches.

UNIT- V: FOREST SOILS AND SOIL CONSERVATION AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT Forest soils – Classification – Factors affecting soil formation – podzolisation and laterization. Physical, chemical and biological properties of forest soils. Problem soils – classification of waste lands – extent of waste lands in India – reclamation of alkaline, saline, water logged and other waste lands – sand dune stabilisation – wind breaks and shelter belts. Soil conservation – definition – objectives – problems – programmes and achievements. Erosion – types and causes – wind, water – management of eroded region. Role of micro organisms in soil amelioration – Use of bio-inoculants Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Phosphobacteria, Rhizobium, VAM, Frankia, and Vermicompost. Soil and water conservation measures. Watershed management – concept and methods – forest treatments – stream flow – water harvesting and conservation – ground water recharge – impact on water yield and quality.

UNIT- VI: FOREST ECONOMICS, POLICIES AND LEGISLATIONS Fundamental principles of forest economics – cost benefit analysis – NPV, IRR analysis – demand and supply estimation. Socio-economic analysis of forest productivity – attitudes and analysis of trends in national and international markets – assessment of market structure. Forest valuation – direct and indirect valuation -stumpage valuing, price size gradients – devastation value – risk management. Project formulation – project monitoring – evaluation – elements of time series analysis and forecasting – role of corporate financing. Forest policies – Necessity – Formulation of National Forest Policy. History of forest development in India – Indian Forest Policy of 1894, 1952 and 1988. NCA report on forestry – role of ICAR and ICFRE in forest research and education. National Mission on Wasteland Development. Forest Organizations and Institutes – National – FRI, IGNFA, FSI, WII, IIFM, IWST, IFGTB, SACON etc. – International – ICRAF, ITTO. Forest laws – necessity – general principles – Indian Forest Act 1927, Forest Conservation Act 1980, Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, Tamil Nadu Forest Act, 1882, Tamil Nadu Timber Transit Rules, 1968, Tamil Nadu Hill Act, 1985 – application of IPC to forests. Recent Policies and Acts – Tribal Bill, 2007, Biodiversity Bill, 2002, National Agroforestry Policy 2014. ITTO, GATT and its relevance to timber export – Rio summit and Kyoto Protocol and its relevanceto timber export.

UNIT- VII: FOREST BIOLOGY AND BOTANY Forest ecology – definition – biotic and abiotic components – forest ecosystem – forest community – concepts – succession – primary productivity – nutrient cycling. Composition of forest types in India – classification of India’s forests – species composition – association and diversity. Restoration ecology – global warming – green house effects – ozone layer depletion – acid rain – role of trees in environmental conservation. Biodiversity – Definition, origin, types – factors endangering biodiversity – biodiversity hotspots – endemism – Red Data Book. Biodiversity assessments – principles and methods. Forms of trees – structure and function – physiology and reproduction of trees – water relation – physiology in stress environments (drought, water logging, alkalinity and salinity). Seed and its importance. Characters of good quality seeds. Seed dormancy – types and causes – dormancy breaking. Seed collection- physiological maturity – Seed extraction – seed processing. Seed grading and upgrading of seed lots. Seed treatments – principles and methods – seedpelleting. Seed sampling – procedure. Seed testing – purity analysis – moisture estimation – seed germination test – quick viability test. Seed storage – orthodox and recalcitrant seeds -causes of deterioration – seed storage containers. Seed certification procedure – Seed Act and Rules – Quality control and legislation. Forest Botany – Importance of botany – taxonomic classification of plant species – identification of species – composition and association. Dendrology – principles and establishment of herbaria and arboreta. Tree Improvement – Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding – Definition and concepts – Steps in treeimprovement – Variation and selection – Progeny Evaluation Test (PET) – Candidate Tree, Plus Tree, Elite trees – use of provenances and seed sources – heritability and genetic gains – hybrids in tree improvement – heterosis exploitation. Seed production Area and seed orchards – types and establishment. In situ and ex situ gene conservation. Exotics – role of exotic forest trees in India – application of biotechnological methods in forestry.

UNIT -VIII: WILDLIFE BIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Wildlife and wild animals – food chain – prey and predator relationship. Introduction to wildlife management. Ecology and biology of wildlife – principles and techniques of management – Man and Biosphere (MAB) programme – wildlife habitats. Census – methods and application – land tenure system. Major wildlife species in India and their broad study. Wildlife conservation – policies and legal measures – sanctuaries – national parks – biosphere reserves. Ornithology – bird habitats – bird species of India – avian extinction – causes and management. Role of NGOs and others in avian fauna conservation – beneficial and harmful roles of birds. Herpatology – definition and uses. Man and animal interaction – Impact and management. Ecotourism and Recreation Forestry. Management of captive wildlife – captive breeding – diseases of wildlife and their management.

UNIT- IX: FOREST PROTECTION Role of forest protection in Indian forestry. Injuries caused by various agencies – by human beings, plants, animals, insects, birds, adverse climatic factors. Forest fire – beneficial and adverse causes – fire protection methods and rehabitation. Pests and diseases of economic trees – control measures for pests and diseases for major tree species – biological, chemical and integrated pest and disease management methods. Termites – types and their management. Alien or invasive weeds and their management – forest encroachments and grazing.

UNIT – X: AGROFORESTRY AND SOCIAL FORESTRY Agroforestry – definition, concept and objectives. Classification of agroforestry systems – primary systems and subsystems – inheritance effects. Tree-crop interactions – above and below ground – competition for space, water, light and nutrients. Microclimatic modifications – nutrient cycling and soil fertility improvement – Allelopathy and allelochemicals. – Ecological aspects of agroforestry – benefits and limitations of agroforestry. Agroforestry practices for different agroclimatic zones of Tamil Nadu. Agroforestry practices for wasteland reclamation. Social forestry – objectives and scope and necessity – its components and implementation in local and national levels – social attitudes and community participation. JFM – principles, objectives and methodology – choice of species for agro forestry and social forestry. Urban Forestry – definition and scope – benefits – choice of tree species – planting techniques and management.


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