Cultural Syncretism: Bhakti Movement in India Online Test 11th History Lesson 8 Questions in English

Cultural Syncretism: Bhakti Movement in India Online Test 11th History Lesson 8 Questions in English

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Question 1
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Vedic religion came with the advent of Aryan speaking peoples to India
  2. Mother goddess worship had its origins in Harappa.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 1 Explanation: 
As a country with a long history, religion in India developed by interacting with various traditions. Vedic religion, which came with the advent of Aryan speaking peoples to India, absorbed many elements from the Indus civilization. Mother goddess worship had its origins in Harappa
Question 2
Which of the following is not a prime Vedic god?
A
Indra
B
Varuna
C
Siva
D
Agni
Question 2 Explanation: 
An image found in the Indus script has been identified as that of Siva. The prime Vedic gods were Indra, Varuna, Agni, etc. and it was only later that the worship of Siva and Vishnu developed. In the mid-first millennium before the Common Era (B.C.) two great religions emerged in the Indo-Gangetic valley: Buddhism and Jainism (apart from other heterodox religions such as Ajivika) which challenged the orthodox Vedic religious practices.
Question 3
The Eighth Thirumurai consists of the hymns of_______
A
Thirunavukkarasar
B
Thirugnanasambandar
C
Sundarar
D
Manickavasakar
Question 3 Explanation: 
The bhakti literature, mostly puranas and hagiographical texts, provide information about the religious conflicts in Tamilnadu. Thevaram consists of the hymns by the three Nayanmars: Appar (Thirunavukkarasar), Sambandar (Thirugnanasambandar) and Sundarar. Together these constitute the seven of the twelve Saiva Thirumurais. The Eighth Thirumurai consists of the hymns of Manickavasakar.
Question 4
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Periyapuranam by Sekkizhar which narrates the stories of the sixtythree Nayanmars
  2. The hymns of the Vaishnava saints, Azhwars, are compiled as Nalayira Divya Prabandham
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 4 Explanation: 
Periyapuranam by Sekkizhar which narrates the stories of the sixtythree Nayanmars is an important source for the study of the Bhakti movement. The hymns of the Vaishnava saints, Azhwars, are compiled as Nalayira Divya Prabandham. The importance of the bhakti poems lie in the fact that they are still read, sung and revered by people, and they also form an important part of Tamil literary tradition. Epigraphical sources and iconography also provide much information.
Question 5
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Mahendravarma Pallava I, a Jain by faith, persecuted those belonging to other religions
  2. Appar, a Jaina in his early life, called Darmasena, later turned to Saivism under the influence of his sister
  3. Appar made Mahendravarma to follow Saivism
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 5 Explanation: 
Mahendravarma Pallava I, a Jain by faith, persecuted those belonging to other religions. Appar, a Jaina in his early life, called Darmasena, later turned to Saivism under the influence of his sister. Mahendravarma at the instance of his Jaina advisers tried to reconvert Appar first by persuasion and then by persecution. But eventually it ended in the king himself conversion to Saivism.
Question 6
Which among the following king was reconverted to Saivism by Thirugnanasambandar?
A
Mahendravarma Pallava I
B
Mahendravarma Pallava II
C
Maravarman Arikesari
D
Ilanchetchenai
Question 6 Explanation: 
According to tradition, Sambandar defeated the Jains in a theological debate and consequently his opponents were impaled. Maravarman Arikesari (640- 670), also known as Koon Pandyan, who converted from Saivism to Jainism, was later re-converted under the influence of Sambandar. According to a Saivite legend, after his re-conversion, he ordered a massacre of Jains in Samantham, a village in Madurai district.
Question 7
Which of the following statement about Kabir is correct?
  1. He was probably a weaver
  2. He is Said to be a disciple of Ramananda, he learnt Vedanta philosophy from him
  3. His iconoclastic poetry which ridiculed ostentatiousness and ritual, and emphasized the universality of god won many adherents.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 7 Explanation: 
Kabir is probably the most important cultural figure of medieval India. His iconoclastic poetry which ridiculed ostentatiousness and ritual, and emphasized the universality of god won many adherents. Little concrete historical evidence is available on his life. He was probably a weaver. Said to be a disciple of Ramananda, he learnt Vedanta philosophy from him.
Question 8
According to the popular Tazkirah-i-Auliya-i-Hind, Kabir was a disciple of_______
A
Guru Nanak
B
Ramananda
C
Shaikh Taqi
D
Ravidas
Question 8 Explanation: 
According to the popular Tazkirah-i-Auliya-i-Hind (Lives of Muslim Saints), Kabir was a disciple of the Muslim Sufi, Shaikh Taqi. Kabir was a religious radical who denounced with equal zest the narrowness of sectarianism, both Hindu and Islam.
Question 9
Between which century Ravidas existed?
A
14th to 15th century
B
15th to 16th century
C
16th to 17th century
D
12th to 13th century
Question 9 Explanation: 
Ravidas was a poet saint of the bhakti movement during the 15th to 16th century. Venerated as a guru (teacher) in the regions of Punjab, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, the devotional songs of Ravidas made a lasting impact upon the bhakti movement.
Question 10
Ravidas is believed to be born in which family?
A
Weaver
B
Tanner
C
Farmer
D
Royal family
Question 10 Explanation: 
The life details of Ravidas are uncertain and contested. Most scholars believe he was born in a family of tanners.
Question 11
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Ravidas was one of the disciples of the bhakti saint poet Ramananda.
  2. Ravidas spoke against social divisions of caste and gender, and promoted unity in the pursuit of personal spiritual freedoms
  3. Ravidas’ devotional songs were included in the Sikh Scriptures
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 11 Explanation: 
Ravidas was one of the disciples of the bhakti saintpoet Ramananda. Ravidas’ devotional songs were included in the Sikh Scriptures. Ravidas spoke against social divisions of caste and gender, and promoted unity in the pursuit of personal spiritual freedoms.
Question 12
Who among the following is the founder of Sikh religion?
A
Guru Ramdas
B
Guru Nanak
C
Guru Govind Singh
D
Guru Arjun Das
Question 12 Explanation: 
The Saint Guru Nanak with the biggest institutional influence was Guru Nanak (1469–1539) who founded the Sikh religion which shows undoubted syncretic influence.
Question 13
How Gurus lead the Sikhism?
A
Nine
B
Ten
C
Eight
D
Seven
Question 13 Explanation: 
Over two centuries, under the leadership of its ten gurus, Sikhism expanded swiftly in the Punjab region winning numerous adherents.
Question 14
Who was the last guru of Sikhism?
A
Guru Ramdas
B
Guru Govind Singh
C
Guru Granth Sahib
D
Guru Nanak
Question 14 Explanation: 
Sikh teachings resulted in the creation of a strong sense of community. The politics of the times created conflicts with the Mughal empire leading to persecution which resulted in the martyrdom of its gurus. Guru Govind Singh was the last guru.
Question 15
The teaching of Guru Nanak is______
A
Adi Nanak
B
Adi Granth
C
Adi Sahib
D
Adi Ramdas
Question 15 Explanation: 
After the last Guru Govind singh, the Granth Sahib was considered the guru. While the teachings of Guru Nank is the Adi Granth.
Question 16
Who’s teachings are incorporated in Guru Granth Sahib?
  1. Ramananda
  2. Namadeva
  3. Sheikh Farid
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 16 Explanation: 
The Guru Granth Sahib, part from the teachings of its other gurus, incorporates the writings of many Bhakti poets and Sufi saints such as Ramananda, Namadeva, Kabir and Sheikh Farid.
Question 17
Where does Chaitanya belong to?
A
Telangana
B
Bengal
C
Tamil Nadu
D
Karnataka
Question 17 Explanation: 
Chaitanya of Bengal represents an aspect of the bhakti movement that is very different from that seen in the lives and teachings of Kabir and his successors.
Question 18
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Chaitanya’s concern was only to exalt the superiority of Krishna over all other deities.
  2. He popularised the practice of group devotional singing accompanied by ecstatic dancing
  3. Chaitanya, made disciples from all classes.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 18 Explanation: 
Chaitanya’s concern, unlike that of Kabir, was not with bringing people to an understanding of a God, beyond all creeds and formulations; it was to exalt the superiority of Krishna over all other deities. It was, in other words, a revivalist, not a syncretic movement, a return to a worship of Vishnu under one of his most appealing forms, the loving ecstatic Krishna. The Bengal Vaishnavites did not try to reform Hinduism. Instead, they emphasized devotion to Krishna. Chaitanya, however, made disciples from all classes. He popularised the practice of group devotional singing accompanied by ecstatic dancing. His movement became popular in Bengal and Orissa.
Question 19
To which state does Namadeva belong?
A
Bengal
B
Rajasthan
C
Maharashtra
D
Telangana
Question 19 Explanation: 
Namadeva, a son of a tailor and an inhabitant of the village of Naras-Vamani in Satara district of Maharashtra.
Question 20
Under whom Namadeva was converted to the path of bhakti?
A
Guru Govind Singh
B
Janadeva
C
Guru Ramdas
D
Guru Ravidas
Question 20 Explanation: 
Under the influence of Saint Janadeva, Namadeva was converted to the path of bhakti. A staunch devotee of Vitthala of Pandarpur, Namdeva spent much of his time in worship along with his followers, chanting mostly in his own verse.
Question 21
Where does Ramananda born?
A
Ahmedabad
B
Allahabad
C
Lucknow
D
Hyderabad
Question 21 Explanation: 
Ramananda was of Ramanuja’s philosophical thought. Ramananda was born at Prayag (Allahabad) and received his higher education in Hindu religious philosophy at Banaras and joined the school of Ramanuja as a preacher.
Question 22
Which of the following statement about Ramananda is correct?
  1. Ramananda introduced radical changes in Vaishnavism by founding his own sect based on the doctrine of love and devotion to Rama and Sita.
  2. He rejected caste system, particularly the supremacy of Brahmins as the sole custodians of Hindu religion.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 22 Explanation: 
Ramananda visited the holy places of North India and preached Vaishnavism. Ramananda introduced radical changes in Vaishnavism by founding his own sect based on the doctrine of love and devotion to Rama and Sita. He preached equality before God. He rejected caste system, particularly the supremacy of Brahmins as the sole custodians of Hindu religion.
Question 23
How Women disciples does Ramananda had?
A
10
B
12
C
2
D
5
Question 23 Explanation: 
The people from the lower strata of the society became Ramananda followers. His twelve disciples included Ravidas, Kabir and two women. His followers were divided into conservative and radical schools.
Question 24
Where does Mirabai born?
A
Uttar Pradesh
B
Madhya Pradesh
C
Rajasthan
D
Punjab
Question 24 Explanation: 
Mirabai was born in Kudh of Merta district of Rajasthan. She was married to Bhoj Raj, son of Rana Sanga of Mewar. Mirabai preached the worship of God in the name of Krishna and stressed that no one should be deprived of His divine grace on the ground of birth, poverty, age and sex.
Question 25
Who was the founder of Jodhpur city?
A
Rana Sanga
B
Rana Jodhaji
C
Bhoj Raj
D
Sur Das
Question 25 Explanation: 
Mirabai was the great granddaughter of Rana Jodhaji, founder of Jodhpur. Her devotional songs and lyrics constitute a rich cultural heritage. Her bhajans are sung with fervour to this day. Her teachings carried the message of divine worship to almost every Hindu household.
Question 26
Who was popularly known as the blind bard of Agra?
A
Sur Das
B
Tuka Ram
C
Mirabai
D
Chaitanya
Question 26 Explanation: 
Sur Das lived at the court of Akbar and was popularly known as the blind bard of Agra. Sur Das is believed to have been a disciple of Vallabacharya who was a Vaishnava preacher in the Sultanate period.
Question 27
Who was the founder of Pushtimarga?
A
Tuka Ram
B
Sur Das
C
Vallabhacharya
D
Mirabai
Question 27 Explanation: 
Vallabhacharya was the founder of Pushtimarga (way of grace). Sur Das preached religion of love and devotion to a personal God.
Question 28
Which of the following is/are works of Sur Das?
  1. Sur Sagar
  2. Sur Saravali
  3. Sahitya Lehari
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 28 Explanation: 
According to Sur Das, love is a sublimated theme representing the irresistible attraction of the gopis of Brindavan towards Krishna. The intensity of passion displayed by the gopis is an expression of the natural attraction of the human spirit towards the divine soul. Sur Das popular works are Sur Sagar, Sur Saravali and Sahitya Lehari.
Question 29
Which Sur Das work is story of Lord Krishna from the birth to the departure for Mathura?
A
Sur Sagar
B
Sur Saravali
C
Sahitya Lehari
D
Satymavae
Question 29 Explanation: 
Sur Das monumental work Sur Sagar or Sur’s Ocean is a story of Lord Krishna from the birth to the departure for Mathura.
Question 30
In which year Tuka Ram born?
A
1608
B
1600
C
1526
D
1664
Question 30 Explanation: 
Tuka Ram was born in 1608 in a village near Poona, Maharashtra. According to him, it was not possible to enjoin spiritual joy with worldly activities.
Question 31
Who among the following was the contemporary of Shivaji?
A
Sur Das
B
Tuka Ram
C
Mirabai
D
Vallabhacharya
Question 31 Explanation: 
Tuka Ram was a contemporary of Maratha Shivaji and saints like Eknath and Ramdas. After his early life as a trader he started spending his time singing devotional songs in praise of his favourite deity Lord Vithoba of Pandarpur.
Question 32
Which of the following statement about Tuka Ram is correct?
  1. Tuka Ram believed in a formless God.
  2. He stressed the all-pervasiveness of God
  3. He rejected Vedic sacrifices, ceremonies, pilgrimages, idol worship, etc.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 32 Explanation: 
Tuka Ram believed in a formless God. According to him, it was not possible to enjoin spiritual joy with worldly activities. He stressed the all-pervasiveness of God. He rejected Vedic sacrifices, ceremonies, pilgrimages, idol worship, etc. He also preached the virtue of piety, forgiveness and peace of mind.
Question 33
In which language Tuka Ram wrote his abhangas?
A
Bengali
B
Tamil
C
Hindi
D
Marathi
Question 33 Explanation: 
Tuka Ram spread the message of equality and brotherhood. He tried to foster Hindu-Muslim Unity. Some of his verses are devoted to this theme. He wrote his abhangas in Marathi.
Question 34
Which of the following is correct about Impact of the Bhakti Movement?
  1. Salvation which was previously considered attainable, only by people of the first three orders in the social hierarchy became available to everyone
  2. Literature on devotional songs in regional languages became profuse
  3. The poet saints of Bhakti movement championed a wide range of philosophical positions, ranging from theistic dualism of Dvaita, to absolute monism of Advaita
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 34 Explanation: 
Salvation which was previously considered attainable, only by people of the first three orders in the social hierarchy became available to everyone. Bhakti movement provided women and members of the lower strata of the society an inclusive path to spiritual salvation. Literature on devotional songs in regional languages became profuse. The poetsaints of this movement championed a wide range of philosophical positions, ranging from theistic dualism of Dvaita, to absolute monism of Advaita. Much of the regional practices such as community singing, chanting together of deity names, conducting festivals, going on pilgrimages, performing rituals relating to Saivism, and Vaishnavism have survived to this day.
Question 35
Which Saiva Siddhanta text contains separate section called ‘parapakkam’?
A
Silapathigaram
B
Sinthamani
C
Sivagnana Sithiyar
D
Agananooru
Question 35 Explanation: 
The philosophical treatises such as the Saiva Siddhanta texts contain elaborate disputations of Buddhist and Jain philosophies. Some of the Saiva Siddhanta texts, such as Sivagnana Sithiyar, contain a separate section called ‘parapakkam’ which essentially refute Buddhist and Jain theological arguments.
Question 36
By which century Buddhism and Jainism were effectively defeated?
A
13th
B
11th
C
12th
D
9th
Question 36 Explanation: 
Despite the sophisticated philosophical disputation, it was the nature of the Bhakti movement and the royal patronage that it received that ultimately led to the downfall of Buddhism and Jainism. By the eleventh century, both these religions were effectively defeated.
Question 37
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. While Buddhism was wiped out in the Tamil country as in much of India Tamil speaking Jain communities have survived in pockets in Tamil Nadu to this day
  2. To this day one can see decapitated statues of Buddha and the Jain thirthankaras in many parts of Tamil Nadu.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 37 Explanation: 
While Buddhism was wiped out in the Tamil country as in much of India Tamil speaking Jain communities have survived in pockets in Tamil Nadu to this day. Temples and shrines were destroyed or fell into disuse while many artefacts were lost due to neglect and vandalism. To this day one can see decapitated statues of Buddha and the Jain thirthankaras in many parts of Tamil Nadu.
Question 38
Which of the following religions have Centralised idea of renunciation?
  1. Buddhism
  2. Saivite
  3. Jainism
  4. Vaishnavite
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
2, 4
Question 38 Explanation: 
Despite this, the orthodox and heterodox interacted with each other and they have left a mark. The idea of renunciation, which is central to Buddhism and Jainism, was adopted by Saivites and Vaishnavites.
Question 39
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Bhakti exponents posited that, unlike the fatalistic religions of Buddhism and Jainism, devotion to Vishnu and Siva could overcome fate.
  2. Vedic Hinduism was transformed by the conflict with Buddhism and Jainism.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 39 Explanation: 
In response to the simplicity and life negation of the heterodox sects bhakti movement celebrated life with festivals and rituals. Similarly, the high value accorded to vegetarian food habits and the prohibition on killing of animals may be traced to this influence. The supremacy accorded to the Tamil language was a response to the fact that the heterodox religions used north India Prakrits. Most importantly, bhakti exponents posited that, unlike the fatalistic religions of Buddhism and Jainism, devotion to Vishnu and Siva could overcome fate. Thus, Vedic Hinduism was transformed by the conflict with Buddhism and Jainism.
Question 40
Who expounded the philosophy of qualified monism?
A
Ramanujar
B
Kabir
C
Tuk Ram
D
Ramdas
Question 40 Explanation: 
When the popularity of the bhakti movement in south India reached its peak, the doctrine of bhakti was expounded at the philosophical level by a series of Vaishnava scholars and saints. Ramanujar expounded the philosophy known as Vishistadvaita, or qualified monism. His teaching qualified Adi Sankara’s emphasis on absolute monism or the oneness of the ‘supreme’ and the ‘souls’.
Question 41
By which century Islam spread to large part of India?
A
10th
B
13th
C
12th
D
14th
Question 41 Explanation: 
The advent of Islam with the Turkish conquest posed a challenge to Vedic scholars and priests. By the end of the fourteenth century Islam had spread to large parts of India.
Question 42
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. In parallel with the Bhakti movement in Hinduism, Sufism played a similar role in Islam.
  2. By the 12th century, Sufism had become an influential aspect of Islamic social life as it extended over almost the entire Muslim community
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 42 Explanation: 
In parallel with the Bhakti movement in Hinduism, Sufism played a similar role in Islam. By the 12th century, Sufism had become an influential aspect of Islamic social life as it extended over almost the entire Muslim community.
Question 43
What does the term ‘Mashuq’ means in Sufism?
A
Lovers
B
Love
C
Beloved
D
Order
Question 43 Explanation: 
Sufis believed that God is ‘Mashuq’ (beloved) and Sufis are the ‘Ashiqs’ (lovers). Sufism crystallized into various ‘Silsilahs’ or orders.
Question 44
Which of the following is not a Sufi order?
A
Chistis
B
Qadiriyahs
C
Quran
D
Naqshbandis
Question 44 Explanation: 
Sufism took root in both rural and urban areas, and exercised a deep social, political and cultural influence on the masses. The most popular Sufi orders were Chistis, Suhrawardis, Qadiriyahs and Naqshbandis.
Question 45
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Sufism ebelled against all forms of religious formalism, orthodoxy, falsehood and hypocrisy, and endeavoured to create a new world order in which spiritual bliss was the ultimate goal.
  2. Sufis regarded God as the supreme beauty and believed that one must admire it, take delight in His thought and concentrate his attention on Him only.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 45 Explanation: 
Sufis regarded God as the supreme beauty and believed that one must admire it, take delight in His thought and concentrate his attention on Him only. It rebelled against all forms of religious formalism, orthodoxy, falsehood and hypocrisy, and endeavoured to create a new world order in which spiritual bliss was the ultimate goal. At a time when struggle for political power was the prevailing trend, the Sufi saints reminded people of their moral obligations.
Question 46
Which of the following is correct about Features of Bhakti Movement?
  1. They advocated the principle of Universal brotherhood
  2. They criticized idol worship.
  3. They stressed the singing of hymns with deep devotion.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 46 Explanation: 
Salient Features of Bhakti Movement: The bhakti reformers preached the principles of monotheism (oneness of God) 2. They believed in freedom from the cycle of life and death. They advocated that the salvation could be attained only by deep devotion and faith in God. 3. They emphasized the self-surrender for obtaining the bliss and grace of God. 4. Gurus could act as guides and preceptors. 5. They advocated the principle of Universal brotherhood. 6. They criticized idol worship. 7. They stressed the singing of hymns with deep devotion. 8. Arguing that all living beings, including humans, were god’s children, they strongly denounced caste system which divided people according to their birth. 9. They condemned ritualism, pilgrimages and fasts. 10. They did not consider any language as sacred and composed poems in the language of the common people.
Question 47
Match the following
  1. Birth of Mirabai                             1. 1608
  2. Birth of Ramananda                      2. 1469
  3. Birth of Guru Nanak                      3. 1400
  4. Birth of Tukaram                           4. 1498
A
2, 3, 4, 1
B
4, 2, 1, 3
C
4, 3, 2, 1
D
3, 2, 1, 4
Question 48
Wali is the term used by______
A
Muslim saint
B
Buddhist
C
Hindu ascetic
D
Sikh guru
Question 48 Explanation: 
The terms Sufi, Wali, Darvesh and Fakir are used for Muslim saints who attempted to develop their intuitive faculties through ascetic exercises, contemplation, renunciation and self-denial.
Question 49
Madhavacharya belonged to the philosophical school of __________
A
Dvaita
B
Advaita
C
Visistadvaita
D
Pushti marga
Question 49 Explanation: 
While Chaitanya of Bengal belonged to the philosophical school of Madhavacharya (a chief advocate of Dvaita school of vedhanta).
Question 50
Who was first to preach his doctrine of devotion in Hindi?
A
Ravidas
B
Ramananda
C
Kabir
D
Namadev
Question 50 Explanation: 
Ramananda was the first to preach his doctrine of devotion in Hindi, the vernacular language. It gained him a good deal of popularity among the people of all classes.
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