Political Ideologies Part – I Online Test 11th Political Science Lesson 8 Questions in English

Political Ideologies Part - I-Online Test -11th Political Science Lesson 8 Questions in English

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Question 1
Which of the following statement is correct about Liberalism?
  1. It emerged in the 19th century and continues to be the most widely followed idealogy in the contemporary world.
  2. The supporters of the Spanish Constitution in the 19th century called themselves as liberals
  3. The etymology of the word liberalism is from ‘Liber’ that means liberty.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 1 Explanation: 
Liberalism is the most important ideology of modern political theory. It emerged in the 17th century and continues to be the most widely followed idealogy in the contemporary world. The etymology of the word liberalism is from ‘Liber’ that means liberty. The supporters of the Spanish Constitution in the 19th century made the word popular by calling themselves as liberals. Now western countries like United States of America, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Germany adhere to the tenets of liberalism in politics and economy.
Question 2
Match the following
  1. Negative Liberalism                       1. 2nd phase
  2. Libertarianism                                2. 1st phase
  3. Positive Liberalism                         3. 3rd phase
A
2, 1, 3
B
2, 3, 1
C
1, 3, 2
D
3, 1, 2
Question 2 Explanation: 
Liberalism chronologically had experienced three major phases. In the first phase till 1930 it was called as Negative Liberalism. The second phase termed as Positive Liberalism emerged after the Great Economic Depression and lasted up to the 1970s. The third phase, known as Libertarianism, is followed by major countries of the world for the last four decades.
Question 3
  • Assertion(A): John Locke is the Father of Classical liberalism
  • Reason(R): John Locke in his book ‘Two Treaties of Civil Government’ propounded the
basic political principles of Negative Liberalism that came to be implemented vigorously in the USA.
A
A is correct and R is Wrong
B
A is Wrong and R is Correct
C
Both A and R are Correct, but R is not correct explanation of A
D
Both A and R are Correct, R is correct explanation of A
Question 3 Explanation: 
Negative Liberalism is also known by many names like Laissez Faire Liberalism and Classical Liberalism. John Locke in his book ‘Two Treaties of Civil Government’ propounded the basic political principles of Negative Liberalism that came to be implemented vigorously in the USA. John Locke, Father of Classical liberalism. The Equal Right to Life, Liberty, and Property.
Question 4
Who is the author of the book ‘An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of Wealth of Nations’?
A
Locke John
B
Thomas Paine
C
Adam Smith
D
Jeremy Bentham
Question 4 Explanation: 
Thomas Paine, Montesquieu, Jeremy Bentham are the other important proponents of Negative Liberalism. Economically, Adam Smith advocated Negative Liberalism in his book ‘An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of Wealth of Nations’.
Question 5
Which of the following are advocated by Negative Liberalism?
  • It considers man as a rational, capable and master less individual.
  • It says that there is no necessity for State and society to interfere or regulate the life of individuals.
  • All human beings are equal and free.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 5 Explanation: 
Negative Liberalism considers man as a rational, capable and master less individual. All human beings are equal and free. Everyone knows their interests and is endowed with the capacity to satisfy their interests. Society is a mere aggregate of freely existing individuals. There is no necessity for State and society to interfere or regulate the life of individuals. The State is a necessary evil. It is necessary for the protection of law and order without which individuals cannot realise their interests. Nevertheless, the State is an evil as even its mere existence itself endangers the rights and liberties of the individuals.
Question 6
What does the term “Laissez Faire” mean?
A
Live alone
B
Leave alone
C
Under control
D
Feel secured
Question 6 Explanation: 
The State is a negative State as it is prohibited from carrying out developmental activities. The State is called as Laissez Faire State. Laissez Faire has its origin in the French language meaning Leave Alone. The State must leave the individuals alone to pursue their activities. Maintenance of law and order and enforcement of legally made contracts are the only functions assigned to the State by Negative Liberalism
Question 7
Which of the following statement is incorrect?
  1. Negative Liberalism believes in the concept of natural rights.
  2. According to negative liberalism Rights to Life, Liberty and Property are indispensable for human existence and development
  3. The Right to Property is special to the proponents of Negative Liberalism.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
None
Question 7 Explanation: 
Negative Liberalism believes in the concept of natural rights. When Mother Nature created man, it endowed him with basic rights that are called Natural Rights. The State should not erode or undermine these natural rights. The Rights to Life, Liberty and Property are indispensable for human existence and development. Therefore, the State should never abolish or erode them. The Right to Property is special to the proponents of Negative Liberalism. It is an unlimited right as all individuals can acquire, enjoy and dispose of property without interference from the State.
Question 8
In which century Negative liberalism metamorphosed into Positive Liberalism?
A
20th
B
21st
C
19th
D
18th
Question 8 Explanation: 
Negative liberalism metamorphosed into Positive liberalism in the 20th century. Even though Negative Liberalism contributed to the generation of unprecedented wealth in the western countries it had also inflicted enormous pain on common people. Glaring inequalities among people, appearance of slums in the cities and exploitation of the workers exposed the deficiencies of Negative Liberalism. Humanist thinkers like Ruskin protested against the misery of the people.
Question 9
  • Assertion(A): Negative Liberalism changed into Positive Liberalism
  • Reason(R): Pressure from democracy and Marxism, Negative Liberalism changed into
Positive Liberalism
A
A is correct and R is Wrong
B
A is Wrong and R is Correct
C
Both A and R are Correct, but R is not correct explanation of A
D
Both A and R are Correct, R is correct explanation of A
Question 9 Explanation: 
Negative Liberalism changed into Positive Liberalism because of two important factors i.e. Democracy and Marxism. Nineteenth century witnessed the gradual spread of democracy whereby the common people came to be provided with voting rights. They demanded fundamental changes in politics. The second factor is the advent and rise of Marxism that appealed to the workers to overthrow the exploitative inequality-laden Negative Liberalism. Subsequently, under pressure from democracy and Marxism, Negative Liberalism changed into Positive Liberalism.
Question 10
When does the Great Economic Depression started in liberal world?
A
1931
B
1928
C
1991
D
1954
Question 10 Explanation: 
The liberal world experienced a devastating Great Economic Depression from 1928 affecting economies of numerous countries including United States of America. The newly elected American President Franklin Roosevelt implemented the New Deal Programme for uplifting American economy from the quagmire of depression.
Question 11
Who played a crucial role in the formulation of the programme signifying the advent of Positive Liberalism?
A
J.M. Keyne
B
T.H. Green
C
Harold Laski
D
L.T. Hobhouse
Question 11 Explanation: 
J.M. Keyne, economic advisor to the American President, played a crucial role in the formulation of the programme signifying the advent of Positive Liberalism. A number of thinkers enriched the content of Positive Liberalism of which T.H. Green, Harold Laski, L.T. Hobhouse are important.
Question 12
Who was the longest serving president of USA?
A
Barack Obama
B
J.M. Keyne
C
Franklin D. Roosevelt
D
George. W. Bush
Question 12 Explanation: 
Franklin D. Roosevelt was the longest serving President of the United States. He played a splendid role in the development of the country by lifting it out of the Great Economic Depression through his New Deal Program. He inspires millions of people even now. He was a heavily paralyzed polio victim. The inspiring slogan in the 1932 elections was that here comes a man on wheels to set America again on the wheels of progress. He presents the winning spirit of positive personality in the ocean of adversities in life.
Question 13
Who was the longest serving President of India?
A
Rajendra Prasad
B
APJ Abdul kalam
C
Indira Gandhi
D
Vengaihiya Naidu
Question 13 Explanation: 
Dr. Rajendra Prasad is the first and longest serving President of India since independence. Ram Nath Govind is the current serving President of India.
Question 14
  • Assertion(A): Positive Liberalism brought out the new concept of Social Welfare State
  • Reason(R): Positive Liberalism projects the State as a positive instrument for the
promotion of social welfare
A
A is correct and R is Wrong
B
A is Wrong and R is Correct
C
Both A and R are Correct, but R is not correct explanation of A
D
Both A and R are Correct, R is correct explanation of A
Question 14 Explanation: 
Positive Liberalism brought out the new concept of Social Welfare State. This concept projects the State as a positive instrument for the promotion of social welfare. The role of the State is to provide social service to the people. It should construct and maintain hospitals, educational institutions, factories and industries, infrastructural facilities like roads, railway tracks and ports. The State also came to be known as Social Democratic State, a nomenclature that explains the significance of democracy in the constitution of a positive State.
Question 15
  • Assertion(A): Freedom through the State and not from the State is their theme.
  • Reason(R): Positive liberalism supports a close relationship between rights and duties
and argues for Social Welfare theory of Rights.
A
A is correct and R is Wrong
B
A is Wrong and R is Correct
C
Both A and R are Correct, but R is not correct explanation of A
D
Both A and R are Correct, R is correct explanation of A
Question 15 Explanation: 
The rights of the people can be modified so that the welfare of society can be promoted. Positive liberalism supports a close relationship between rights and duties and argues for Social Welfare theory of Rights. Similarly, freedom is positive in content. While Negative Liberalism expounded freedom from the State, Positive Liberalism recommends freedom through the State. Freedom does not mean being free from the interference of the State but adhering to the social welfare activities of the State. Freedom through the State and not from the State is their theme.
Question 16
Which of the following statement stated in positive liberalism is correct?
  1. The economy must be regulated by the State
  2. Progressive taxation can be adopted by the State to generate resources required for its social welfare activities
  3. The state should have authority to minimum wages and reservation of industries as public sector to bring in the uplift of all sections of society
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 16 Explanation: 
As said in Positive liberalism, the economy must be regulated by the State so that alternate, painful appearance of economic boom and depression can be averted. Progressive taxation can be adopted by the State to generate resources required for its social welfare activities. Similarly, the State has power and authority to adhere to economic strategies like bank nationalisation, minimum wages and reservation of industries as public sector to bring in the uplift of all sections of society.
Question 17
Which of the following are drawbacks of positive liberalism?
  1. Poverty
  2. Industrial sickness
  3. Corruption
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 17 Explanation: 
Positive Liberalism was followed in the western democracies for many decades from 1930s. But gradually philosophers and political leaders began to question the utility of a Social Welfare State propagated by Positive Liberalism. They argued that State interference in society and economy had precipitated a plethora of problems like industrial sickness, economic inefficiency, lessened productivity, corruption, erosion of liberties of people and economic stagnation, therefore should be curtailed.
Question 18
Who implemented libertarian ideology in United States from 1981 to 1989?
A
Donald Trump
B
George Washington
C
Ronald Reagan
D
Barack Obama
Question 18 Explanation: 
The third phase in the history of liberalism is called as contemporary Liberalism or Libertarianism. It emerged in the western world after the end of positive liberalism and gradually spread to most parts of the political universe. The President of the United States Ronald Reagan implemented libertarian ideology in his country from 1981 to 1989.
Question 19
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Libertarianism is a re-invention and re-application of Classical Liberalism in the second half of the 20th century and in the first half of the 21st century.
  2. It restricts the domain of the State to maintenance of law and order.
  3. It advocates individual freedom as indispensable for the life of man
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 19 Explanation: 
Libertarianism is a re-invention and re-application of Classical Liberalism in the second half of the 20th century and in the first half of the 21st century. It believes in the worth and importance of individuals. It advocates individual freedom as indispensable for the life of man. It staunchly supports the concept of ‘Personal Autonomy’ whereby every human being is provided with complete freedom of choice to make decisions in their life as they want. It restricts the domain of the State to maintenance of law and order. Nozick famously coined the slogan ‘Minimal State is Inspiring as Well as Right’. He criticised any more functions of the State as unjustified and unwarranted. Another proponent of Libertarianism, Oakeshort commented that the government merely pursues peace.
Question 20
Who is the author of the book “Our Enemy the State”?
A
Karl Popper
B
Albert Jay Nock
C
Friedrich Hayek
D
M. Oakeshott
Question 20 Explanation: 
Karl Popper described Plato as a enemy of open society in his work “Open society and its' enemies”. Albert Jay Nock, a Libertarian even went to the extent of titling his book “Our Enemy the State”
Question 21
When New Economic Reforms were introduced in India?
A
1947
B
1991
C
1992
D
19945
Question 21 Explanation: 
New Economic Reforms were introduced in India in 1991 heralding the era of Liberalization, privatization and globalization. They reflect the ideology of Libertarianism. The State has withdrawn itself from many economic and social activities. ‘Minimum Government and Maximum Governance’ is the guiding principle of the State.
Question 22
What is the full form of NITI in NITI Ayog?
A
National Commission for Transforming India
B
National Institution for Transforming India
C
National Commission for Transforming Indian
D
National Institution for Transforming Indian
Question 22 Explanation: 
Under the impact of libertarianism the planning process was initially changed to the strategy of Indicative Planning and recently the planning Commission itself was replaced by a body called National Commission for Transforming India (NITI Ayog). NITI - National Institution for Transforming India.
Question 23
When was October Revolution organised?
A
1991
B
1919
C
1917
D
1924
Question 23 Explanation: 
Vladimir Lenin was a revolutionary Marxist thinker who organized the October Revolution of 1917 in Russia to implement the ideas of Marxism. He was the architect of the communist country called Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) that consisted of 15 Republics. Lenin contributed to the theoretical content of Marxism.
Question 24
When did Vladimir Lenin died?
A
1924
B
1921
C
1923
D
1930
Question 24 Explanation: 
Vladimir Lenin died in 1924 and the mortal remains are preserved in Lenin’s Tomb in Red Square in Moscow. The embalmed body is regularly bathed in special chemicals and has been on public display. Earlier the government funded the finances needed for preserving the body and after the disintegration of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics preservation of the body is maintained through public donations. There are intermittent calls for burying the coffin next to the resting place of Lenin’s mother.
Question 25
Which of the following is ‘the highest stage of Capitalism’?
A
Communism
B
Imperialism
C
Socialism
D
None
Question 25 Explanation: 
Imperialism refers to the system where European countries subjugated and exploited the Asian and African countries through military conquest and force. Lenin expounded a new insight linking imperialism and capitalism in his book ‘Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism’. He argued that capitalism had not faced self- destruction as Marx predicted.
Question 26
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Joseph Stalin was the Premier of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in the post-Lenin phase up to 1953
  2. Marxism rejected nationalism and supported universalism
  3. Karl Marx introduced a major ideological component in Marxism called Socialism
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 26 Explanation: 
Joseph Stalin was the general secretary of The Communist Party and Premier of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in the post-Lenin phase up to 1953. He introduced a major ideological component in Marxism called Socialism in One Country. The seed of the idea was first brought out by another communist theoretician Nikolai Bukharin. Marxism rejected nationalism and supported universalism.
Question 27
Who among the following have stated ‘The working men have no country’?
A
Joseph Stalin
B
Karl Marx
C
Vladimir Lenin
D
Vladimir Putin
Question 27 Explanation: 
Marxism attacked nationalism as a bourgeois concept and appealed to the workers of the world to unite and fight to establish communism as seen in the last lines of Marx book ‘The Communist Manifesto’. The ultimate goal of Karl Marx was the formation of international socialist society through the instrument of world proletariat revolution. Karl Marx said, ‘The working men have no country’. Lenin also continued in the same vein and considered the October Revolution of 1917 in Russia as a springboard to global revolution.
Question 28
  • Assertion(A): Joseph Stalin called for the export of communist revolution to other countries of the world
  • Reason(R): In order achieve international communism and cautioned that otherwise communism within USSR itself will collapse.
A
A is correct and R is Wrong
B
A is Wrong and R is Correct
C
Both A and R are Correct, but R is not correct explanation of A
D
Both A and R are Correct, R is correct explanation of A
Question 28 Explanation: 
Leon Trotsky criticized Stalinist socialism and reiterated the concept of permanent revolution advocated by Karl Marx. He called for the export of communist revolution to other countries of the world to achieve international communism and cautioned that otherwise communism within USSR itself will collapse.
Question 29
When does communist revolution of China took place?
A
1917
B
1929
C
1949
D
1945
Question 29 Explanation: 
Mao Zedong was one of the greatest Marxist theoreticians and practitioners in the history of the world. He founded the Communist Party of China and conducted the Communist Revolution in 1949, leading to the establishment of the People’s Republic of China.
Question 30
Who introduced certain changes in Communism to make it suitable for China?
A
Joseph Stalin
B
Karl Marx
C
Mao Zedong
D
Mao Jim ping
Question 30 Explanation: 
Mao Zedong introduced certain changes in Communism to make it suitable for China. The modification of communism to reflect Chinese realities is described as Signification of Communism.
Question 31
Which of the following statement is incorrect?
  1. Karl Marx predicted that Communist Revolution will be seen only in west European countries
  2. Mao’s success in China provided a revolutionary model for the other agricultural countries of Asia and Africa.
  3. Karl Marx never considered that the peasants as a class have revolutionary potential as they are conservative and reactionary
A
1, 3
B
2, 3
C
All the above
D
None
Question 31 Explanation: 
Karl Marx predicted that Communist Revolution will be seen only in west European countries that are fully industrialised and where workers are numerous and organised. But China in the decade of 1940s was an agricultural and industrially backward country. Karl Marx never considered that the peasants as a class have revolutionary potential as they are conservative and reactionary. Mao organized the peasants of China and succeeded in overthrowing the feudal exploitative State heralding the arrival of communism. Mao’s success in China provided a revolutionary model for the other agricultural countries of Asia and Africa.
Question 32
Mao’s unconventional guerilla warfare had how many stages?
A
4
B
3
C
5
D
2
Question 32 Explanation: 
Mao believed in the unconventional guerilla warfare. As a strategy it had three stages. In the first stage, the Communist cadre will win the people through propaganda. In the second stage, the cadre will ambush and attack the military and vital State installations. In the third stage, the cadre will act as a conventional army fighting the army of the State and capturing cities after inflicting defeat. Mao also taught that any of three stages can be used any time depending on the circumstances.
Question 33
Who said the following statement “Let the hundred flowers bloom. Let the hundred schools of thought contend”?
A
Karl Marx
B
Kim Jamun
C
Xi jim ping
D
Mao Zedong
Question 33 Explanation: 
The Communist Party of China conducted the Hundred Flower Campaign in the second half of 1950s and the chairman Mao said “Let the hundred flowers bloom. Let the hundred schools of thought contend”. He considered each thought as a flower and argued that all schools of thought must be allowed to bloom.
Question 34
Between which year Mao forcefully implemented industrialization and collectivization?
A
1950 to 62
B
1958 to 60
C
1958 to 62
D
1958 to 68
Question 34 Explanation: 
Mao implemented forcefully industrialization and collectivization as part of this campaign from 1958 to 1962 to rapidly change China from agricultural economy to socialist system. But, unfortunately, it resulted in the advent of the Great Chinese Famine killing millions of people.
Question 35
When does USSR faced internal disintegration?
A
1992
B
1991
C
1989
D
1998
E
1998
Question 35 Explanation: 
USSR faced internal disintegration in 1991 and disappeared from the face of the world. The communist country collapsed due to many reasons. There was an unsolvable economic crisis. Politically rights were not available to the people. It had to maintain a very expensive military. The cold war between the United States and U.S.S.R was destroying the economic capacity of the country.
Question 36
Philosophers of which country developed Neo Marxism?
A
France
B
England
C
German
D
USSR
Question 36 Explanation: 
A group of philosophers who were associated with the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research in Germany developed new insights into Marxism that are described as Neo Marxism or Critical Theory. The important philosophers of this school are Herbert Marcuse, Jurgen Habermas and Theodor Adorno. Though there are great differences in their writings all of them uniformly protested against the systems of domination and exploitation. They focused on understanding the hidden roots and layers of domination. They concentrated on preparing the masses for revolutionary transformation by augmenting their true consciousness. They propounded the attitude to question the socio-cultural practices in all societies that perpetuate domination over the masses. Their writings can be characterised as counterculture aiming for the emancipation of the masses.
Question 37
_________ is the main proponent of Instrumental Marxism
A
Frankfurt Institute for Social Research
B
Ralph Miliband
C
Oxford
D
Howard
Question 37 Explanation: 
Ralph Miliband is the main proponent of Instrumental Marxism. This school of thought takes an instrumental perspective of the state. The officials of the government and state come from the same background as the property or ruling class. They have personal contact with the members of the ruling class. Therefore, the state is used as an instrument by officials and the members of the ruling class to perpetuate exploitation and to manufacture the ideological consent of the people for their hegemony.
Question 38
When does Structural Marxism emerged?
A
1990
B
1970
C
1995
D
1980
Question 38 Explanation: 
Structural Marxism propounded by the French philosopher Louis Althusser and Nicos Poulantza is a new school of Marxism that emerged in the 1970s. It repudiated the arguments of Instrumental Marxism. Althusser debated with Ralph Miliband and asserted that the class origin and position of the administrators is purely incidental and has no significance. Regardless of class origin of officials the state is bound to aid exploitation because of its objective or structural position in the economic system.
Question 39
because of its objective or structural position in the economic system. Which of the following are included in Repressive State Apparatuses?
  1. School
  2. Military
  3. Law courts
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 39 Explanation: 
The Repressive State Apparatuses include police, military, law courts etc. They are repressive as they punish the people when their orders are not obeyed. The Ideological State Apparatuses include family, schools, colleges, the media and trade unions. The State creates consent and support from people by ideological indoctrination, without violence.
Question 40
  • Assertion(A): Socialism is an ideology that supports public ownership of property and natural resources.
  • Reason(R): It is fundamentally opposed to Liberalism that believes in the private ownership of property
A
A is correct and R is Wrong
B
A is Wrong and R is Correct
C
Both A and R are Correct, but R is not correct explanation of A
D
Both A and R are Correct, R is correct explanation of A
Question 40 Explanation: 
Socialism is an ideology that supports public ownership of property and natural resources. It is fundamentally opposed to Liberalism that believes in the private ownership of property. There are many kinds of socialism like democratic socialism, evolutionary socialism, Fabian socialism, guild socialism etc. The terms ‘Socialism’ and ‘Communism’ are at times interchangeably used. But Karl Marx introduced a distinction by describing his socialism and ideology as scientific socialism and other prevailing kinds as Utopian socialism.
Question 41
Which of the following statement is correct about Democratic Socialism?
  1. Democratic Socialism as the nomenclature indicates combines the two systems of socialism and democracy to provide a unique political and economic system to promote equality and freedom
  2. It believes that the State is an instrument of exploitation of workers by the capitalists.
  3. In Democratic Socialism, all classes in society own the State.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2,3
D
All the above
Question 41 Explanation: 
Democratic Socialism as the nomenclature indicates combines the two systems of socialism and democracy to provide a unique political and economic system to promote equality and freedom. It differs from Marxism in its conception of the State. It believes that the State is not an instrument of exploitation of workers by the capitalists. Rather, the State is an instrument of social welfare. The State must be made democratic. All classes in society own the State. Socialism can be established only through the State. It will not and should not wither away as Marxism predicted.
Question 42
  • Assertion(A): Democratic Socialism argues that socialism can be established through
evolutionary and peaceful means
  • Reason(R): Democratic Socialism argues for harmonious relationship among classes
and class differences must be solved through peaceful methods
A
A is correct and R is Wrong
B
A is Wrong and R is Correct
C
Both A and R are Correct, but R is not correct explanation of A
D
Both A and R are Correct, R is correct explanation of A
Question 42 Explanation: 
Democratic Socialism argues that socialism can be established through evolutionary and peaceful means. It’s methodology of change characterized as gradualism or ballot box socialism. It dismisses revolutionary, violent struggle as unnecessary. Democratic Socialism argues for harmonious relationship among classes and class differences must be solved through peaceful methods. The right to property need not be abolished. Rather for the sake of social welfare the right to property must be limited
Question 43
Which can modify or reject basic concepts of Marxism?
A
Utopian Socialism
B
Democratic Socialism
C
Guild Socialism
D
Fabian Socialism
Question 43 Explanation: 
There are crucial differences between Marxism and Democratic Socialism. Many basic concepts of Marxism are either modified or rejected by Democratic Socialism. Nevertheless, both have certain similar goals like ending the exploitation of workers and promoting equality among people.
Question 44
When was Fabian Socialism propagated?
A
1884
B
1983
C
1991
D
1920
Question 44 Explanation: 
Fabian Socialism was the British version of socialism propagated by the Fabian Society from 1884. They chose the nomenclature Fabianism inspired by the great Roman General Fabius who was historically famous for adopting the military strategy of ‘wait and hit hard at the right moment’. Sidney Webb and Sidney Oliver H G Wells brought out the ideology of Fabianism. English playwright George Bernard Shaw was one of the greatest proponents of Fabianism.
Question 45
Which of the following statement about Fabian Socialism is correct?
  1. Fabianism supported Marxist call for the abolition of the State.
  2. Fabian State says it should be based on decentralization of power
  3. It expressed its resolute support for democratic State.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 45 Explanation: 
As an ideology Fabianism attacked capitalism as an exploitative system and advocated a thorough reorganization of economy and politics of their contemporary period. It expressed its resolute support for democratic State. There are two important attributes of the Fabian State. Firstly, it should be based on decentralization of power. Secondly, it should be led by experts. Fabianism rejected Marxist call for the abolition of the State.
Question 46
Which Indian is ardent champion of Fabian Socialism?
A
Narendra Modi
B
Jawaharlal Nehru
C
Indra Gandhi
D
Rajendra Prasad
Question 46 Explanation: 
In India Jawaharlal Nehru is an ardent champion of Fabian Socialism. Fabianism wanted the State to exist on the foundations of decentralized power and expert leadership to promote social welfare.
Question 47
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Fabianism believed that socialism and democracy are complementary and supplementary to each other.
  2. The Fabians did not advocate the abolition of private property.
  3. On the contrary, they supported existence of limited right to property governed by the principle of social welfare
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 47 Explanation: 
Fabianism believed that socialism and democracy are complementary and supplementary to each other. They are to be appreciated as noble ideals of equality and justice are dearer to them. The Fabians did not advocate the abolition of private property. On the contrary, they supported existence of limited right to property governed by the principle of social welfare.
Question 48
  • Assertion(A): Fabianism as an evolutionary socialism rejected Communist revolutionary methods of change
  • Reason(R): It wanted peaceful methods to change the society
A
A is correct and R is Wrong
B
A is Wrong and R is Correct
C
Both A and R are Correct, but R is not correct explanation of A
D
Both A and R are Correct, R is correct explanation of A
Question 48 Explanation: 
Fabianism as an evolutionary socialism rejected Communist revolutionary methods of change. It supported peaceful methods of change in society. The Fabian ideologues depended on persuasion tactics to realize socialism
Question 49
Who among the following wrote the book ‘Evolutionary Socialism’?
A
G.D.H. Cole
B
Eduard Bernstein
C
George Bernard Shaw
D
Eduard Bernstein
Question 49 Explanation: 
Which of the following are inter-connected? Evolutionary Socialism was initially advocated by Lassalle, one of the earliest leaders of the German Social Democracy tradition. The ideals of Evolutionary Socialism were formally expounded in the Gothe Programme in 1875, an important document in the evolution of socialism in Germany and Europe. Later on, Eduard Bernstein wrote the book ‘Evolutionary Socialism’ that attracted the many supporters like Jaures in F
Question 50
Which of the following are inter-connected?
  1. Guild Socialism
  2. Democratic Socialism
  3. Evolutionary Socialism
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 50 Explanation: 
Evolutionary Socialism argues for an evolutionary change in capitalism. It believes that along with economic factors non-economic factors are also important to explain human life. Democratic Socialism and Evolutionary Socialism are inter-related. Marxism attacked Evolutionary Socialism as ‘revisionism’ and ‘broker’s view of socialism’.
Question 51
Which of the following is a kind of evolutionary socialism?
A
Democratic Socialism
B
Fabian Socialism
C
Utopian Socialism
D
Guild Socialism
Question 51 Explanation: 
Guild Socialism is a kind of evolutionary socialism that emerged in Great Briton in the first two decades of the 20th century. The English political thinker and the founder of National Guilds League in England, D H Cole was the leading advocate of this brand of socialism. He wrote the book ‘Guild Socialism: A Plan for Economic Recovery’ to propagate the tenets of Guild Socialism. Guild Socialism criticized the exploitation of workers by the capitalists in the western world and arose as a protest ideology against capitalism
Question 52
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. The word guild refers to the association of craftsmen and artisans of a particular profession in the medieval period in Europe.
  2. It acted as a source of mutual support, as a medium to pass on the professional knowledge to new entrants.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 52 Explanation: 
The word guild refers to the association of craftsmen and artisans of a particular profession in the medieval period in Europe. It acted as a source of mutual support, as a medium to pass on the professional knowledge to new entrants. Guild Socialism combines the medieval guild with modern socialism and envisages a political organization in which organized workers-based associations will discharge most of the political functions. This ideology believes that in any society there are numerous professions, trades and occupations and a member of one profession cannot represent the interests and welfare of members of another profession and therefore every profession must have its own organization. All such organizations must come together to form a governing council at the district, State and national-levels to administer the system. A national-level confederation of guilds will govern the country.
Question 53
Which supported principle of gradualism to bring about changes in the existing capitalist system?
A
Democratic Socialism
B
Guild Socialism
C
Fabian Socialism
D
Evolutionary Socialism
Question 53 Explanation: 
Guild Socialism does not call for the destruction of the State. It endows the State with certain common functions like providing education and health services to the people. Guild Socialism supported the principle of gradualism to bring about changes in the existing capitalist system.
Question 54
Which of the following statement about Communism is correct?
  1. Revolution is the mid-wife of change
  2. The right to private property must be modified and limitations must be imposed for social welfare
  3. Historical materialism can explain human history. Economy alone drives human history.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 55
When did Parliament passed resolution for the establishment of Planning Commission?
A
1951
B
1952
C
1950
D
1955
Question 55 Explanation: 
The Indian kind of socialism is known as Socialistic Pattern of Society that was adopted by the Indian State in the mid 1950s. Provision of all basic necessities to all people irrespective of caste, creed, religion, race and gender and elimination of poverty, inequality and illiteracy are the objectives of Indian Socialism. Parliament passed a resolution for the establishment of Planning Commission In 1950.
Question 56
Which of the following statement is incorrect?
  1. The strategy of Five year Plan was implemented to promote development with socialist content from 1951.
  2. We adopted a Mixed Economy where both private and public sectors were allowed to operate.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 56 Explanation: 
The strategy of Five year plan was implemented to promote development with socialist content from 1951. We adopted a Mixed Economy where both private and public sectors were allowed to operate. We provided the commanding heights of the economy to the public sector to achieve development and equality.
Question 57
Which Amendment introduced socialism as am official feature of the Preamble of our \ Constitution?
A
40th
B
42nd
C
44th
D
41st
Question 57 Explanation: 
The 42nd Constitutional Amendment Law introduced socialism as an official feature of the Preamble of our Constitution.
Question 58
Which Amendment removed the Right to Property from the list of Fundamental Rights?
A
40th
B
42nd
C
44th
D
41st
Question 58 Explanation: 
The 44th Constitutional Amendment Act removed the Right to Property from the list of Fundamental Rights and made it an ordinary right in Part XII of the Constitution.
Question 59
Directive Principles of State Policy is in___ part of the constitution
A
5th
B
4th
C
3rd
D
2nd
Question 59 Explanation: 
The Directive Principles of State Policy in Part IV of the Constitution contains many provisions that are designed to promote socialistic objectives like Right to Work and avoidance of concentration of wealth in the hands of a few people. India had adhered to socialism from the year of independence to 1991 when we launched our New Economic Reforms that favored liberalization, privatization and globalization.
Question 60
  • Assertion(A): Nationalism refers to an ideology that promotes loyalty, affection and
devotion to a particular nation
  • Reason(R): Ernest Gellner defined nationalism as “primarily a political principle that
holds that the political and the national unit should be congruent”
A
A is correct and R is Wrong
B
A is Wrong and R is Correct
C
Both A and R are Correct, but R is not correct explanation of A
D
Both A and R are Correct, R is correct explanation of A
Question 60 Explanation: 
Nationalism refers to an ideology that promotes loyalty, affection and devotion to a particular nation. It creates attachments among people to a common homeland, a common language, ideals, values and traditions. It is based on a consciousness that exalts the nation above other categories and factors of social life. It strongly believes that the individual’s loyalty and commitment to the nation should override their attachments with any group interest. Ernest Gellner, an important theorist wrote the book ‘Nations and Nationalism’. He defined nationalism as “primarily a political principle that holds that the political and the national unit should be congruent”.
Question 61
Where does the concept of Nationalism emerged?
A
Asia
B
Europe
C
Africa
D
America
Question 61 Explanation: 
Nationalism is a modern concept. It emerged in Europe at the beginning of modern period. It arose first in England and later on diffused to other countries of Western Europe like France, Germany aided by French Revolution.
Question 62
Which of the following is the reason for emergence and diffusion of nationalism throughout the world?
  1. Capitalism
  2. French Revolution
  3. World Wars
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 62 Explanation: 
The North American colonies revolted and formed their own nationalism in opposition to Europe. The African and Asian nations witnessed the emergence of a new kind of nationalism called postcolonial nationalism as a result of anti colonial struggle. Many factors contributed to the emergence and diffusion of nationalism throughout the world and the notable ones include capitalism, French Revolution, industrialization, World Wars and colonialism.
Question 63
Which of the following nationalism theory is not a modernization theory?
A
Post-ideological Theory of nationalism
B
Socio-biological Theory of Nationalism
C
Social communication Theories
D
Marxian Theory of Nationalism
Question 63 Explanation: 
There are many theories of nationalism that can be listed as Primordial Theory of Nationalism Socio-biological Theory of Nationalism Social communication Theories Marxian Theory of Nationalism Post-ideological Theory of nationalism These theories can be divided into perennial theories and modernization theories. The first two theories can be categorized as perennial theories and the last three are designated as modernization theories.
Question 64
What does the word primordial means?
A
since the beginning of the world
B
before the beginning of the world
C
after the beginning of the world
D
none
Question 64 Explanation: 
The word primordial means existing at or since the beginning of the world. The theory of primordialism considers that the people of a particular language, region, religion, race etc have developed a great intra-group affinity as they inhabit together since ancient period. They develop a strong ethnic identity and loyalty. They demonstrate the qualities of affection, sentiments and attachments. They may not exhibit ostensibly sufficient social interactions as part of their affinity.
Question 65
Which theory of nationalism is grounded on the concept of ethnic nationalism?
A
Primordial Theory of Nationalism
B
Social communication Theories
C
Post-ideological Theory of nationalism
D
Marxian Theory of Nationalism
Question 65 Explanation: 
Nevertheless, the primordial identities are powerful having even coercive impact on their lives. The primordial theory of nationalism is grounded on the concept of ethnic nationalism
Question 66
Which of the following statement about Socio-biological Theory of Nationalism is correct?
  1. This theory considers nationalism as emotional attachments of a group of people who identify with and agree on a common descent.
  2. Nationalism is a blend of both rationalism and irrationalism.
  3. Nationalism shows the face of ethno centrism towards the members of the group and xenophobia to the members of the other groups and nations.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2,3
D
All the above
Question 66 Explanation: 
Socio-biological Theory of Nationalism considers nationalism as emotional attachments of a group of people who identify with and agree on a common descent. The people consider themselves as belonging to an extended family. For them, the nation is the family writ large. Nationalism is a blend of both rationalism and irrationalism. It is a ‘primitive mind with modern techniques’. As for as the roots are concerned nationalism relies on the past. But on its relations with other groups it is contemporary. Nationalism shows the face of ethno centrism towards the members of the group and xenophobia to the members of the other groups and nations.
Question 67
According to Michael Mann which of the following are sources of social power?
  1. Ideological power
  2. Economic power
  3. Military power
  4. Political power
A
1, 2, 4
B
1, 3, 4
C
2, 3, 4
D
All the above
Question 67 Explanation: 
Michael Mann articulated that there are four sources of social power. They are 1) Ideological power 2) Economic power 3) Military power and 4) Political power. These four sources, often in combination acted historically to produce nationalism in different periods. The ideological factor in the form of religion promoted the birth of infant nations as in the case of England in the 16th century. The second phase saw the economic, especially commercial power contributing to the birth of nationalism in Western Europe. The military power influenced the origin of nationalism in the third phase and finally political power shaped the evolution of nationalism.
Question 68
Who wrote the book ‘Imagined Communities’?
A
Karl Deutsch
B
Benedict Anderson
C
Karl Marx
D
Joseph Stalin
Question 68 Explanation: 
Anderson described the nation as an imagined community and nationalism as its life force. He wrote the book ‘Imagined Communities’ and argued that the nation is an imagined community exiting only in the mind, imagination of the people. The members of a nation do not see, talk and know all the other members of the nation. Yet, they consider all other members as their own people.
Question 69
Who among the following defined nation as ‘as a group of people who communicate more effectively and intensely with one another than with people outside the group’?
A
Karl Deutsch
B
Benedict Anderson
C
Karl Marx
D
Joseph Stalin
Question 69 Explanation: 
Anderson described the nation as an imagined community and nationalism as its life force. He wrote the book ‘Imagined Communities’ and argued that the nation is an imagined community exiting only in the mind, imagination of the people. The members of a nation do not see, talk and know all the other members of the nation. Yet, they consider all other members as their own people.
Question 70
Who among the following defined nation as ‘as a group of people who communicate more effectively and intensely with one another than with people outside the group’?
A
Karl Deutsch
B
Benedict Anderson
C
Karl Marx
D
Joseph Stalin
Question 70 Explanation: 
Karl Deutsch and Benedict Anderson are among the important theorists of communication theory of nationalism. Deutsch defined nation as ‘as a group of people who communicate more effectively and intensely with one another than with people outside the group’. He examined the data from different streams of knowledge like economics, history and demography and arrived at the conclusion that communication played the role of a parent in the birth of nationalism and nationality. The development of effective internal communication linked all people in the country and created the feelings of moral and political identity contributing to the emergence of nationalism.
Question 71
Who said capitalism and the discovery of the printing press played a crucial role in the emergence of nationalism?
A
Karl Deutsch
B
Benedict Anderson
C
Karl Marx
D
Joseph Stalin
Question 71 Explanation: 
Anderson contends that the capitalism and the discovery of the printing press played a crucial role in the emergence of nationalism. After the discovery of the printing press, books were printed and sold in large volumes in the vernacular languages of the period like English, French and German. Millions of the people for the first time in history had the opportunity of reading books in their own languages.
Question 72
Which of the following statement is correct about Marxist Theory of Nationalism?
  1. Marxism considers nationalism as an offspring of capitalism
  2. Nationalism was conceived and created by the bourgeois class for its own benefit to numb the feelings of the workers.
  3. Lenin commented, ‘The Proletariat has no fatherland’.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 72 Explanation: 
Marxism considers nationalism as an offspring of capitalism. Nationalism was created by capitalism to protect the exploitative capitalist order. Karl Marx contended that the ruling ideas are essentially the ideas of the ruling class that owns the means of production. The capitalist class possesses private property and indulges in the exploitation of the property-less class. Nationalism was conceived and created by the bourgeois class for its own benefit to numb the feelings of the workers. “Nationalist consciousness is quintessentially a false consciousness deliberately created perpetuate and legitimize class exploitation”. Marx commented, ‘The Proletariat has no fatherland’. He issued a clarion call in the ‘The Communist Manifest’ to the workers of the world to conduct revolution for ending capitalism and establishing socialism all over the world. He favoured internationalism and opposed nationalism.
Question 73
When did Indian nationalism emerged?
A
1st half of 19th century
B
2nd half of 19th Century
C
1st half of 20th century
D
2nd half of 20th century
Question 73 Explanation: 
Indian nationalism emerged in the second half of the 19th century. All Indians began to think of nationalist feeling transcending their religious, regional, linguistic, ethnic differences and barriers.
Question 74
  • Assertion(A): The concept of unity in diversity exists in Indian tradition since ancient
Period
  • Reason(R): The seeds of modern nationalism germinated and grew luxuriantly in the
fertile soil of this centuries-old cultural unity.
A
A is correct and R is Wrong
B
A is Wrong and R is Correct
C
Both A and R are Correct, but R is not correct explanation of A
D
Both A and R are Correct, but R is not correct explanation of A
Question 74 Explanation: 
Internally speaking, the concept of Indian unity is always ingrained in the minds of the people. Though the Indian subcontinent for many centuries was politically fragmented it continued to be culturally unified. The concept of unity in diversity exists in Indian tradition since ancient period. The seeds of modern nationalism germinated and grew luxuriantly in the fertile soil of this centuries-old cultural unity.
Question 75
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. India was a politically divided subcontinent in eighteenth century with over 700 different territories and rulers.
  2. Mughal emperor Akbar unified them into one country
  3. Colonialism carried out the political, administrative, economic and communication unification of India
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 75 Explanation: 
administrative, economic and communication unification of India. India was a politically divided subcontinent in eighteenth century with over 700 different territories and rulers. The British unified them into one country. India followed village-based economy. Colonialism introduced modern economy and market system unifying the country economically.
Question 76
Which of the following was/were introduced by British?
A
Telegraphs
B
uniform postal system-making transport
C
railways
D
all the above
Question 76 Explanation: 
The British rule introduced modern means of communication like railways, telegraphs, uniform postal system-making transport and movement of people, goods and ideas easier and faster throughout the subcontinent. The newly unified India in the 19th century was conducive for the emergence of the modern political force called nationalism.
Question 77
  • Assertion(A): Indians learned modern political ideas like liberty, equality, sovereignty in
the classrooms
  • Reason(R): Western education was introduced in India by colonialism
A
A is correct and R is Wrong
B
A is Wrong and R is Correct
C
Both A and R are Correct, but R is not correct explanation of A
D
Both A and R are Correct, R is correct explanation of A
Question 77 Explanation: 
Western education was introduced in India by colonialism. Indians learned modern political ideas like liberty, equality, sovereignty in the classrooms and demanded that our motherland should be empowered with those modern political values.
Question 78
Which language became communication among nationalists facilitating the growth of nationalism?
A
Hindi
B
Urdu
C
Bengali
D
English
Question 78 Explanation: 
English became the lingua franca of India during colonialism. India is a polyglot nation as it speaks more than a thousand languages and political unity was derailed. In this backdrop the English language became the language of communication among nationalists facilitating the growth of nationalism.
Question 79
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. The 18th century witnessed the emergence of many socio-religious reform movements
  2. They strove to sow the seeds of renaissance and reform in Indian society.
  3. They eliminated evils like sati, caste system and untouchability
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 79 Explanation: 
The 19th century witnessed the emergence of many socio-religious reform movements like Brahmo Samaj of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Prarthana Samaj, etc. They strove to sow the seeds of renaissance and reform in Indian society. They also revived the memories of centuries-old great Indian civilization even while articulating the need for reforming Indian society and eliminating evils like sati, caste system and untouchability.
Question 80
  • Assertion(A): Indian nationalism grew as a protest movement against the racial
humiliation of Indian people in the colonial period.
  • Reason(R): Racialism of British rulers and authorities created bitterness among Indian
people.
A
A is correct and R is Wrong
B
A is Wrong and R is Correct
C
Both A and R are Correct, but R is not correct explanation of A
D
Both A and R are Correct, R is correct explanation of A
Question 80 Explanation: 
Racialism of British rulers and authorities created bitterness among Indian people. Indian nationalism grew as a protest movement against the racial humiliation of Indian people in the colonial period. They reacted against the concept of the White Man’s Burden flaunted by the colonial rulers. It refers to idea that the white people are the most advanced and civilized race in the world and their mission in India is to civilize the Indian people. Indian leaders repudiated this racial myth and mobilized Indian people through the medium of nationalism.
Question 81
Which Governor General introduced Indian vernacular press?
A
Lord William Bentick
B
Lord Lytten
C
Lord Linlithgow
D
Lord Canning
Question 81 Explanation: 
The patently exploitative and flagrantly arrogant rule of the Governor General Lord Lytten spurred the faster emergence of Indian nationalism. He imposed discrimination on Indian vernacular press. Measures were taken to promote the import of goods from England and to restrict the export of Indian goods to England. No active relief was provided by the colonial government when millions of people suffered and even died under severe drought. There was an unnecessary war with Afghanistan in which thousands of Indian soldiers died. Indian nationalism grew as a result of anger against the maladministration of Lord Lytten.
Question 82
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Along with the Law Member Ilbert, the Governor General Lord Mayon introduced a Bill granting powers to Indian judges to sit in the trial of cases involving Europeans
  2. The Ilbert Bill controversy taught Indians the art and science of political agitation against the negative actions of the government
  3. Indians were disappointed at the behaviour of Europeans in India.
A
1, 2
B
1,3
C
2,3
D
All the above
Question 82 Explanation: 
Lord Ripon was a notable Governor General of India. Along with the Law Member Ilbert, the Governor General introduced a Bill granting powers to Indian judges to sit in the trial of cases involving Europeans. There was a huge protest organized by racist people and the government was forced to backtrack on its proposal. Indians were disappointed at the behaviour of Europeans in India. The Ilbert Bill controversy taught Indians the art and science of political agitation against the negative actions of the government.
Question 83
Match the following
  1. Quebec separatism                        1. China
  2. Balochistan movement                 2. Spain
  3. Uighur issue                                    3. Pakistan
  4. Catalan nationalism                      4. Canada
A
2, 1, 4, 3
B
1,4, 2, 3
C
4, 1, 2, 3
D
4, 3, 1, 2
Question 83 Explanation: 
Nationalism grapples with a strong adversarial force, called by many names like separatism, sub-nationalism, splitism and secessionism. The Quebec separatism in Canada, Balochistan movement in Pakistan, Uighur issue in China, Catalan nationalism in Spain are the living examples of nationalism being questioned and endangered by intra- national forces.
Question 84
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. The barriers between and among nations are being undermined by the onward march of globalization.
  2. Globalization refers to the increasing integration of the world in terms of economy, trade, technology, culture and institutions
  3. Economically, multinational corporations have established their production and sale units across many countries and continents
A
1, 2
B
1,3
C
2,3
D
All the above
Question 84 Explanation: 
Many extra-national and global factors imperil nationalism. Globalization refers to the increasing integration of the world in terms of economy, trade, technology, culture and institutions. The contemporary world is dominated by the ascendency of globalization process. The barriers between and among nations are being undermined by the onward march of globalization. Economically, multinational corporations have established their production and sale units across many countries and continents. They employ people belonging to different countries and exercise great influence in political domain also.
Question 85
Which organization has hastened the process of globalization?
A
UNO
B
WTO
C
GATT
D
UNICEF
Question 85 Explanation: 
The establishment and functioning of World Trade Organization has hastened the process of globalization. ’Barrier free trade’ is the fundamental slogan of the organization. It has created several agreements in the last two decades from 1995 the year of its inception and till now and has brought down the trade and tariff bottlenecks in international domain that partly contributed to the two world wars in the 20th century. Trade tariffs are closely related to nationalism and their elimination erodes the rationale of nationalism.
Question 86
Which of the following statement is incorrect about globalization?
  1. There is a large-scale migration of the skilled people propelled by the forces of globalization
  2. The highly educated and technologically qualified people migrate from Asian and African countries to the developed countries like the United States, Australia and countries of Western Europe
  3. The educated and technologically advanced Indian and Chinese youth have migrated in large numbers to the United States in the age of globalization.
A
1, 2
B
1,3
C
2,3
D
None
Question 86 Explanation: 
There is a large-scale migration of the skilled people propelled by the forces of globalization. The highly educated and technologically qualified people migrate from Asian and African countries to the developed countries like the United States, Australia and countries of Western Europe. The educated and technologically advanced Indian and Chinese youth have migrated in large numbers to the United States in the age of globalization.
Question 87
What is the currency of European Union?
A
Pound
B
Dollar
C
Euro
D
Riyad
Question 87 Explanation: 
Euro is the currency of European Union and a large portion of the dream to create structures for the free movement of people, capital, service and goods has been realized.
Question 88
How many nations are there in European Union?
A
10
B
21
C
27
D
25
Question 88 Explanation: 
The international regional organizations have eroded the stature of the States and their nationalism by promoting regional economic cooperation. The European Union consisting of 27 nations is the most advanced international regional organization that seeks to achieve economic, political and cultural integration. It has created European Parliament, European Council and European Commission.
Question 89
Which of the following has created Pooled Sovereignty with member-States of the regional organization?
A
European Union
B
United States of America
C
SAARC
D
UNO
Question 89 Explanation: 
European Union has brought out the concept of ‘Pooled Sovereignty’ where the States share their decision-making powers with member-States of the regional organization foregoing their sovereignty, definitely a blow to the concept of nationalism and its cardinal feature of State sovereignty. Succinctly to state, the continent of Europe from being the cradle of nationalism has become the beacon of globalism.
Question 90
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Radical ideologies adhering to a different kind of internationalism pose a threat to the concept of nationalism.
  2. Islamic State with its ideology of salafism (Pure Islam) rejected the concept of nationalism and nation States as anti-Islam.
  3. It established a caliphate in the captured territories in Syria and Iraq in 1980 and appealed to the global Islamic community to be associated with the international jihad to establish a global Islamic State or universal Caliphate
A
1, 2
B
1,3
C
2,3
D
None
Question 90 Explanation: 
Radical ideologies adhering to a different kind of internationalism pose a threat to the concept of nationalism. For example the Islamic State with its ideology of salafism (Pure Islam) rejected the concept of nationalism and nation States as anti-Islam. It established a caliphate in the captured territories in Syria and Iraq in 2014 and appealed to the global Islamic community to be associated with the international jihad to establish a global Islamic State or universal Caliphate.
Question 91
When did exit of US from Paris Accord took place?
A
2018
B
2020
C
2015
D
2019
Question 91 Explanation: 
The BREXIT or exit of Britain from the European Union and the exit of United States from 2015 Paris Accord of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change on grounds of national interests reveal the relevance and resilience of the ideology of nationalism.
Question 92
Who founded totalitarian party in Italy?
A
Adolf Hitler
B
Benito Mussolini
C
Xi Jim Ping
D
Kim Jamun
Question 92 Explanation: 
Benito Mussolini founded a totalitarian party, movement and ideology in the inter-war period and ruled Italy for more than two decades.
Question 93
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Fascism in Italian language has its origin in the word Fasci meaning the bundle of rods bound with a red cord round an axe helve
  2. The bundle of rods signifies unity and strength and Benito Mussolini chose the nomenclature to arouse the emotions of the cadre.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 93 Explanation: 
Fascism in Italian language has its origin in the word Fasci meaning the bundle of rods bound with a red cord round an axe helve. In Italian tradition, this symbol is powerful as it was borne by the magisterial attendants before the Roman Consuls as symbol of political power. The bundle of rods signifies unity and strength and Benito Mussolini chose the nomenclature to arouse the emotions of the cadre.
Question 94
Which issues are faced by Italy after First World War’s post-war settlement?
  1. Unemployment
  2. Slavery
  3. Inflation
A
1, 2
B
1,3
C
2,3
D
None
Question 94 Explanation: 
The most important factor for the emergence of Fascism can be attributed to the socio-economic problems of Italy in the post-war period. Though it was on the side of the allied powers in the First World War, there was a huge popular disappointment that it did not receive benefits from the post-war settlement. The country suffered from numerous socio-economic problems like unemployment, inflation, stagnation and instability in industrial sector.
Question 95
When did Mussolini conducted a ‘March on Rome’?
A
1922
B
1933
C
1912
D
1939
Question 95 Explanation: 
All sections of Italy like workers, farmers, middle class and even rich classes faced war-related miseries. Benito Mussolini, being a dangerous demagogue, capitalized on this widespread discontent and conducted a ‘March on Rome’ in 1922. The political authorities in the face of fascist intimidation capitulated and Mussolini and National Fascist Party captured power without any violence.
Question 96
Who wrote the book ‘Doctrine of Fascism’?
A
Adolf Hitler
B
Benito Mussolini
C
Giovanni Gentile
D
Albus Nolan
Question 96 Explanation: 
A Fascist writer Giovanni Gentile wrote the book ‘Doctrine of Fascism’. He said that the Fascist State is a will to power and empire. The Roman tradition is here a powerful force. According to the doctrine of Fascism, empire is not only territorial or military or mercantile concept, but a spiritual and moral one.
Question 97
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Fascism preached and practiced aggressive nationalism.
  2. Fascism pursued imperialism in theory only
  3. Fascism proclaimed that Italy is the greatest nation in the world
A
1, 2
B
1,3
C
2,3
D
None
Question 97 Explanation: 
Fascism preached and practiced aggressive nationalism. Fascism proclaimed that Italy is the greatest nation in the world and created hatred against other nations and people. Fascism pursued imperialism both in theory and practice. Its expansionist drive re-ignited colonial rivalries in Africa precipitating the Second World War.
Question 98
Who believed that the Fascist State is the ‘Third Rome’?
A
Adolf Hitler
B
Benito Mussolini
C
Giovanni Gentile
D
Albus Nolan
Question 98 Explanation: 
Mussolini believed that the Fascist State is the ‘Third Rome’, a worthy successor to the First Ancient Roman Empire and second the Renaissance Rome that disseminated the seeds of renaissance throughout Europe.
Question 99
Who stated the statement ‘war is to man what maternity is to woman’?
A
Adolf Hitler
B
Benito Mussolini
C
Giovanni Gentile
D
Albus Nolan
Question 99 Explanation: 
Fascism extolled the virtues of war. Mussolini infamously stated ‘war is to man what maternity is to woman’. It deprecated peace as a slogan of the weak and cowardly. Fascism sought to honour women as ‘reproducers of the nation’.
Question 100
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Fascism rejected the idea of a limited State.
  2. Mussolini exclaimed, ‘Everything within the State, nothing outside the State, nothing against the State”.
  3. It exercised a complete control over the minds and actions of its citizens.
A
1,2
B
1,3
C
2,3
D
All the above
Question 100 Explanation: 
Fascism rejected the idea of a limited State. It enthusiastically followed the concept of totalitarianism. Mussolini exclaimed, ‘Everything within the State, nothing outside the State, nothing against the State”. The State was empowered to create a radically new society. It exercised a complete control over the minds and actions of its citizens. Fascists provided a positive outlook to the concept of totalitarian State contending that the powerful authoritarian State is vital for the metamorphosis of Italy into a mighty nation and moulding of its citizens into politically-active brave people.
Question 101
Which of the following is mortal enemy to Fascism?
A
Nazism
B
Capitalism
C
Communism
D
All the above
Question 101 Explanation: 
Fascism considered communism as its mortal enemy and endeavored hard to suppress it. Fascism banned political parties, movements and writings supporting communism.
Question 102
For how many years great Marxist thinker Antonio Gramsci was jailed by Fascist?
A
20
B
10
C
18
D
19
Question 102 Explanation: 
The great Marxist thinker of Italy, Antonio Gramsci was jailed for 20 years. The official prosecutor in that case ended his peroration infamously demanding the judge ‘we should stop this brain working for 20 years’.
Question 103
Which of the following statement is incorrect?
  1. Mussolini firmly believed that the disputes between the business classes and labour should and could be removed through the system of corporate bodies
  2. Notable fact of the Fascist State is its nature as a Corporate State
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 103 Explanation: 
Notable fact of the Fascist State is its nature as a Corporate State. Every profession, trade or occupation possessed its own corporate organisation. The national objectives of the State were given primacy over everything. The corporate State was promoted to remove any conflict between employers and employees. Mussolini firmly believed that the disputes between the business classes and labour should and could be removed through the system of corporate bodies.
Question 104
Which of the following statement about Fascism is correct?
  1. Fascism was the most powerful totalitarian State that mankind had ever faced
  2. It was democratic
  3. Fascism was attacked as an opportunistic, intellectually dishonest ideology as it changed frequently its core ideological principles and postures
A
1,2
B
1,3
C
2,3
D
All the above
Question 104 Explanation: 
Fascism was the most powerful totalitarian State that mankind had ever faced. It was undemocratic. Fascism was attacked as an opportunistic, intellectually dishonest ideology as it changed frequently its core ideological principles and postures. Though Fascism and Nazism had been cruel collaborators in inflicting massive death and destruction on humankind in the Second World War, Fascism as an ideology was more coherent and therefore continues to be used as a term even in the 21st century to assail dictators and totalitarian States.
Question 105
When did Hitler formed the Nazi Party?
A
1920
B
1930
C
1940
D
1950
Question 105 Explanation: 
Adolf Hitler was the architect of the totalitarian ideology of Nazism that ruled Germany in the inter-war period. Hitler formed the Nazi Party (officially National Socialist German Workers’ Party) on the basis of a radical 25-point programme in 1920 that included nationalization of all major industries, forfeiture of war profits and freedom from the thralldom of moneylenders.
Question 106
When did Hitler came to power?
A
1933
B
1930
C
1940
D
1950
Question 106 Explanation: 
Hitler arrived at the citadels of power without shedding blood by manipulating the parliamentary and constitutional processes in 1933.
Question 107
Which of the following were promised by Hitler to the people?
  1. food to every belly
  2. cloth to everybody
  3. work to every hand
  4. house to every family
A
1, 2, 3
B
1, 3, 4
C
2, 3, 4
D
All the above
Question 107 Explanation: 
Hitler was a wily demagogue and attracted all sections of German society by promising everything to everybody. He promised ‘food to every belly, cloth to everybody, work to every hand and house to every family’.
Question 108
Where does the Versailles Treaty of 1919 signed?
A
Rome
B
Paris
C
London
D
Belgium
Question 108 Explanation: 
The major cause of emergence of Hitler and Nazism can be located in the controversial Versailles Treaty of 1919 that was signed in Paris in the post-war settlement process.
Question 109
What does ‘Mein Kempf’ mean?
A
My Promise
B
My struggle
C
My wishes
D
My wishes
E
Question 109 Explanation: 
Hitler resorted to heighten the emotions of the ordinary German people by condemning the economic, military, and political humiliation of the German nation by the victorious allied powers. He authored the book ‘Mein Kempf’ meaning ‘My Struggle’ containing his views and ideas about German nation.
Question 110
Who among the following stated this ‘the State is the march of God on earth’?
A
Benito Mussolini
B
Adolf Hitler
C
Friedrich Hegel
D
Antonio Gramsci
Question 110 Explanation: 
Nazism believed in totalitarianism. It adhered to the historical slogan of the German philosopher Friedrich Hegel that ‘the State is the march of God on earth’. Complete obedience was demanded from the citizens.
Question 111
‘War is eternal, war is universal. War is life. War is the origin of all things’ who stated this?
A
Benito Mussolini
B
Adolf Hitler
C
Friedrich Hegel
D
Antonio Gramsci
Question 111 Explanation: 
Nazism resorted to systematic glorification of war. Hitler said, ‘War is eternal, war is universal. War is life. War is the origin of all things’. This warmongering precipitated the Second World War and inflicted misery on mankind.
Question 112
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Perhaps the one of the most controversial principles of Nazism is its racial superiority and purity myth
  2. Hitler considered the Aryan race as the most intelligent and superlative one calling it the master race of mankind
  3. A set of laws known as Nuremberg Laws were enacted in 1924 to preserve the racial purity of the Aryan race
A
1,2
B
1,3
C
2,3
D
All the above
Question 112 Explanation: 
Perhaps the one of the most controversial principles of Nazism is its racial superiority and purity myth. Hitler considered the Aryan race as the most intelligent and superlative one calling it the master race of mankind. He detested other races living among or in the vicinity of German nation especially Jews and Slav races. A set of laws known as Nuremberg Laws were enacted in 1934 to preserve the racial purity of the Aryan race. Marital relations between Aryans and other impure races like Jews, gypsies were banned.
Question 113
  • Assertion(A): Nazism suppressed Jews holding them responsible for the misery of
German people
  • Reason(R): The disproportionately higher representation of Jews in the wealthy
classes and their lower percentage presence in lower sections of society invited the wrath of the Nazi State.
A
A is correct and R is Wrong
B
A is Wrong and R is Correct
C
Both A and R are Correct, but R is not correct explanation of A
D
Both A and R are Correct, R is correct explanation of A
Question 113 Explanation: 
Nazisim implemented a brutal campaign of persecution against the Jews that resulted in the killing of millions of people which is now observed as the Holocaust. Nazism suppressed Jews holding them responsible for the misery of German people. The disproportionately higher representation of Jews in the wealthy classes and their lower percentage presence in lower sections of society invited the wrath of the Nazi State. They were subjected to inhuman conditions in places of detention known as concentration camps.
Question 114
Which of the following were rejected by Nazism?
  1. communism of Soviet Union
  2. liberal democracy of the United States of America
  3. internationalism of League of Nations
A
1,2
B
1,3
C
2,3
D
All the above
Question 114 Explanation: 
Nazism was expansionist. Germany wanted to capture colonies so that the surplus population can be exported and it could overtake England as the colonial giant of the world. Nazism rejected the prevailing political ideologies and systems like communism of Soviet Union, liberal democracy of the United States of America and internationalism of League of Nations.
Question 115
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Nazism believed in hero worship
  2. The concept of equality of human beings was rejected and Adolf Hitler was addressed as the "Fuehrer" (leader)
  3. Germany itself was called as "Fuehrer State" meaning the ‘Leader-State’.
A
1,2
B
1,3
C
2,3
D
All the above
Question 115 Explanation: 
Nazism believed in hero worship. The idea that ‘Germany is Hitler and Hitler is Germany’ was instilled in the minds of the people. The concept of equality of human beings was rejected and Adolf Hitler was addressed as the "Fuehrer" (leader). In fact, Germany itself was called as "Fuehrer State" meaning the ‘Leader-State’.
Question 116
  • Assertion(A): Nazi party extinguished after second world war
  • Reason(R): Adolf Hitler suicided in his underground bunker
A
A is correct and R is Wrong
B
A is Wrong and R is Correct
C
Both A and R are Correct, but R is not correct explanation of A
D
Both A and R are Correct, R is correct explanation of A
Question 116 Explanation: 
Succinctly to state, Nazism is criticized for being totalitarian, irrational, racist and inhuman ideology. The defeat of Germany in the Second World War and the suicide of Adolf Hitler extinguished the Nazi party and ideology. The emergence of the liberal democratic political system in Germany based on competitive party system has denied scope for the revival of Nazism.
Question 117
How many republics were there in USSR excluding Russia?
A
14
B
15
C
16
D
19
Question 117 Explanation: 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. It was the official name of the communist country consisting of fifteen republics including Russia.
Question 118
Which statement about Structural adjustment is incorrect?
  1. Government provided services such as health, education and water sectors are privatized or subsidies are reduced or removed.
  2. Structural adjustment has been the dominant policy agenda in the United Kingdom and the United States of America since the 1980s.
  3. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund are at best encouraging, and worst coercing, developing countries along the same path, making development aid conditional on their adoption of neo-liberal economic politics
A
1,2
B
1,3
C
2,3
D
None
Question 118 Explanation: 
Structural adjustment – In pursuit of neo-liberal economic policies of deregulation and privatization, governments withdraw from interventions that might affect the functioning of free markets, for instance removing subsidies and price controls of food. Government provided services such as health, education and water sectors are privatized or subsidies are reduced or removed. The introduction of primary school fees in developing countries in the 1980s, which has depressed girls’ enrollment, is an example of this trend. Structural adjustment has been the dominant policy agenda in the United Kingdom and the United States of America since the 1980s. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund are at best encouraging, and worst coercing, developing countries along the same path, making development aid conditional on their adoption of neo-liberal economic politics.
Question 119
When was WTO Established?
A
1995
B
1990
C
2001
D
1999
Question 119 Explanation: 
Trade Liberalisation - This involves removal of barriers to international trade, such as tariffs and import quotas, and the prioritization of export production. Some experts argues that the subsequent loss of tariffs and import quotas, and the prioritization of export production. Some experts argue that the subsequent loss of tariff revenue to developing country governments has been partly responsible for their public spending cuts. Trade liberalization started to speed up in 1995, with the creation of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Countries in the global South are being encouraged to follow this route, by a combination of the World Trade Organisation, backed by the European Union and the United States of America and again, the influence of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.
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