Evolution of Society in South India Online Test 11th History Lesson 2 Questions in English

Evolution of Society in South India Online Test 11th History Lesson 2 Questions in English

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Question 1

Which of the following statement is correct?

  1. Satavahanas established a powerful kingdom in Deccan region in the first century BCE
  2. Cholas, the Cheras and the Pandyas were contemporaries of Satavahanas
  3. Asoka’s inscriptions belong to third century BCE
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 1 Explanation: 
In the Deccan region, encompassing major parts of present day Andhra, Karnataka and Maharashtra, the Satavahanas established a powerful kingdom in the first century BCE. In the south, the three family ruling houses, the Cholas, the Cheras and the Pandyas were their contemporaries, ruling the fertile parts of Tamizhagam. But the Tamil rulers started two centuries earlier as they figure in Asoka’s inscriptions of the third century BCE. There were many common things as well as differences in the polity and society of the Deccan and Tamil regions.
Question 2

Which of the following statement about Stupa is correct?

  1. The stupa is a heap of clay that evolved out of earthen funerary mounds, in which the ashes of the dead were buried
  2. Buddhist stupas evolved out of the burial of the ashes of the mortal remains of the Buddha.
  3. Buddhist sacred architecture originated with the eight stupas where the ashes were divided
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 2 Explanation: 
The stupa is a heap of clay that evolved out of earthen funerary mounds, in which the ashes of the dead were buried. Buddhist stupas evolved out of the burial of the ashes of the mortal remains of the Buddha. Buddhist sacred architecture originated with the eight stupas where the ashes were divided. Hemispherical shape, the stupa symbolizes the universe; and the Buddha represents the emperor of the spiritual universe. The stupa has a path around it for devotional circumambulation.
Question 3

Ashokan inscriptions in Andhra-Karnataka regions are written in________ language 

A
Prakrit
B
Brahmi
C
Tamil-Brahmi
D
Sanskrit
Question 3 Explanation: 
The Ashokan inscriptions, written in Prakrit, found in Andhra-Karnataka regions. The Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions found in the caves of Tamil Nadu and Kerala such as in Mangulam, Jambai, and Pugalur.
Question 4

Which of the following is not a Classical Sangam corpus?

  1. Tholkappiyam
  2. eight anthologies
  3. Pathinen Kilkanakku
  4. five epics
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
3, 4
D
1, 2, 3, 4
Question 4 Explanation: 
The Classical Sangam corpus consists of Tholkappiyam, the eight anthologies (Ettuththokai), Paththuppattu. Tholkappiyam, attributed to Tholkappiyar, is the earliest extant Tamil grammatical text dealing not only with poetry but also the society and culture of the times. The Pathinen Kilkanakku (18 minor works) and the five epics belong to post-Sangam times (fourth to sixth century CE) and describe a different social and cultural set-up.
Question 5
Match the following
  1. Arthasastra                        1. Pliny the Elder
  2. Natural History                 2. Satavahana king Hala
  3. Gatha Saptasati                   3. Kautilya
A
3, 2, 1
B
3, 1, 2
C
2, 1, 3
D
1, 3, 2
Question 5 Explanation: 
The Arthasastra, the treatise on economy and statecraft authored by Kautilya. Gatha Saptasati, a Prakrit text composed by the Satavahana king Hala. Pliny the Elder’s Natural History, first century CE.
Question 6

Which century does the Ptolemy’s Geography belongs to?

A
1st century CE
B
2nd century BC
C
2nd century CE
D
1st century BC
Question 6 Explanation: 
The Periplus of Erythrean Sea, an ancient Greek text of the first century CE. Ptolemy’s Geography, second century CE. Vienna Papyrus G 40822, a Greek document datable to the second century CE. A Roman Map called Peutingerian Table.
Question 7

Which rock edicts of Ashoka lists the Tamil ruling houses?

A
Rock Edict I
B
Rock Edict II
C
Rock Edict IV
D
Rock Edict VIII
Question 7 Explanation: 
The Asokan edicts (c. 270-30 BCE) present for the first time a picture of the political condition in south India. Rock Edict II lists the Tamil ruling houses Cholas, Pandyas, Keralaputras and Satiyaputra as neighbour rulers, lying beyond his domain, where he is said to have made provision for two types of medical treatment: medical treatment for both humans and animals.
Question 8

Which of the following is not one of the Eight Anthologies?

A
Natrinai
B
Patitruppathu
C
Pattinappalai
D
Kalithogai
Question 8 Explanation: 
The Eight Anthologies are 1. Natrinai; 2. Kurunthogai; 3. Aingurunuru; 4. Patitruppathu; 5. Paripadal; 6. Kalithogai; 7. Akananuru; 8. Purananuru
Question 9

Which of the following is not one of the Pathupattu?

A
Kurinjipattu
B
Thirumurugatrupatai
C
Thirukural
D
Malaipadukadam
Question 9 Explanation: 
Pathupattu (ten long songs): 1. Thirumurugatrupatai; 2. Porunaratrupatai; 3. Sirupanatruppatai; 4. Perumpanatruppatai; 5. Mullaipattu; 6. Maduraikanchi; 7. Nedunalvadai; 8. Kurinjipattu; 9. Pattinappalai; 10. Malaipadukadam.
Question 10

Thirukkural, and Naladiyar comes under________

A
Patinen Kilkanakku
B
Patinen Melkanakku
C
Pathupattu
D
Eight Anthologies
Question 10 Explanation: 
Patinen Kilkanakku texts, which are post-Sangam works, include eighteen texts, which mostly deal with ethics and moral codes. The most important of them are Thirukkural, and Naladiyar. Silappathikaram and Manimekalai are the two important epics useful for insights into cultural and religious history.
Question 11

Who among the following are Women Sangam age poets?

  1. Kaakkaipadiniyar
  2. Avvaiyar
  3. Paarimakalir 
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 11 Explanation: 
Of the over 450 poets who contributed to the corpus of Sangam poetry about thirty are women. They composed more than 150 poems. The most prominent Avvaiyar, Kaakkaipadiniyar, Kavarpendu, Paarimakalir, Allur Nanmullaiyar, Nalveliyaar, Okkur Masaathiyar.
Question 12

Which of the following statement is correct?

  1. The Satavahanas emerged in the first century BCE in the Deccan region
  2. They ruled over parts of Andhra, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh
  3. The work of Pliny talks about 30 walled towns, a large army, cavalry and elephant force in the Andhra country
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 12 Explanation: 
The Satavahanas emerged in the first century BCE in the Deccan region. They ruled over parts of Andhra, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh. From recent archaeological evidence it is understood that the Satavahanas started to rule in the Telengana area and then moved to Maharashtra to rule in the Godavari basin with Prathistan (Paithan in Maharashtra) as their capital. Later they moved eastwards to control coastal Andhra also. The work of Pliny talks about 30 walled towns, a large army, cavalry and elephant force in the Andhra country.
Question 13

Who was the greatest of the Satavahana kings?

A
Nahapana
B
Gautamiputra Satakarni
C
Vasishthiputra Pulumavi
D
Yagnashri Satakarni
Question 13 Explanation: 
Gautamiputra Satakarni was the greatest of the Satavahana kings. He defeated the Shaka ruler Nahapana and reissued the coins of Nahapana with his own royal insignia. The inscription of his mother Gautami Balashri at Nashik mentions him as the conqueror of the Shakas, Pahlavas, and Yavanas. He is also said to have performed the prestigious Vedic asvamedha sacrifice.
Question 14

Who among the following expanded the frontiers of the Satavahana Empire?

A
Gautamiputra Satakarni
B
Vasishthiputra Pulumavi
C
Yagnashri Satakarni
D
Nahapana
Question 14 Explanation: 
Vasishthiputra Pulumavi, the successor of Gautamiputra Satakarni, expanded the frontiers of the Satavahana Empire. The coins issued by him are found scattered in many parts of south India. Yagnashri Satakarni was another famous ruler who issued coins with a ship motif, indicating the importance of the overseas trade during his reign.
Question 15

Who is credited with the writing of Gatha Sattasai?

A
Vasishthiputra Pulumavi
B
King Hala
C
Yagnashri Satakarni
D
Gautamiputra Satakarni
Question 15 Explanation: 
King Hala is credited with the writing of Gatha Sattasai, a collection of 700 love poems. Written in Maharshtri Prakrit dialect, it has themes similar to those found in the Tamil Sangam poetry.
Question 16

During which century Satavahana Empire declined?

A
1st century CE
B
3rd century CE
C
3rd century BC
D
1st century BC
Question 16 Explanation: 
The Satavahana Empire declined around the 3rd century CE and was replaced by the Ikshvakus, followed by the Pallavas, in Andhra and the Kadambas in northern Karnataka.
Question 17

Which of the following statement is correct?

  1. Offering land grants was an important development of the Satavahana times
  2. The beneficiaries of these grants were mostly Buddhists and Brahmins
  3. The Naneghat inscription refers to tax exemptions given to the lands granted to Buddhist monks
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 17 Explanation: 
Offering land grants was an important development of the Satavahana times. The beneficiaries of these grants were mostly Buddhists and Brahmins. The Naneghat inscription refers to tax exemptions given to the lands granted to Buddhist monks. Thus, we notice the beginning of priestly groups attaining higher status. These land donations created a group of people who did not cultivate, but owned land. This led to the development of land-based social hierarchy and divisions in the society.
Question 18

Which of the following statement is correct?

  1. The Cholas controlled the central and northern parts of Tamil Nadu
  2. Their core area of rule was the Kaveri delta, later known as Cholamandalam.
  3. Tiger was their emblem
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 18 Explanation: 
The Cholas controlled the central and northern parts of Tamil Nadu. Their core area of rule was the Kaveri delta, later known as Cholamandalam. Their capital was Uraiyur (near Thiruchirapalli town) and Puhar or Kaviripattinam was an alternative royal residence and chief port town. Tiger was their emblem.
Question 19

Who composed Pattinappalai?

A
Thirunavukarasu
B
Ilanchetchenai
C
Katiyalur Uruttirankannanar
D
Karikalan
Question 19 Explanation: 
Kaviripattinam attracted merchants from various regions of the Indian Ocean. Pattinappalai, composed by the poet Katiyalur Uruttirankannanar, offers elaborate descriptions of the bustling trading activity here during the rule of Karikalan.
Question 20

Pattinappalai gives a vivid account of_____ reign

A
Ilanjetchenni
B
Karikalan
C
Perunarkilli
D
Rajendra Chola
Question 20 Explanation: 
Karikalan, son of Ilanjetchenni, is portrayed as the greatest Chola of the Sangam age. Pattinappalai gives a vivid account of his reign. Karikalan’s foremost military achievement was the defeat of the Cheras and Pandyas, supported by as many as eleven Velir chieftains at Venni. He is credited with converting forest into habitable regions and developing agriculture by providing irrigation through the embankment of the Kaveri and building reservoirs.
Question 21

Which Chola king is said to have performed the Vedic sacrifice Rajasuyam?

A
Imayavaramban
B
Karikalan
C
Ilanjetchenni
D
Perunarkilli
Question 21 Explanation: 
Kaviripattinam was a flourishing port during his time. Another king, Perunarkilli is said to have performed the Vedic sacrifice Rajasuyam. Karikalan’s death was followed by a succession dispute between the Puhar and Uraiyur branches of the Chola royal family.
Question 22

which of the following statement is correct?

  1. The Cheras controlled the central and northern parts of Kerala and the Kongu region of Tamil Nadu
  2. Vanji was their capital and the ports of the west coast, Musiri and Tondi, were under their control.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 22 Explanation: 
The Cheras controlled the central and northern parts of Kerala and the Kongu region of Tamil Nadu. Vanji was their capital and the ports of the west coast, Musiri and Tondi, were under their control. Vanji is identified with Karur, while some scholars identify it with Tiruvanchaikkalam in Kerala. Now it is accepted by most scholars that there were two main branches of the Chera family and the Poraiya branch ruled from Karur of present-day Tamil Nadu
Question 23

Which of the following literature speaks of eight Chera kings, their territory and fame?

A
Patitrupathu
B
Silappathikaram
C
Pattinappalai
D
Vanji kalapagam
Question 23 Explanation: 
The Patitrupathu speaks of eight Chera kings, their territory and fame. The inscriptions of Pugalur near Karur mention Chera kings of three generations. Chellirumporai issued coins in his name.
Question 24

Who among the following is not a Chera king?

A
Chellirumporai
B
Imayavaramban Nedun-cheralathan
C
Chenguttuvan
D
Nedunchezhiyan
Question 24 Explanation: 
Chellirumporai issued coins in his name. Imayavaramban Nedun-cheralathan and Chenguttuvan are some of the prominent Chera kings. Nedunchezhiyan is not a Chera king.
Question 25

Which Chera king ensured the safety of the great port Musiri by putting down piracy?

A
Imayavaramban Nedun-cheralathan
B
Chenguttuvan
C
Chellirumporai
D
Nedunchezhiyan
Question 25 Explanation: 
Chenguttuvan defeated many chieftains and is said to have ensured the safety of the great port Musiri by putting down piracy. But the great north Indian expedition of Chenguttuvan mentioned in Silappathikaram is however not mentioned in the Sangam poems.
Question 26

How many years does Chenguttuvan is said to have ruled?

A
44
B
56
C
33
D
20
Question 26 Explanation: 
Chenguttuvan is said to have ruled for fifty-six years, patronising the orthodox and heterodox religions. Some Cheras issued copper and lead coins, with Tamil-Brahmi legends, imitating Roman coins. There are many other Chera coins with their bow and arrow emblem but without any writing on them.
Question 27

Which of the following was port of Pandyas?

A
Musiri
B
Thondi
C
Korkai
D
Poombhur
Question 27 Explanation: 
The Pandyas ruled from Madurai. Korkai was their main port, located near the confluence of Thampraparani with the Bay of Bengal. It was famous for pearl fishery and chank diving. Korkai is referred to in the Periplus as Kolkoi.
Question 28

What was the emblem of Pandya?

A
Tiger
B
Fish
C
Neem leaf
D
Elephant
Question 28 Explanation: 
Fish was the emblem of the Pandyas. Their coins have elephant on one side and a stylised image of fish on the other. They invaded Southern Kerala and controlled the port of Nelkynda, near Kottayam.
Question 29

Mangulam Tamil-Brahmi inscription speaks of which Pandya king?

A
Nedunchezhiyan
B
MudukudumiPeruvazhuthi
C
Erumaiyuran
D
Porunan
Question 29 Explanation: 
The Mangulam Tamil-Brahmi inscription mentions a Pandya king by name Nedunchezhiyan of the second century BCE. Maduraikanchi refers to MudukudumiPeruvazhuthi and another Nedunchezhiyan, victor of Talaiyalanganam, and a few other Pandya kings.
Question 30

Who is referred in Velvikkudi copper plates of 8th century for donating land to Brahman?

A
Nedunchezhiyan
B
Mudukudimi-Peruvazhuthi
C
Thithiyan
D
Uruttirankannanar
Question 30 Explanation: 
Mudukudimi-Peruvazhuthi is referred to in the Velvikkudi copper plates of eighth century for donating land to Brahmans. He seems to have issued coins with the legend Peruvazhuthi, to commemorate his performance of many Vedic sacrifices.
Question 31

At which battle Nedunchezhiyan won over the combined army of the Chera, the Chola 

and five Velir chieftains?

A
Mangulam
B
Talayalanganam
C
Musiri
D
Thondi
Question 31 Explanation: 
Nedunchezhiyan is praised for his victory over the combined army of the Chera, the Chola and five Velir chieftains (Thithiyan, Elini, Erumaiyuran, Irungovenman, and Porunan) at Talayalanganam.
Question 32

Who is praised as the lord of Korkai and as the overlord of the southern Paratavar?

A
Nedunchezhiyan
B
Mudukudimi-Peruvazhuthi
C
Erumaiyuran
D
Irungovenman
Question 32 Explanation: 
Nedunchezhiyan is also given credit for capturing Milalai and Mutthuru (Pudukottai district) two important places from a Vel chief. He is praised as the lord of Korkai, and as the overlord of the southern Paratavar, a martial and fishing community of the Tirunelveli coast.
Question 33

According to the thinai concept, Tamilagam was divided into____ landscapes

A
4
B
6
C
5
D
3
Question 33 Explanation: 
Sangam poems help us understand the social formation of the time. According to the thinai concept, Tamilagam was divided into five landscapes or eco-regions namely Kurinji, Marutam, Mullai, Neytal and Palai.
Question 34
Match the following
  1. Kurinji                   1. coastal land
  2. Mullai                    2. forested region
  3. Neythal                  3. riverine tract
  4. Marutham             4. hilly region
A
3, 1, 2, 4
B
4, 2, 1, 3
C
4, 2, 3, 1
D
4, 1, 2, 3
Question 34 Explanation: 
Kurinji: hilly region: hunting and gathering Marutham: riverine tract: agriculture using plough and irrigation. Mullai: forested region: pastoralism combined with shifting cultivation Neythal: coastal land: fishing and salt making. Palai: parched land. Unsuitable for cultivation and hence people took to cattle lifting and robbery.
Question 35

Which of the following statement is correct?

  1. In a way this thinai classification is said to reflect the uneven socio-economic developments of the different localities
  2. Kizhar were the heads of the villages or a small territory, later known as nadu.
  3. The Vendar were kings controlling larger, fertile territories
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 35 Explanation: 
In a way this thinai classification is said to reflect the uneven socio-economic developments of the different localities. That is seen in the political forms too. Three levels of rulers are found:1) Kizhar, 2) Velir, 3) Vendar. Kizhar were the heads of the villages or a small territory, later known as nadu. They were the chiefs of tribal communities living in specific areas. The Vendar were kings controlling larger, fertile territories.
Question 36

Which of the following statement is incorrect?

  1. The Velir, who were many in number, controlled the territories of varied geographical nature, mainly hilly and forest areas, that were in between the muvendar’s fertile territories.
  2. Chiefs like Athiyaman, Pari, Ay, Evvi and Irungo each commanded a big area, rich in natural resources.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 36 Explanation: 
The Velir, who were many in number, controlled the territories of varied geographical nature, mainly hilly and forest areas, that were in between the muvendar’s fertile territories. Chiefs like Athiyaman, Pari, Ay, Evvi and Irungo each commanded a big area, rich in natural resources. They were generous patrons of the poets and bards. They had military power and there were frequent wars among these chiefs on account of capture of cattle. On many occasions they seem to have united and confronted one or other of the three kings.
Question 37

Who among the following is mentioned as Satiyaputra in the Ashoka inscriptions?

A
Thithiyan
B
Erumaiyuran
C
Irungovenman
D
Athiyamans
Question 37 Explanation: 
Athiyamans, mentioned as Satiyaputra in the Ashoka inscriptions, became weak and did not attain the status of kings like the Chola, Pandya and Chera vendar.
Question 38

_______ speaks about day markets and night markets selling several craft goods

A
Silapathikaram
B
Manimegalai
C
Maduraikanchi
D
Mangulam inscriptions
Question 38 Explanation: 
There is evidence of craft production such as bronze vessels, beads and gold works, textiles, shell bangles and ornaments, glass, iron smithy, pottery making. Craft production was common in the major urban centres such as Arikamedu, Uraiyur, Kanchipuram, Kaviripattinam, Madurai, Korkai, and Pattanam in Kerala. Maduraikanchi speaks about day markets as well as and night markets selling several craft goods.
Question 39

___ refers to Magadha artisans, Maratha mechanics, Malva smiths and Yavana carpenters

A
Silapathikaram
B
Manimegalai
C
MaduraiKanchi
D
Pathitrupathu
Question 39 Explanation: 
The names of persons mentioned in inscriptions on pottery reveal the presence of non-Tamil speakers, mostly traders, in certain craft centres and towns. Traders from faraway regions were present in the Tamil country. Manimegalai refers to Magadha artisans, Maratha mechanics, Malva smiths and Yavana carpenters working in cooperation with Tamil craftsmen.
Question 40

Which of the following are trade related terms?

  1. Vanikan
  2. Chattan
  3. Nigama
  4. Umanar
A
1, 2, 3
B
1, 3, 4
C
2, 3, 4
D
1, 2, 3, 4
Question 40 Explanation: 
Traderelated terms such as vanikan, chattan and nigama appear in the Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions. Salt merchants called umanar, travelled in bullock carts along with their families for trade activities. Chattu referred to the itinerary or mobile merchants.
Question 41

. Which of the following statement is correct?

  1. The southern part of India, because of its easy access to the coast and location in the maritime trade route connecting the East and the West, played an important role in the overseas contacts.
  2. Roman gold and silver coins have been found in many hoards in the Coimbatore region and in many other places in south India.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 41 Explanation: 
In trade, barter system was much in vogue, though coins were also in use. Roman coins circulated as bullion. Long distance trade existed and the connections with the Roman empire and southeast Asia are in evidence at many archaeological sites. The southern part of India, because of its easy access to the coast and location in the maritime trade route connecting the East and the West, played an important role in the overseas contacts. The major early historic ports have evidence of Roman amphora, glassware and other materials suggesting active maritime activities. The wealth brought by the Romans and the arrival of foreign merchants is evidenced in archaeology as well as literature. Roman gold and silver coins have been found in many hoards in the Coimbatore region and in many other places in south India.
Question 42

Who is considered to have taken the Bodhi tree to Sri Lanka?

A
Ashoka
B
Sangamitra
C
Chandra gupta
D
Samudragupta
Question 42 Explanation: 
The earliest evidence of the appearance of formal religious activities appears in the time of the Asoka, when Buddhism reached south India and Sri Lanka. Asoka’s daughter Sangamitra is considered to have taken the Bodhi tree to Sri Lanka.
Question 43

Who among the following supported Vedic sacrifices?

  1. Satavahanas
  2. Sangam kings
  3. Ikshvahus
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 43 Explanation: 
The Satavahanas, Sangam kings and Ikshvahus supported Vedic sacrifices. The evidence for the movement of Brahmins and the performance of Vedic ritual practices is found in the Sangam texts. But the varnasrama ideology was yet to take root in the Tamil region.
Question 44

Which of the following statement is correct?

  1. Evidence of Buddhism is widely found in south India
  2. In Tamil Nadu, Kaviripattinam and Kanchipuram have evidence of Buddhist Stupas
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 44 Explanation: 
Evidence of Buddhism is widely found in south India. The Krishna and Godavari delta of Andhra had many important Buddhist centres. Archaeological excavations conducted in Amaravathi, Nagarjunakonda, etc. show how deep-rooted was Buddhism. In Tamil Nadu, Kaviripattinam and Kanchipuram have evidence of Buddhist Stupas.
Question 45
Roughly between c. 300 CE and 600 CE is ruled by_______
A
Cholas
B
Pallava
C
Kalabhras
D
Ashoka
Question 45 Explanation: 
The period between the Sangam Age and the Pallava-Pandya period, roughly between c. 300 CE and 600 CE, is known as the age of Kalabhras in the history of Tamizhagam.
Question 46

Which of the following statement is correct?

  1. compared to Jainism, the evidence for Buddhism is restricted to a few sites in Tamil Nadu
  2. In the post-Sangam centuries Jains contributed substantially to Tamil literature.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 46 Explanation: 
compared to Jainism, the evidence for Buddhism is restricted to a few sites in Tamil Nadu. The numerous cave shelters with Tamil Brahmi inscriptions found in Tamil Nadu show that Jainism was more influential in the Tamil country. Their influence on the common people is not known but we have evidence for the merchants and lay devotees supporting Jain monks by providing rock shelters and offerings. In the post-Sangam centuries Jains contributed substantially to Tamil literature.
Question 47

___________ period was called an interregnum or 'dark age' by earlier historians

A
Chola
B
Chera
C
Pallava
D
Kalabhras
Question 47 Explanation: 
As the three traditional kingdoms disappeared in this interval due to the occupation of their territory by a warlike group called the Kalabhras, this period was called an interregnum or 'dark age' by earlier historians.
Question 48

Which of the following texts belongs to kalabhra period?

  1. Tirukkural
  2. Silappathikaram 
  3. Manimekalai
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 48 Explanation: 
Kalabhras time when the greatest Tamil work Tirukkural was written along with many other works grouped as the eighteen minor works. The epics Silappathikaram and Manimekalai also belong to this period.
Question 49

Which inscriptions speaks about Chendan and Kurran?

A
Mangulam
B
Pulangurichi
C
Talayangulam
D
Ashoka rock Edicts
Question 49 Explanation: 
A group of inscriptions found at Pulangurichi in Sivagangai district datable to about the middle of the fifth century, name two kings. They are Chendan and Kurran. Though there is no mention about their family or dynasty name, some scholars identify them as Kalabhra rulers. The Kalabhra kingdom seems to have been uprooted by Pandyas around the third quarters of sixth century CE.
Question 50

Who among the following is believed to have uprooted Kalabhra?

A
Pandyas
B
Chola
C
Chera
D
Pallava
Question 50 Explanation: 
The Kalabhra kingdom seems to have been uprooted by Pandyas around the third quarters of sixth century CE. The idea of Kalabhra interregnum is contested as cultural activities continued as before in this period.
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