Human Resource Development

1. What is HRD?

The term ‘Human Resource Development’ (HRD) is used with different meanings
in different contexts. According to F.H. Harbison, human resources are “the
energies, skills, talent and knowledge of people which are, or which
potentially can or should be applied to the production of goods or the
rendering of useful services”.

2. What is the classification of HRD?

(1) Those which measure a country’s stock of human capital, and

(2) Those which measure the additions to this stock.

3. What are categories that can improve individual capabilities?

They are

(1) health facilities and services

(2) on – the – job training (including apprenticeship),

(3) formal education,

(4) study programmes for adults (e.g., Non-formal education) and extension
programmes in agriculture and

(5) migration of individuals and families in search of jobs.

4. What are the Harbison and Myers human resources indicators?

1. Number of teachers (first and second levels) per 10,000 population ;

2. Engineers and scientists per 10,000 population ;

3. Physicians and dentists per 10,000 population.

4. Pupils enrolled at first – level (primary) education as a percentage of
the estimated population aged five to fourteen inclusive ;

5. The adjusted school enrolment ratios for first and second levels

6. Pupils enrolled at second level (secondary) education, as a percentage
of the estimated population aged fifteen to nineteen inclusive….

7. Enrolment in third – level (higher education) as a percentage of the age
group twenty to twenty four

5. Which measures tells about the orientation of higher education?

1. The percentage of students enrolled in scientific and technical
faculties in a recent year ; and

2. The percentage of students enrolled in the faculties of humanities, fine
arts and law in the same year.

8. How do HRD classifies countries?

1) Underdeveloped,

2) Partially developed,

3) Semi- advanced and

4) Advanced

9. How can the level of economic development studied?

The level of economic development can be studied by making use of the
following indicators.

1. Gross National Product (GNP) per capita in United States dollars ;

2. Percentage of the active population engaged in agricultural occupation ;

3. Public expenditures on education as a percentage of national income ;

4. The percentage of the total population in the age group five to fourteen

10. How can we classify theories of human development?

(1) Manpower approach

(2) Social demand approach and

(3) Rate of return approach.

11. What is manpower approach?

· The manpower approach to educational planning assumes that manpower with
different levels and types of education is essential to attain a certain
target growth rate of GNP.

· Then, the target is divided into different sectoral contributions to GNP.
In a given year, the GNP is divided into different sectors and manpower
structure in each of the sectors is analysed.

· Then the needed manpower with different levels and types of education is

· Death, retirement and migration are taken into account to estimate the
necessary manpower. From the additional manpower requirements, enrolment
figures are worked out.

· But the post – manpower forecasts proved that the estimates are far away
from actual requirements.

· Moreover, this approach to educational planning does not say anything
about the method of financing education.

12. What is social demand approach?

Social demand approach for education can be studied by making use of the
social rate of return analysis

13. What is Rate of return approach?

· If we assume education as investment, then we may look at it as
individual investment and social investment.

· Under conditions of perfect competition, individual investment would be
undertaken if the internal rate was greater than the market rate of

· But today education and health are largely in the public sector.

· The social investment criterion is that resources are to be allocated to
levels of education and years of schooling so as to equalize the marginal
“social” rate of return on educational investment (Mark Blaug).

· It may be noted that only pecuniary (monetary) values are taken into
account while calculating the social rate of return.

· But the economic case for state education is generally made on the ground
that external or indirect benefits of education exceed the direct personal
benefits to those who are educated.

· But non-pecuniary returns to education and externalities are usually left
out in the estimates of social rate of return. This is a limitation of this

14. Describe about Indian Educational system?

· The Indian education system is marked by inequalities.

· There are differences in the rates of literacy between rural and urban
population, between men and women, between backward and non- backward
castes, between states and between districts within a state.

15. What is the problem with the educational sector?

One of the basic problems of educational sector is under – investment.

16. What is the secret behind Japan economic development?

One of the secrets of the rapid economic development of Japan is the
emphasis it laid on primary and vocational education and the allocation of
huge financial resources to these sectors.

17. What is the main factor that is leading Tamil Nadu to have good growth
in educational system for age group of 6yrs to 11yrs?

(1) Easy accessibility of schools ;

(2) Awareness among parents about the value of education ;

(3) Rising real per capita income ;

(4) Implementation of Chief Minister’s Nutritious Noon Meal Scheme and

(5) A number of inducements and concessions offered by the Government in
the form of free supply of books, free bus passes and so on.

18. What is DPEP?

District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) : The DPEP has been introduced
with the object of achieving the goal of universal primary education. It
focuses on reducing gender disparities in education

19. What is measure for non formal education and adult literacy in Tamil

1. Total Literacy campaign (TLC),

2. Post – Literacy campaign and

3. Continuing Education

20. Discuss on technical education?

· So far as technical education is concerned, self – financing colleges
dominate the scene. More than 87 percent of the students study in
self-financing colleges.

· Though this goes against the equity principle, the self-financing
colleges grow in number. Only the non – poor manage to find places in these

· These colleges do not promote the goal of equal opportunities for all. Of
late, self-financing colleges are trying to make inroads into professional
education (eg. Medical colleges) also.

21. What is special health programme?

· The Government proposed to implement from 1999 a special school health
programme called Vazhvoli Thittam (which literally means light of life
Scheme, referring to good health).

· Under the scheme, a field officer from the health department will visit
schools once in a week and examine the children.

· If necessary he will take them to a Primary Health Centre for treatment.

· To make this scheme effective, teachers are also trained in the symptoms
of the disease so that they can report to the medical officers visiting the

· They can also teach subjects on health education.

22. What is economics of health?

· Economics of Health is similar to economics of education in many

· Health expenditures are also investment in people as educational

· Quite often, expenditures on education and health are joint expenditures
made in the same person.

· Improved health lengthens life expectancy of a person and this in turn
raises returns on investment in his education.

· Like education, health is consumption as well as investment. Health
improves the quality as well as the quantity of labour. Health expenditures
contribute to economic growth by reducing mortality and morbidity.

· There is a general consensus that health must be provided by the State
according to need and not according to ability to pay. This is called
“Communism in health”

23. What is HDI?

Human development Index (HDI) is a holistic measure of living levels. The
human development Report (1977) describes human development as follows : “
the process of widening people’s choices and the level of well – being they
achieve are at the core of the notion of human development. But regardless
of the level of development, the three essential choices for people are to
lead a long and healthy life, to acquire knowledge and to have access to
the resources needed for a decent standard of living”.

24. What is Gender Related Development Index?

GDI adjusts the HDI to reflect the inequalities between men and women. The
three measures used related to

(1) Female life expectancy,

(2) Female adult literacy and gross enrolment ratio and

(3) Female per capita income

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