Towards Modernity Online Test 11th History Lesson 14 Questions in English

Towards Modernity Online Test 11th History Lesson 14 Questions in English

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Question 1
Which province was the first to be affected by the British influence?
A
Bombay
B
Bengal
C
Madras
D
Delhi
Question 1 Explanation: 
By the first quarter of the nineteenth century, India had produced a small English-educated intelligentsia, closely associated with British administration or British trade. The ideas and the work of the Christian missionaries had already begun to have its impact. Bengal was the first province to be affected by the British influence and so it was here that several ideas of reform originated.
Question 2
Which of the following statement about Indian society in nineteenth century is correct?
  1. In Englishmen view idolatry and polytheism reinforced orthodoxy impelling the people to follow them blindly.
  2. The condition of women was Good.
  3. The division of society according to birth resulting in the caste system was criticized.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 2 Explanation: 
The British characterized Indian society in the nineteenth century as being caught in a vicious circle of superstitions and obscurantism. In their view idolatry and polytheism reinforced orthodoxy impelling the people to follow them blindly. The social conditions were equally depressing. And the condition of women was deplorable. The practice of sati came in for particular condemnation. The division of society according to birth resulting in the caste system was also criticized.
Question 3
When was Brahmo Samaj established?
A
1828
B
1860
C
1884
D
1856
Question 3 Explanation: 
Raja Rammohun Roy, was a man of versatile genius. He established the Brahmo Samaj in August, 1828. The Brahmo Samaj was committed to “the worship and adoration of the eternal, unsearchable, immutable Being who is the Author and Preserver of the Universe”.
Question 4
Which of the following statement about Raja Rammohun Roy is correct?
  1. His long-term agenda was to purify Hinduism and to preach monotheism
  2. He was against the evil act Sati
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 4 Explanation: 
Raja Rammohun Roy’s long-term agenda was to purify Hinduism and to preach monotheism for which he drew authority from the Vedas. He emphasized human dignity, opposed idolatry and social evils such as sati. He was a determined crusader against the inhuman practice of Sati
Question 5
When does East India company declared the practice of sati a crime?
A
1828
B
1829
C
1819
D
1825
Question 5 Explanation: 
Raja Rammohun Roy tract written in 1818, A Conference Between an Advocate for and an Opponent of the Practice of Burning Widows, cited sacred texts to prove that no religion sanctioned the burning alive of widows. His efforts fructified and the Company through an enactment of law (1829) declared the practice of sati a crime.
Question 6
Which of the following statement about Brahmo Samaj is incorrect?
  1. It Supported polytheism
  2. It wanted the abolition of child marriage
  3. It was against widow remarriage
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 6 Explanation: 
The overall contribution of Brahmo Samaj can be summed up as follows It denounced polytheism, idol worship, and the faith in divine avatars (incarnations) It condemned the caste system, dogmas and superstitions. It wanted the abolition of child marriage, purdah system and the practice of sati It supported widow remarriage
Question 7
Where did Raja Rammohun Raj died?
A
India
B
USA
C
Bristol
D
Japan
Question 7 Explanation: 
Inspired by the ideals of the French Revolution, Rammohun Roy left for Europe and died in Bristol. His ideas and activities were aimed at the political uplift of society through social reform.
Question 8
When did Keshab Chandra Sen forward Brahmo Samaj?
A
1884
B
1857
C
1865
D
1835
Question 8 Explanation: 
After Raja Rammohun Roy’s death there was a steady decline but for the new lease life given to it by Devendranath Tagore (father of Rabindranath Tagore). After him the organization was taken forward by Keshab Chandra Sen from 1857.
Question 9
Match the number of branches of Brahma Samaj with respective province
  1. Bengal                                        1. 2
  2. Madras                                       2. 1
  3. North West                               3. 50
A
3, 2, 1
B
3, 1, 2
C
2, 1, 3
D
2, 3, 1
Question 9 Explanation: 
The strength of the organization is known from the number of branches it had in 1865, 54 Samajas (fifty in Bengal, two in North West Province, one each in Punjab and Madras).
Question 10
Who headed Sadharan Brahmo Samaj?
A
Raja Rammohun Roy
B
Keshab Chandra Sen
C
Devendranath Tagore
D
Rabindranath Tagore
Question 10 Explanation: 
In course of time, the Brahmo Samaj broke into two namely Devendranath Tagore’s, ‘Brahmo Samaj of India’ and Keshab Chandra Sen’s ‘Sadharan Brahmo Samaj’.
Question 11
Who wrote the play Brahmo Samaja Natakam?
A
Raja Rammohun Roy
B
Keshab Chandra Sen
C
Devendranath Tagore
D
Kasi Viswanatha Mudaliar
Question 11 Explanation: 
In Tamilnadu, Kasi Viswanatha Mudaliar was an adherent of the Samaj and he wrote a play titled Brahmo Samaja Natakam to expound the ideas of the Samaj.
Question 12
Who is the founder of Prarthana Samaj?
A
K.T. Telang
B
Atmaram Pandurang
C
R. G. Bhandarkar
D
M. G. Ranade
Question 12 Explanation: 
An off-shoot of the Brahmo Samaj, the Prarthana Samaj, was founded in 1867 in Bombay by Atmaram Pandurang (1823– 98). The Prarthana Samaj as an organization never had any great influence but its members, like M. G. Ranade (1852-1901), R. G. Bhandarkar, and K.T. Telang, were among the great leaders of nineteenthcentury Maharashtra and they became the founders of the social reform movement in later years.
Question 13
Which of the following statement about Prarthana Samaj is correct?
  1. It was against inter-dining, intermarriage, remarriage of widows
  2. Prarthana Samaj was similar to Brahmo Samaj, but it was consciously linked with the bhakti tradition of the Maharashtrian saints
  3. The Prarathana Samaj also looked over educational work directed at women and workers at the lower level
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 13 Explanation: 
Prarthana Samaj was similar to Brahmo Samaj, but it was consciously linked with the bhakti tradition of the Maharashtrian saints. The Prarathana Samaj continued its work mainly through educational work directed at women and workers at the lower level. It concentrated on social reforms like inter-dining, intermarriage, remarriage of widows, and uplift of women and depressed classes.
Question 14
Under who’s initiative National Social Conference was organized in 1885?
A
R. G. Bhandarkar
B
Rammohun Roy
C
M. G. Ranade
D
K.T. Telang
Question 14 Explanation: 
The National Social Conference organized at the initiative of M.G. Ranade met each year immediately after the Indian National Congress (1885) annual sessions. Justice Ranade was an erudite scholar with a keen intellect and under his able guidance the Prarthana Samaj became the active centre of a new social reformation in western India.
Question 15
Which of the following statement about M.G. Ranade is correct?
  • 1) He was one of the founders of the Widow Marriage Association
  • 2) He was an ardent promoter of the famous Deccan Education Society.
  • 3) When Ranade died in 1901, his leadership was taken over by Chandavarkar.
A
1, 2
B
1,3
C
1,2,3
D
None
Question 15 Explanation: 
M.G. Ranade was one of the founders of the Widow Marriage Association and was an ardent promoter of the famous Deccan Education Society. Its object was to impart such education to the young as would fit them for the unselfish service of the country. When Ranade died in 1901, his leadership was taken over by Chandavarkar.
Question 16
Where does Dayananda Saraswati belong born?
A
Maharashtra
B
Gujarat
C
Bengal
D
Rajasthan
Question 16 Explanation: 
The founder of the Arya Samaj was Dayananda Saraswati (1824–83). Dayananda, a Gujarati, left home in his youth to become an ascetic.
Question 17
When was Arya Samaj found?
A
1828
B
1865
C
1875
D
1867
Question 17 Explanation: 
For seventeen years he wandered around India. In 1863 he became a wandering preacher, and five years later he added the establishment of schools to his activities. In 1872 he met the Brahmos in Calcutta. In 1875 he founded the Arya Samaj.
Question 18
Satyarth Prakash is the work of_______
A
Devendranath Tagore
B
Keshab Chandra Sen
C
Dayananda Saraswati
D
Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
Question 18 Explanation: 
Dayananda Saraswati published his major work the Satyarth Prakash. In his view, contemporary Hinduism had become degenerate. Therefore, he rejected puranas, polytheism, idolatry, the role of Brahmin priests, pilgrimages, many rituals and the prohibition on widow marriage.
Question 19
During which century DAV institutions were established?
A
19th
B
20th
C
18th
D
21st
Question 19 Explanation: 
Arya Samaj is considered to be a revivalist movement. Dayananda’s influence continued into the twentieth century through the establishment of Dayananad Anglo Vedic (DAV) schools and colleges.
Question 20
According to whose view ‘all the religious views are different but ways to lead to the same goal’?
A
Dayananda Saraswati
B
Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
C
Raja Rammohun Roy
D
M.G. Ranade
Question 20 Explanation: 
According to Ramakrishna Paramahamsa ‘all the religious views are but different ways to lead to the same goal.’ In a backlash, the later generation of Western educated intellectuals were drawn to Ramakrishna’s broad view, mysticism and spiritual fervour.
Question 21
Who among the following is priest at Dakshineswar temple?
A
Dayananda Saraswati
B
Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
C
Swami Vivekananda
D
Chandavarkar
Question 21 Explanation: 
Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (1836–1886), a poor priest in a temple at Dakshineswar near Kolkata, had no formal education but led an intense spiritual life. He had a deep faith in the inherent truth of all religions and tested its belief by performing religious service in accordance with the practices of different religions.
Question 22
Whose early name was Narendranath Dutta?
A
Anagarika Dharmapala
B
Acharya Sumangala
C
Swami Vivekananda
D
Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
Question 22 Explanation: 
The most famous among Ramakrishna Paramahamsa disciples was a young graduate of the Calcutta University named Narendranath Dutta, afterwards famously called Swami Vivekananda (1863–1902).
Question 23
Who established the Ramakrishna Mission?
A
Acharya Vinobhava
B
Swami Vivekananda
C
Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
D
Acharya Sumangala
Question 23 Explanation: 
Emphasising practical work over philosophizing Swami Vivekananda established the modern institution of the Ramakrishna Mission. He carried Ramakrishna’s message all over India and the world.
Question 24
Who among the following is called as Morning Star of the Modern India?
A
Jyotiba Phule
B
Acharya Vinobhava
C
Swami Vivekananda
D
Dayananda Saraswati
Question 24 Explanation: 
Swami Vivekananda was a personification of youth and boldness and referred to as the Morning Star of the Modern India. In the words of Valentine Chirol, ‘the first Hindu whose personality won demonstrative recognition abroad for India’s ancient civilization and for her newborn claim to nationhood.
Question 25
Where did Swami Vivekananda attended ‘Parliament of Religions’?
A
Rome
B
Chicago
C
Berlin
D
Beijing
Question 25 Explanation: 
Swami Vivekananda attended in 1893 the famous, ‘Parliament of Religions’ at Chicago, and made a deep impact on those congregated there. The Mission opened schools, dispensaries and orphanages and helped people during their time of distress caused by calamities.
Question 26
Who among the following founded Theosophical Society in USA?
  1. Madam H.P. Blavatsky
  2. Annie Besant
  3. Colonel H.S. Olcott
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 26 Explanation: 
Even as Indian intellectuals felt challenged by western Enlightenment and rationalistic movements, there was a strain of thinking in the West which looked to the East for spiritual salvation. From this idea emerged the Theosophical Society, founded by Madam H.P. Blavatsky and Colonel H.S. Olcott in the United States of America in 1875.
Question 27
When did headquarters of Theosophical Society established in Adyar?
A
1875
B
1879
C
1886
D
1893
Question 27 Explanation: 
Theosophical Society came to India in 1879 and established their headquarters at Adyar in 1886. Under the leadership of Annie Besant, who came to India in 1893, the Theosophical Society gathered strength and won many adherents. The Theosophical Society started associations across south India.
Question 28
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Theosophical Society played an important role in the revival of Buddhism in India
  2. Iyotheethoss Pandithar met Anagarika Dharmapala and Acharya Sumangala in Bangladesh
  3. Colonel Olcott introduced modern Buddhism to Iyotheethoss Pandithar
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 28 Explanation: 
Though involved in many controversies, the Theosophical Society played an important role in the revival of Buddhism in India. Iyotheethoss Pandithar, the radical Dalit thinker, was introduced to modern Buddhism through his interaction with Colonel Olcott who took him to Sri Lanka. There he met many Buddhist monks including the renowned revivalist Anagarika Dharmapala and Acharya Sumangala.
Question 29
Which of the following were not read by Jyotiba Phule?
  1. Vedas
  2. Manu Samhita
  3. Puranas
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
None
Question 29 Explanation: 
In his quest for the truth, Jyotiba Phule read the Vedas, the Manu Samhita, the Puranas, and the thought of Buddha, Mahavira and the medieval Bhakti saints extensively. He also acquainted himself with Western thought, and Christian and Islamic religions. Phule judged the whole culture and tradition through the spirit of rationality and equality.
Question 30
When did Jyotiba Phule Born?
A
1837
B
1827
C
1887
D
1847
Question 30 Explanation: 
Jyotiba Phule belonged to the Mali (gardener) community. Born in 1827, he received initial education in a mission school but had to discontinue it in 1833. Jyotiba Phule waged a life-long struggle against upper caste tyranny.
Question 31
Who is the author of the book Gulamgiri?
A
Savitiri Phule
B
Jyotiba Phule
C
Pandita Ramabai
D
Swami Vivekananda
Question 31 Explanation: 
Jyotiba Phule held radical views on social, religious, political and economic issues. He considered the caste system as an antithesis of the principle of human equality. His most important book is Gulamgiri (Slavery).
Question 32
Who is the founder of Satya Shodak Samaj?
A
Jyotiba Phule
B
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
C
Savitri Phule
D
Pandita Ramabai
Question 32 Explanation: 
Jyotiba Phule sought to raise the morale of the non-Brahmins and united them to revolt against the centuries old inequality and social degradation. Towards this end Phule founded the Satya Shodak Samaj (Society for Seeking Truth) in 1875.
Question 33
Which of the following statement about Jyotiba Phule is correct?
  1. During marriages he asked the bridegroom to promise the right of education to his bride.
  2. He was the first person raise voice against sati
  3. He Stressed Equality between classes as also between men and women
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
All the above
Question 33 Explanation: 
Since women and deprived and downtrodden were the worst sufferers in the society, Phule argued that women’s liberation was linked with the liberation of other classes in society. Equality between classes as also between men and women was stressed by Phule. During marriages he asked the bridegroom to promise the right of education to his bride.
Question 34
Where did Phule started school for Girls?
A
Bombay
B
Bengal
C
Poona
D
Gujarat
Question 34 Explanation: 
Phule also tried to translate his ideas into actual struggles. He urged the British Government to impart compulsory primary education to the masses through teachers drawn from the cultivating classes. He started a school for girls in Poona in 1851 and one for depressed classes with the assistance of his wife Savitri. He also started schools for the "untouchables" and founded a home for widow’s children. In his work we find the beginnings of the later day non-Brahman movement of Maharashtra.
Question 35
Which of the following titles are owned by Ramabai?
  1. Pandit
  2. Knighthood
  3. Saraswati
A
1, 3
B
1 alone
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 35 Explanation: 
Pandita Ramabai was foremost among the Indian leaders who worked for the emancipation of women. She came from a learned family and was a great scholar of Sanskrit and addressed many learned groups in different parts of the country. She was given the title of “Pandita” and “Saraswati” for her deep knowledge of Sanskrit.
Question 36
When did Pandit Ramabai and his brother arrived at Calcutta?
A
1888
B
1878
C
1868
D
1858
Question 36 Explanation: 
After the death of Pandit Ramabai’s parents she and her brother travelled to different parts of the country. They went to Calcutta in 1878. Two years later her brother also died.
Question 37
Which of the following statement about Pandita Ramabai is correct?
  1. She married a Bengali belonging to a family of lower social status
  2. She started the Arya Mahila Samaj with the help of leaders like Ranade and Bhandarkar
  3. 300 women were educated in the Samaj in 1882
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 37 Explanation: 
In 1880 Pandit Ramabai married a Bengali belonging to a family of lower social status. Thus, even at that time she was bold enough to marry a man of a different caste and different language. After the death of her husband two years later she returned to Poona and started the Arya Mahila Samaj with the help of leaders like Ranade and Bhandarkar. 300 women were educated in the Samaj in 1882.
Question 38
Where did Pandit Ramabai established Mukti Sadan?
A
Bengal
B
Bombay
C
Khedgoan
D
Madras
Question 38 Explanation: 
Pandit Ramabai established a Mukti Sadan (freedom house) at Khedgoan. Soon there were 2000 children and women in the house. Vocational training was given make them self-reliant.
Question 39
What was the reason for Ramabai to shift her activities to Khedgoan?
A
She was accused for creating caste problem
B
She was accused for converting Hindu women to Christianity
C
She was accused for converting Christianity women to Hindu
D
She was accused for marrying lower class person
Question 39 Explanation: 
Ramabai started the Sharada Sadan (shelter for homeless) for the destitute widows with the help of Ranade and Bhandarkar. But soon she was accused of converting Hindu women to Christianity and hence had to shift her activities to Khedgoan near Poona.
Question 40
When was Sri Narayana Guru Dharma Paripalana (SNDP) Yogam started?
A
1885
B
1892
C
1902
D
1919
Question 40 Explanation: 
This movement emerged in Kerala and was born out of conflict between the depressed classes and the upper castes. It was started by Sri Narayana Guru (1854- 1928) spearheading a social movement of the Ezhavas of Kerala, a community of toddy tappers. The Ezhavas were the single largest group in Kerala constituting 26% of population. A great scholar in Malayalam, Tamil and Sanskrit, Sri Narayana Guru established the Sri Narayana Guru Dharma Paripalana (SNDP) Yogam in 1902.
Question 41
Which of the following is/are the issues took up by the SNDP?
  1. right of admission to public schools
  2. Right to enter the temples
  3. political representation
A
1 alone
B
1, 2
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 41 Explanation: 
The SNDP Yogam took up several issues such as (i) right of admission to public schools. (ii) recruitment to government services. (iii) access to roads and entry to temples; and (iv) political representation. The movement as a whole brought transformative structural changes such as upward social mobility, shift in traditional distribution of power and a federation of ‘backward classes’ into a large conglomeration.
Question 42
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Guru himself directly involved in the Vaikom Satyagraha
  2. As a response to prohibition of Ezhavas into temples, Sri Narayana Guru established new temples, and empowered the community to modernize itself
  3. Great personalities such as the poet Kumaran Asan Dr. Palpu and Sahodaran Ayyappan emerged from the movement
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 42 Explanation: 
As a response to the prohibition on Ezhavas into temples, Sri Narayana Guru established new temples, and empowered the community to modernize itself. Great personalities such as the poet Kumaran Asan Dr. Palpu and Sahodaran Ayyappan emerged from the movement, and made a lasting impact in the democratization of Kerala Society. Even though the Guru himself was not directly involved in the movement, the Vaikom Satyagraha, organized to protest against the ban on the entry of Ezhavas on the temple streets of Vaikom made a deep impact on subsequent temple entry movements.
Question 43
When was Aligarh movement started?
A
1885
B
1875
C
1895
D
1865
Question 43 Explanation: 
Aligarh Movement was started by Syed Ahmad Khan in 1875. He wanted to reconcile Western scientific education with the teachings of the Quran. The Aligarh movement aimed at spreading (i) Modern education among Indian Muslims without weakening their allegiance to Islam, and (ii) Social reforms among Muslims relating to purdah, polygamy, and divorce.
Question 44
Who is the author of the magazine Tahdhibul-Akhluq?
A
Mohammed Ali Jinnah
B
Rashid Ahmed Gangohi
C
Syed Ahmed Khan
D
Motif Ali
Question 44 Explanation: 
Syed’s progressive social ideas were propagated through his magazine Tahdhibul-Akhluq (Improvement of Manners and Morals). Syed Ahmad Khan’s educational programme emphasized from the outset he advantages of the use of English as the medium of instruction.
Question 45
Which of the following statement is iicorrect about Syed Ahmed Khan?
  1. In 1854 he founded a Scientific Society of Aligarh for the introduction of Western sciences through translations into Urdu of works on physical sciences
  2. The same year he founded a modern school at Ghazipur.
  3. In 1864 he promoted he formation of education committees to initiate modern education among the Muslims
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 45 Explanation: 
In 1864 Syed Ahmed Khan founded a Scientific Society of Aligarh for the introduction of Western sciences through translations into Urdu of works on physical sciences. The same year he founded a modern school at Ghazipur. In 1868 he promoted the formation of education committees in several districts, to initiate modern education among the Muslims.
Question 46
When did Muhammdan Anglo–Oriental College developed?
A
1875
B
1877
C
1887
D
1880
Question 46 Explanation: 
During his visit to Europe in 1869–70 he developed the plans of his life-work, a major educational institution for Indian Muslims. In order to promote English education among the Muslims, he founded in 1875 a modern school at Aligarh, which soon developed into the Muhammdan Anglo–Oriental College (1877). This college was to become the Muslim University after his death. It became the nursery of Muslim political and intellectual leaders.
Question 47
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. In 1886 Syed Ahmad Khan founded the Muhammedan Anglo Oriental Educational Conference
  2. He rejected blind adherence to religious law and asked for a reinterpretation of the Quran in the light of reason to suit the new trends of the time.
  3. In this mission he had to face the brunt of vehement attacks of orthodox theologians
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 47 Explanation: 
In 1886 Syed Ahmad Khan founded the Muhammedan Anglo Oriental Educational Conference as a general forum for spreading liberal ideas among the Indian Muslims. He rejected blind adherence to religious law and asked for a reinterpretation of the Quran in the light of reason to suit the new trends of the time. He attempted to liberalize Indian Islam and made it amenable to new ideas and new interpretations. In this mission he had to face the brunt of vehement attacks of orthodox theologians.
Question 48
Who founded Ahmadiya Movement?
A
Syed Ahmed Khan
B
Mirza Ghulam Ahmed
C
Rashid Ahmed Gangohi
D
Mohammad Qasim Nanotavi
Question 48 Explanation: 
The Ahmadiya movement founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmed (1835–1908) in 1889 established a different trend. While emphasizing the return to the original principles enunciated in the Quran, Ghulam Ahmed became controversial when he claimed to be a Messiah, which was considered heretical by mainstream Islam. But he won many converts.
Question 49
Against which of the following organisations does Ahmadiya Movement acted?
  1. Christian missionaries
  2. Brahmo Samaj
  3. Arya Samaj
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 49 Explanation: 
Mirza Ghulam Ahmed primary work was to defend Islam against the polemics of the Arya Samaj and the Christian missionaries. In social morals the Ahmadiya movement was conservative, adhering to polygamy, veiling of women, and the classical rules of divorce.
Question 50
When does the Seminary at Deoband was founded?
A
1887
B
1867
C
1898
D
1827
Question 50 Explanation: 
The seminary at Deoband was founded in 1867 by theologians of the School of Wali-Allah. Muhammad Qasim Nanotavi took a prominent part in counterpolemics against the Christian missionaries and the Arya Samajists. The principal objectives of the seminary at Deoband were to re-establish contact between the theologians and the educated Muslim middle classes, and to revive the study of Muslim religious and scholastic sciences
Question 51
Which of the following statement about Deoband Movement is correct?
  1. The movement was established in Deoband in Saranpur district
  2. The Deoband movement twin objective of propagating the pure teachings of the Quran and Hadis among Muslims.
  3. This movement was Same as that of Aligarh movement
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 51 Explanation: 
The Deoband movement was organised by the orthodox section among the Muslim ulemas as a revivalist movement with the twin objective of propagating the pure teachings of the Quran and Hadis among Muslims. The movement was established in Deoband in Saranpur district (by Mohammad Qasim Nanotavi (1833-1877) and Rashid Ahmed Gangohi (1828–1905) to train religious leaders for the Muslim community. In contrast to the Aligarh Movement, which aimed at the welfare of Muslims through Western education and support of the British Government, the aim of the Deoband Movement was religious regeneration of the Muslim community. The instruction imparted at Deoband adhered to classical Islamic tradition.
Question 52
When and was Nadwat al-‘ulama founded?
A
1894, Lucknow
B
1884, Delhi
C
1890, Mirazpur
D
1878, Deoband
Question 52 Explanation: 
A school less conservative than Deoband and more responsive to the demands of the modern age was the Nadwat al- ‘ulama,’ founded in 1894 at Lucknow by the historian Shibli Nu‘mani and other scholars. The school aimed to offer an enlightened interpretation of religion in order to fight the trends of agnosticism and atheism which had followed the advent of modern Western education.
Question 53
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Farangi Mahal is located in Lucknow
  2. Farangi Mahal accepted Sufism
  3. ahl-i-hadith are the followers of the dicta of the Prophet
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 53 Explanation: 
The third famous traditional school is the much older one at Farangi Mahal in Lucknow. Farangi Mahal accepted Sufism as a valid experience and a valid field of study. Another traditionalist movement was the ahl-i-hadith or of the followers of the dicta of the Prophet.
Question 54
In which century Zoroastrians migrated in large numbers to the west coast of India?
A
9th
B
10th
C
12th
D
14th
Question 54 Explanation: 
Zoroastrians, persecuted in their Persian homeland, migrated in large numbers to the west coast of India in the tenth century. As a trading community they flourished over the centuries. A close-knit community it too was not left untouched by the reform movements of the nineteenth century.
Question 55
When did Rahnumai Madayasnan Sabha was established?
A
1881
B
1851
C
1861
D
1871
Question 55 Explanation: 
The Rahnumai Madayasnan Sabha (Religious Reform Association) was founded in 1851 by a group of English educated Parsis for the “regeneration of the social conditions of the Parsis and the restoration of the Zoroastrian religion to its pristine purity”. The movement had Naoroji Furdonji, Dadabhai Naoroji, K. R. Cama and S.S. Bengalee as its leaders.
Question 56
Which newspaper was used by Parsi Reform Movements to spread information?
A
Kesari
B
Marathi
C
Rasta Goftar
D
Deenelahai
Question 56 Explanation: 
The message of reform movement by Parsi was spread by the newspaper Rast-Goftar (Truth Teller). Parsi religious rituals and practices were reformed and the Parsi creed redefined. In the social sphere, attempts were made to uplift the status of Parsi women through education, removal of the purdah, raising the age of marriage and the like. Gradually, the Parsis emerged as the most westernised section of the Indian society. They played a key role in the nationalist movement and in the industrialization of India.
Question 57
When was Singh Sabha Movement was formed?
A
1873
B
1883
C
1889
D
1899
Question 57 Explanation: 
The Sikh community could not remain untouched by the rising tide of rationalist and progressive ideas of the nineteenth century. The Singh Sabha Movement was formed in 1873, with a two-fold objective (i) to make available modern western education to the Silkhs (ii) to counter the proselytizing activities of Christian missionaries as well as Hindu revivalists. A network of Khalsa Schools was established throughout Punjab.
Question 58
Which of the following movement is an offshoot of the Singh Sabha Movement?
A
Parsi Reform Movements
B
Akali movement
C
Deoband movement
D
Ahmadiya Movement
Question 58 Explanation: 
The Akali movement was an offshoot of the Singh Sabha Movement. The Akali movement aimed at liberating the Sikh Gurudwara from the corrupt control of the Udasi Mahants (priests).
Question 59
When did the government amended Sikh Gurudwara Act?
A
1919
B
1922
C
1932
D
1925
Question 59 Explanation: 
The Government passed the Sikh Gurudwara Act in 1922 (amended in 1925), which gave control to Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee (SGPC) as the main body.
Question 60
Where did Vaikunda Swamigal born?
A
Thoothukudi
B
Swamithoppu
C
Tiruchendur
D
Madurai
Question 60 Explanation: 
Sri Vaikunda Swamigal’s cult, survives still today. He was born in a poor family at Sastan koilvilai (now known as Swamithoppu), a village then in south Travancore (the present-day Kanyakumari district), He spent his childhood in the village pial school, learning religious and moral texts. He practised austerities for six years. Soon his fame spread far and wide.
Question 61
Which of the following statement about Vaikunda Swamigal is correct?
  1. His followers called him Aiya and his cult came to be known as Aiya Vazhi
  2. He was arrested and jailed by the Raja of Travancore for his “seditious speeches”.
  3. In his preaching Vaikundar attacked the traditional caste-ridden Travancore society
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 61 Explanation: 
In his preaching Vaikundar attacked the traditional caste-ridden Travancore society and its ruler for collecting excessive taxes from the lower caste people. He was arrested and jailed by the Raja of Travancore for his “seditious speeches”. When he was released from jail he became more popular among the people. His followers called him Aiya (father) and his cult came to be known as Aiya Vazhi (path of the father).
Question 62
Who among the following urged his followers to wear a turban?
A
Vallalar Ramalinga Swamigal
B
Iyotheethoss Pandithar
C
Vaikunda Swamigal
D
Raja Rammohun Roy
Question 62 Explanation: 
As a symbol of protest, Vaikunda Swamy urged his followers to wear a turban, a right which was permitted only to upper castes in those days. As a part of his effort to practice equality, Vaikunda Swamy regularly organized inter-dining through his Samathuva Sangam, among different castes. In his feeding centres called Nilal Tangals, caste-based restrictions were broken down. The Vaikunda Swamy cult posed a serious challenge to the spread of Christianity in south Travancore even after his death in 1851.
Question 63
Where did Ramalinga Swamigal born?
A
Chidambaram
B
Vadalur
C
Neyveli
D
Mayiladurai
Question 63 Explanation: 
Ramalinga Swamigal was born in a modest family near Chidambaram and spent his early life in Madras. He never had formal schooling, but exhibited great scholarship. Inspired by the Saiva Thevaram and Thiruvasagam hymns, he began to compose moving poems on his own. In his time, Saiva religion was in the grip of Saiva monasteries such as those at Thiruvaduthurai, Dharumapuram and Thiruppanandal.
Question 64
Which of the following statement is correct about Vallalar Ramalinga Swamigal?
  1. His followers published his poems under the title of Thiruvarutpa (Songs of Grace) in 1867
  2. Vallalar established the Sathya Dharma Salai at Chidambaram
  3. He founded the Sathya Gnana Sabhai to organize his followers
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 64 Explanation: 
Vallalar Ramalinga Swamigal established the Sathya Dharma Salai at Vadalur where he began to feed poor people, especially in the context of the 1860s famine and pestilence, irrespective of caste and creed. He founded the Sathya Gnana Sabhai to organize his followers. This brought him into conflict with established Saivite orders, and matters came to a head when his followers published his poems under the title of Thiruvarutpa (Songs of Grace) in 1867. Orthodox Saivites under the Sri Lankan reformer Arumuga Navalar criticized this as blasphemous and launched a tract war. But ultimately, Ramalinga Swamigal’s contribution was recognized and his writings inspired universal ideas, and undermined sectarianism in Saiva religion.
Question 65
When was Jeevaka Chintamani published?
A
1887
B
1898
C
1897
D
1877
Question 65 Explanation: 
Tamil country by the beginning of the second millennium. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, there was a revival of Buddhism. The publication of the complete edition of Jeevaka Chintamani (1887) and Manimekalai (1898) were landmarks in the recovery of heterodox traditions.
Question 66
Which of the following statement is correct about Iyotheethoss Pandithar?
  1. He was native doctor by profession, he was an erudite scholar
  2. In the 1890s he began a movement among the Adi Dravidars arguing that they were the original Buddhists
  3. He encouraged people conversion to Buddhism
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 66 Explanation: 
The most important figure was Iyotheethoss Pandithar (1845– 1914). A native doctor by profession, he was an erudite scholar. He also came under the influence of Colonel Olcott of the Theosophical Society. In the 1890s he began a movement among the Adi Dravidars arguing that they were the original Buddhists who had been consigned to ‘untouchability’ due to their opposition to Vedic Brahminism. He reread classical Tamil and other texts to make his case. He also encouraged the conversion to Buddhism.
Question 67
Oru Paisa Tamilan is a _____ journal
A
Daily
B
Weekly
C
Monthly
D
Yearly
Question 67 Explanation: 
Iyotheethoss Pandithar found the greatest following in north Tamilnadu and among the working classes of the Kolar Gold Fields. In this movement, M. Singavelu and Prof P. Lakshmi Narasu also played an important role. Pandithar ran a weekly journal called Oru Paisa Tamilan (later Tamilan) from 1908 until his death.
Question 68
Who among the following established the Serampore Mission?
  1. William Carey
  2. John Thomas
  3. Joshua Marshman
  4. William Ward
A
1, 2, 3
B
1, 3, 4
C
2, 3, 4
D
All the above
Question 68 Explanation: 
In 1793 two English missionaries, William Carey and John Thomas, both Baptists, set out to India with the intention of starting a mission. In view of the ban on missionary activity they settled down in the Danish Colony of Serampore, north of Calcutta. Carey, along with two other missionaries, Joshua Marshman and William Ward established the Serampore Mission in 1799.
Question 69
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. The Serampore missionaries were the first evangelical Baptist missionaries in India
  2. Before the arrival of the Serampore missionaries, several centuries earlier, there were Christian missions in the Portuguese territory of Goa, and also on the Malabar Coast and the Coromandel Coast
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 69 Explanation: 
The Serampore missionaries were the first evangelical Baptist missionaries in India. They were followed later by other missionary groups belonging to different Protestant denominations. Before the arrival of the Serampore missionaries, several centuries earlier, there were Christian missions in the Portuguese territory of Goa, and also on the Malabar Coast and the Coromandel Coast. The work of the earlier missionaries was limited both geographically and in terms of the number of conversions to Christianity. Thus, major attempts at proselytization began during the nineteenth century.
Question 70
Which of the following statement is incorrect?
  1. The orthodox sections of the society could not accept the scientific and ideological onslaught of the socio-religious reformers.
  2. The reformers were subjected to abuse, persecution, issuing of fatwas and even assassination attempts by the reactionaries
  3. The movements emphasised the human intellect’s capacity to reason and think.
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
All the above
D
None of the above
Question 70 Explanation: 
The orthodox sections of the society could not accept the scientific and ideological onslaught of the socio-religious reformers. As a result of this, the reformers were subjected to abuse, persecution, issuing of fatwas and even assassination attempts by the reactionaries. However, in spite of opposition, these movements contributed towards liberation of the individual from the conformity born out of fear. The movements emphasised the human intellect’s capacity to reason and think. By weeding out corrupt elements in religious practices, the reformers enabled their followers to counter the official taunt that their religions and society were decadent and inferior. It gave the rising middle classes the much needed cultural roots to cling to.
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