Cultural Development in South India Online Test 11th History Lesson 4 Questions in English

Cultural Development in South India Online Test 11th History Lesson 4 Questions in English

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Question 1
The political history of south India during the sixth century to ninth century CE was marked by conflicts between which two kingdoms?
A
Pallavas and Chalukyas
B
Cholas and Chalukyas
C
Pallavas and Cholas
D
Cholas and Vijayanagar
Question 1 Explanation: 
The political history of south India during the sixth century to ninth century CE was marked by conflicts between the Chalukyas of Badami (also known as Western Chalukyas), and the Pallavas of Kanchi.
Question 2
In which of the following language pallavas issued Inscription?
A
Kannada
B
Telugu
C
Sanskrit
D
Pali
Question 2 Explanation: 
Inscriptions issued by Pallavas in Tamil and Sanskrit, recording land grants to Brahmins, as well as the royal and the non-royal gifts made to religious establishment are equally important sources.
Question 3
Which of the following statement is correct
  1. The Bhakti movement, which impacted the entire sub-continent, originated in the Tamil country during this period the sixth century to ninth century CE. It also broke new grounds in areas like devotional literature, art and architecture.
  2. Inscriptions on copperplates, on temple walls and pillars form a major source of historical information for this period.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 4
The Aihole inscription of Pulikesin II composed by which poet in Sanskrit is among the most important of Chalukyan inscriptions?
A
Ravikirti
B
Pampa
C
Harivarma
D
Nagavarmacharya
Question 4 Explanation: 
The Aihole inscription of Pulikesin II composed by his court poet Ravikirti in Sanskrit is among the most important of Chalukyan inscriptions.
Question 5
In which of the following language Chalukyas didn’t issued Inscription?
A
Kannada
B
Telugu
C
Tamil
D
Pali
Question 5 Explanation: 
Inscriptions issued by Chalukyas in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit languages.
Question 6
Who among the following was the writer of Vikramarjuna-vijayam?
A
Ravikirti
B
Pampa
C
Harivarma
D
Nagavarmacharya
Question 6 Explanation: 
Kavirajamarga, a work on poetics in Kannada, Vikramarjuna-vijayam, also called Pampa-bharata, by Pampa in Kannada, which were all of a later period.
Question 7
Whose Mahabharatam in Telugu provide useful historical data?
A
Manickavasagar
B
Pothana
C
Vemana
D
Nannaya
Question 7 Explanation: 
Nannaya’s Mahabharatam in Telugu also provide useful historical data.
Question 8
The poems of the Vaishnavite Azhwars were later compiled as what?
A
Nalayira Divya Prabhandam
B
Panniru Tirumurai
C
Mahabharatha
D
Vishnu Purana
Question 8 Explanation: 
The poems of the Vaishnavite Azhwars were later compiled as the Nalayira Divya Prabhandam.
Question 9
Who among the following did not compose Thevaram?
A
Appar
B
Sambandar
C
Sundarar
D
Manickavasagar
Question 9 Explanation: 
The Thevaram, composed by Appar (Thirunavukkarasar), Sambandar (Thirugnanasambandar) and Sundarar
Question 10
The Saiva literature was canonized as what?
A
Nalayira Divya Prabhandam
B
Panniru Tirumurai
C
Thiruvilayadal
D
Siva Purana
Question 10 Explanation: 
The Bhakti movement which originated in South India found its greatest expression in the songs composed by the Azhwars and Nayanmars. The Saiva literature was canonized as the Panniru Tirumurai.
Question 11
Which among the following was composed by Manickavasagar?
A
Mahabharatam
B
Mahavamsa
C
Thiruvasagam
D
Periyapuranam
Question 11 Explanation: 
Thiruvasagam was written by Manickavasagar. Thevaram and Thiruvavasagam are prominent texts which are read as sacred literature to this day.
Question 12
Who wrote Periyapuranam in later period , also provides much historical information?
A
Kambar
B
Sekizhar
C
Tirumular
D
Sambandar
Question 12 Explanation: 
Periyapuranam written by Sekizhar, in a later period, also provides much historical information.
Question 13
In which language Mathavilasa Prahasanam was written by Mahendravarman I, an important source for Pallava period?
A
Tamil
B
Telugu
C
Kannada
D
Sanskrit
Question 13 Explanation: 
The Mathavilasa Prahasanam written by Mahendravarman I in Sanskrit, is an important source for the Pallava period.
Question 14
The Allahabad Pillar inscription of whom provide details of Pallava - Chalukya conflict?
A
Chandragupta I
B
Chandragupta II
C
Samudra Gupta
D
Skanda Gupta
Question 14 Explanation: 
Many inscriptional sources including the Allahabad Pillar inscription of Samudragupta and the Aihole inscription of the Chalukya king Pulakisin II provide details of Pallava - Chalukya conflict.
Question 15
The Velurpalayam copper plates belong to which King?
A
Nandivarman III
B
Parameshwaravarman
C
Mahendravarman I
D
Pulakisin II
Question 15 Explanation: 
The Kuram copper plates of Parameshwaravarman and the Velurpalayam copper plates of Nandivarman III record their military achievements. Coins help us to understand the economic condition of the period.
Question 16
Which among the following is the Buddhist source give us details about the socio-religious and cultural conditions of the Pallava times?
A
Abhidharma
B
Sarvastivada
C
Deepavamsa
D
Mahavastu
Question 16 Explanation: 
Buddhist sources such as Deepavamsa and Mahavamsa, written in Pali, give us details about the socio-religious and cultural conditions of the Pallava times.
Question 17
Who among the following Chinese Traveller gives us detail about pallava times religious and culture condition?
A
Hiuen Tsang
B
Fa Hien
C
Yijing
D
Wu Chengén
Question 17 Explanation: 
The accounts of Chinese travellers Hiuen Tsang and Itsing give us details about the socio-religious and cultural conditions of the Pallava times.
Question 18
Who among the following is not the Arab travellers and geographers tell us about the socio-political conditions of Pallava period?
A
Sulaiman
B
Al-Masudi
C
Muhammad Ul Talik
D
Ibn Hauka
Question 18 Explanation: 
The ninth and tenth century writings of Arab travellers and geographers such as Sulaiman, Al-Masudi, and Ibn Hauka also tell us about the socio-political and economic conditions of India of this period. The sculptures in the temples in Aihole, Badami, Pattadakal reflect the culture of the times.
Question 19
How many Chalukya families are there?
A
Four
B
Two
C
Seven
D
Nine
Question 19 Explanation: 
There are two Chalukya families: Chalukyas of Badami (Vatapi) and Chalukyas of Kalyani.
Question 20
Who was the founder of Chalukya Dynasty?
A
Vikramaditya I
B
Tailapa I
C
Pulikesin I
D
Kirtivarman
Question 20 Explanation: 
Chalukya dynasty emerged as a strong power with its founder Pulikesin I (c. 535 – 566 CE) fortifying a hill near Badami.
Question 21
What was the capital of Chalukya Dynasty?
A
Gokarna
B
Hampi
C
Aihole
D
Badami
Question 21 Explanation: 
The capital of Chalukya Dynasty was Badami.
Question 22
Pulikesin I declared Independence from which dynasty?
A
Rashtrakuta
B
Pallava
C
Kadambas
D
Vijayanagar
Question 22 Explanation: 
Pulikesin I declared independence from the Kadambas. It is said that he conducted yagnas and performed the asvameda sacrifice.
Question 23
Who founded the capital of Chalukya dynasty?
A
Vikramaditya I
B
Tailapa I
C
Pulikesin I
D
Kirtivarman
Question 23 Explanation: 
The capital Badami was founded by Kirtivarman (566-597).
Question 24
Who after defeating Mangalesha, proclaimed himself as king, an event that is described in the Aihole inscription?
A
Pulikesin II
B
Kirtivarman
C
Tailapa I
D
Battariga II
Question 24 Explanation: 
Pulikesin I’s grandson Pulikesin II (609-(642), after defeating Mangalesha, proclaimed himself as king, an event that is described in the Aihole inscription.
Question 25
Who was defeated by Pulikesin II on the banks of the Narmada?
A
Mahendravarman
B
Krishna Varma II
C
Harshavardhana
D
Mayurasharma
Question 25 Explanation: 
One of the most outstanding victories of Pulikesin II was the defeat of Harshavardhana’s army on the banks of the Narmada.
Question 26
Who among the following did not accepted the suzerainty of Pulikesin II?
A
Kings of Malwa
B
Kings of Kalinga
C
Kings of pallava
D
Kings of Eastern Deccan
Question 26 Explanation: 
The kings of Malwa, Kalinga, and eastern Deccan accepted the suzerainty of Pulikesin II. His victories over Kadambas of Banvasi, and Gangas of Talakad (Mysore) are also worthy of note.
Question 27
Pulikesin’s II attempt to attack which region was thwarted by Mahendravarma Pallava?
A
Kanchipuram
B
Mahabalipuram
C
Rameswaram
D
Konark
Question 27 Explanation: 
Pulikesin II his attempt to attack Kanchipuram was thwarted by Mahendravarma Pallava. This led to a prolonged war between the Chalukyas and the Pallavas.
Question 28
Which Pallava King, attacked and occupied Badami?
A
Mahendravarma I
B
Narasimha Varman I
C
Nandi Varman I
D
Aparajitavarman I
Question 28 Explanation: 
Narasimha Varman I (630-668), the Pallava King, attacked and occupied Badami. Pulikesin II died in the battle. Pallava control over Badami and the southern parts of the Chalukya empire continued for several years.
Question 29
In the mideighth century, the Badami Chalukyas were overpowered and replaced by whom?
A
Cholas
B
Satavahanas
C
Rashtrakutas
D
Kakatiya
Question 29 Explanation: 
In the mideighth century, the Badami Chalukyas were overpowered and replaced by the Rashtrakutas.
Question 30
Which of the following statement regarding Chalukyas is incorrect
  1. The Queen was the head of the administration. In dynastic succession primogeniture was not strictly followed.
  2. Generally, the elder was to be appointed as yuvaraja while the king was in the office. The heir apparent got trained in literature, law, philosophy, martial arts and others.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 30 Explanation: 
The king was the head of the administration. In dynastic succession primogeniture was not strictly followed.
Question 31
The Chalukyan kings claimed to rule according to what?
A
Raja-sastra and Niti-sastra
B
Niti-sastra and Deiva-sastra
C
Dharma-sastra and Niti-sastra
D
Dharma-sastra and Raja-sastra
Question 31 Explanation: 
Chalukyan kings claimed to rule according to dharma-sastra and nitisastra. Pulikesin I (543-566) was well-versed in manu-sastra, puranas, and itihasas.
Question 32
Which among the following is not the assumed titles of Chalukya kings?
A
Maharajan
B
Dharmaselan
C
Sathyasrayan
D
Sri-Pritivi-Vallaban
Question 32 Explanation: 
In the beginning, the Chalukya kings assumed titles such as Maharajan, Sathyasrayan and Sri-Pritivi-Vallaban.
Question 33
After defeating Harshavardhana, Pulikesin II assumed which title?
A
Varaharamsa
B
Karthikeyan
C
Narasimha
D
Parameswaran
Question 33 Explanation: 
After defeating Harshavardhana, Pulikesin II assumed the title of Parameswaran. Bhattarakan and Maharajathirajan, soon became very popular titles.
Question 34
Which among the following is not the titles of pallava kinga?
A
Dharma maharajaadhi raja
B
Dharma maharaja
C
Maharaja Dhesing
D
Maharajadhiraja
Question 34 Explanation: 
In the Pallava kingdom, kings took high-sounding titles such as Dharma maharajaadhi raja, Maharajadhiraja, Dharma maharaja, Maharaja.
Question 35
In the Hirahadagalli plates the pallava king is introduced as the performer of what?
A
Agnistoma Sacrifices
B
Vajapeya Sacrifices
C
Asvamedha Sacrifices
D
All the above
Question 35 Explanation: 
In the Hirahadagalli plates the pallava king is introduced as the performer of agnistoma, vajapeya and asvamedha sacrifices.
Question 36
What was the royal insignia of the Chalukyas?
A
Wild Boar
B
Buffalo
C
Sloth Bear
D
Black Bear
Question 36 Explanation: 
The wild boar was the royal insignia of the Chalukyas. It was claimed that it represented the varaha avatar of Vishnu in which he is said to have rescued the Goddess of the Earth.
Question 37
Which among the following was the symbol of the Pallavas?
A
Tiger
B
Bull
C
Sphere
D
Agni
Question 37 Explanation: 
The bull, Siva’s mount, was the symbol of the Pallavas.
Question 38
Which line of chalukya dynasty appointed royal ladies as provincial governors?
A
Jayasimhan I
B
Tailapa I
C
Pulikesin I
D
Vikramaditya I
Question 38 Explanation: 
Chalukya dynasty of Jayasimhan I line appointed royal ladies as provincial governors. They also issued coins in some instances. Vijya Bhattariga, a Chalukya princess, issued inscriptions.
Question 39
Which pallava Queen image, is found in the inscription in Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram?
A
Viranarayani
B
Viman Kundavi
C
Panchavanmadevi
D
Rajasimha
Question 39 Explanation: 
Pallava queens did not take active part in the administration of the kingdom, but they built shrines, and installed images of various deities, and endowed temples. The image of Queen Rangapataka, the queen of Rajasimha, is found in the inscription in Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram.
Question 40
Which among the following Ministers position is not correctly matched
A
Pradhana – head minister
B
Mahasandhi-vigrahika – minister of agricultural
C
Amatya – revenue minister
D
Samaharta – minister of exchequer
Question 40 Explanation: 
Four other categories of ministers are also referred to in the epigraphs: Pradhana (head minister), Mahasandhi-vigrahika (minister of foreign affairs), Amatya (revenue minister), and Samaharta (minister of exchequer).
Question 41
Which among the following statement regarding Chalukyas is correct
  1. All powers were vested in the king along with prince. Inscriptions do not specifically speak of a council of ministers, but they do refer to an official called Raja-simharika.
  2. Chalukyas divided the state into political divisions for the sake of administration: Vishayam, Rastram, Nadu and Grama. Epigraphs speak of the officials like vishayapatis, samantas, gramapohis and mahatras.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 41 Explanation: 
All powers were vested in the king. Inscriptions do not specifically speak of a council of ministers, but they do refer to an official called maha-sandhi-vigrahika.
Question 42
Who exercised the power at the behest of the kings?
A
Samantas
B
Gramapohis
C
Vishayapatis
D
Mahatras
Question 42 Explanation: 
Vishayapatis exercised the power at the behest of the kings.
Question 43
Who were feudal lords functioning under the control of the state?
A
Samantas
B
Gramapohis
C
Vishayapatis
D
Mahatras
Question 43 Explanation: 
Samantas were feudal lords functioning under the control of the state. Grampohis and gramkudas were village officials. Mahatras were the prominent village men.
Question 44
Who was Generally appointed as provincial governors by king?
A
Queens
B
Sons
C
Brahmin (Priest)
D
Samantas
Question 44 Explanation: 
Generally, the king appointed his sons as the provincial governors.
Question 45
Which among the following term is not used to refer Governers?
A
Raja
B
Marakka-Rajan
C
Soma-Ranjan
D
Rajaditya-Raja-Parameswaran
Question 45 Explanation: 
The governors called themselves raja, marakka-rajan and rajaditya-raja-parameswaran. Some governors held the title maha-samanta and maintained troops.
Question 46
What was the Vishaya divided into?
A
Sukki
B
Pukti
C
Savri
D
Rakya
Question 46 Explanation: 
The chief of vishaya was vishayapati. In turn, vishaya was divided into pukti. Its head was pogapati.
Question 47
What was the following was the special officer in charge of maintaining order and peace of the village?
A
Pokignan
B
Gramani
C
Mahapurush
D
Kamunda
Question 47 Explanation: 
There was a special officer called mahapurush, in charge of maintaining order and peace of the village.
Question 48
Who appoint the Kamunda, the central figure in village administration?
A
Vishayapatis
B
Nalakavundas
C
Kings
D
Samantas
Question 48 Explanation: 
The central figure in village administration was kamunda or pokigan who were appointed by the kings.
Question 49
From where the Brahmins invited and settled to perform regular pujas and conduct festivals and ceremonies in the temples?
A
Gangetic region
B
Mathura region
C
Udaipur region
D
Kosala region
Question 49 Explanation: 
Brahmin groups were invited from the Gangetic regions and settled to perform regular pujas and conduct festivals and ceremonies in the temples.
Question 50
Match the following List I with List II and choose correct answer
  • List I (Officer)                                List II (Officer Field)
  1. Gramani                                         1. Revenue Official in Village
  2. Mahajanam                                    2. Accountant in Village
  3. Nalakavundas                                3. Officials of Town
  4. Nagarapatis                                    4. Law and Order in Village
A
2 – 4 – 1 – 3
B
3 – 1 – 4 – 2
C
3 – 2 – 4 – 1
D
4 – 3 – 1 – 2
Question 50 Explanation: 
The traditional revenue officials of the villages were called the nalakavundas. The village accountant was karana and he was otherwise called gramani. Law and order of the village was in the hands of a group of people called mahajanam. Nagarapatis or Purapatis were the officials of the town.
Question 51
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. The Chalukyas patronised only Saivism. They built more temples for Siva and less for Vishnu. Notable Chalukya rulers like Kirtivarman (566-597), Mangalesa (597-609), and Pulikesin II (609-642) performed yagnas. They bore titles such as parama-Karthikeya and Parama-Maheswara
  2. Chalukyas gave prominent place to Kartikeyan, the war god. Saiva monasteries became centres for popularising Saivism.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 51 Explanation: 
The Chalukyas patronised both Saivism and Vaishnavism. They built temples for Siva and Vishnu. Notable Chalukya rulers like Kirtivarman (566-597), Mangalesa (597-609), and Pulikesin II (609-642) performed yagnas. They bore titles such as parama-vaishana and parama-maheswara.
Question 52
Who was the poet-laureate of Pulikesin II, was a Jain scholar?
A
Tulsidas
B
Surdas
C
Vallabha
D
Ravikirti
Question 52 Explanation: 
Chalukyas patronised heterodox sects also and lavishly donated lands to the Jain centres. Ravikirti, the poet-laureate of Pulikesin II, was a Jain scholar.
Question 53
On whose reign a Jain village official built a Jain temple in a place called Annigere?
A
Vikramaditya II
B
Kirtivarman II
C
Pulakeshin II
D
Tailapa II
Question 53 Explanation: 
In the reign of Kirtivarman II (744-755) a Jain village official built a Jain temple in a place called Annigere.
Question 54
Which prince appointed Gunapatra, a Jain monk, as his master?
A
Ravindra
B
Vikramaditya I
C
Krishna
D
Maheswara
Question 54 Explanation: 
The prince Krishna (756-775) appointed Gunapatra, a Jain monk, as his master.
Question 55
Which Jain monk was the author of Jainentriya-viyakarnam?
A
Ravikirti
B
Pujyapatar
C
Vijayadityan
D
Ravindran
Question 55 Explanation: 
Pujyapatar the author of Jainentriya-viyakarnam was a Jain monk, a contemporary of Vijayadityan (755-772).
Question 56
According to whom there were many Buddhist centres in the Chalukya territory wherein more than 5000 followers of the Hinayana and Mahayana?
A
Fa Hein
B
Kalidasa
C
Skanda Gupta
D
Hiuen Tsang
Question 56 Explanation: 
According to Hiuen Tsang, there were many Buddhist centres in the Chalukya territory wherein more than 5000 followers of the Hinayana and Mahayana sects lived.
Question 57
A chieftain of Pulikesin II authored a grammar work Saptavataram in which language?
A
Telugu
B
Sanskrit
C
Tamil
D
Kannada
Question 57 Explanation: 
Chalukyas used Sanskrit in pillar inscriptions such as in Aihole and Mahakudam. A chieftain of Pulikesin II authored a grammar work Saptavataram in Sanskrit.
Question 58
Which of the following statement is correct
  1. Historically, in Deccan, Chalukyas introduced the technique of building temples using soft sandstones as medium. In Badami, two temples are dedicated to Vishnu and one each to Siva and to the Jaina tirthankaras
  2. Their temples are grouped into two: excavated cave temples and structural temples. Badami is known for both structural and excavated cave temples. Pattadakal and Aihole are popular for structural temples.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 59
A seventh-century inscription of a Chalukya king at Badami mentions which language as the local prakrit, meaning the people’s language?
A
Telugu
B
Tamil
C
Kannada
D
Sanskrit
Question 59 Explanation: 
A seventh-century inscription of a Chalukya king at Badami mentions Kannada as the local prakrit, meaning the people’s language, and Sanskrit as the language of culture. A chieftain of Pulikesin II authored a grammar work Saptavataram in Sanskrit.
Question 60
Which was the headquarters of the famous medieval Ayyavole merchants’ guild was an important commercial centre?
A
Konark
B
Aihole
C
Badami
D
Hampi
Question 60 Explanation: 
Built in 634, Aihole, the headquarters of the famous medieval Ayyavole merchants’ guild was an important commercial centre. About seventy temples are located in Aihole.
Question 61
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. The earliest stone-built temple is Virupaksha temple at Aihole. Its unique trait is a stucco pillar with a big capital distinct from northern style.
  2. Chalukyas also built Jain temples. Megudi Jain temple is illustrative of the evolution of temple architecture under the Chalukyas. The mandapa-type caves are preserved at Aihole
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 61 Explanation: 
The earliest stone-built temple is Lad Khan temple. Its unique trait is a stucco pillar with a big capital distinct from northern style.
Question 62
To which Goddess a temple dedicated was built on the model of Buddha Chaitya?
A
Lakshmi
B
Durga
C
Radha
D
Saraswathi
Question 62 Explanation: 
A temple dedicated to the goddess Durga was built on the model of Buddha Chaitya. It stands on a raised platform in the form of semi-circle. Another temple, dedicated to the same goddess is called Huccimalligudi, which is rectangular in shape.
Question 63
How many caves are there in Badami?
A
Two
B
Six
C
Four
D
Seven
Question 63 Explanation: 
There are four caves in Badami. Irrespective of religion, architectural features share a common style. It establishes the technical importance and the secular attitude of both patron and architect.
Question 64
The large Cave temple build by Mangalesa is dedicated to whom?
A
Vishnu
B
Siva
C
Buddha
D
Mahavir
Question 64 Explanation: 
The largest cave temple built by Mangalesa is dedicated to Vishnu. The reclining posture of Vishnu on the snake bed and Narasimha are exquisite examples of Chalukya art.
Question 65
Which was a centre for performing royal rituals?
A
Aihole
B
Badami
C
Gokarna
D
Pattadakal
Question 65 Explanation: 
Pattadakal, a quiet village in Bagalkot district of Karnataka, is famous for its exquisite temples. Pattadakal was a centre for performing royal rituals.
Question 66
Which temple was built at the order of queen Lohamahadevi to commemorate the conquest of Kanchipuram by her husband Vikramaditya II?
A
Murudeshwara Temple
B
Mahableshwar Temple
C
Kailasanathar Temple
D
Virupaksha Temple
Question 66 Explanation: 
The Virupaksha temple was built at the order of queen Lohamahadevi to commemorate the conquest of Kanchipuram by her husband Vikramaditya II.
Question 67
Who build the structural temple at mamallapuram (Mahabalipuram)?
A
Revadi Ovajja
B
Parthiban
C
Rajasimha
D
Rayuduveda
Question 67 Explanation: 
The unique feature of the structural temple built by Rajasimha at Mamallapuram was adopted in Virupaksha Temple by the Chalukyas. Monuments are generally associated with the rulers who built them.
Question 68
Which among the following statement is incorrect
  1. The south porch of the Virupaksha temple has a Sanskrit inscription eulogizing the architect who designed the temple. The architect was given the title Tribhuavacharya (maker of the three worlds).
  2. At the south-eastern corner of the Pattadakal village is the Papanatha temple. Similar to the Virupaksha temple in its basic plan, it has a shikara in the northern style.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 68 Explanation: 
The east porch of the Virupaksha temple has a Kannada inscription eulogizing the architect who designed the temple. The architect was given the title Tribhuavacharya (maker of the three worlds).
Question 69
From which many panels depicting scenes and characters are richly decorated in the outer wall of Papanatha temple?
A
Mahabharata
B
Ramayana
C
Jataka Tales
D
Soora Vadha of Karthikeya
Question 69 Explanation: 
The outer walls of Papanatha temple are richly decorated with many panels depicting scenes and characters from the Ramayana.
Question 70
What was the name of the architect on the eastern wall of Papanatha temple in a short Kannada inscription, who designed the shrine?
A
Revadi Ovajja
B
Parthiban
C
Rajasimha
D
Rayuduveda
Question 70 Explanation: 
The eastern wall of Papanatha temple has a short Kannada inscription, giving the name of the architect Revadi Ovajja, who designed the shrine. In Pattadakal, Chalukyas built more than ten temples which demonstrate the evolution in Chalukya architecture.
Question 71
On the basis of style Chalukya temples are classified into how many times?
A
Seven
B
Six
C
Four
D
Two
Question 71 Explanation: 
On the basis of style these temples are classified into two groups: Indo-Aryan and Dravidian.
Question 72
Which style was adopted by Chalukyas in painting?
A
Chola
B
Vakataka
C
Pallava
D
Satavahana
Question 72 Explanation: 
Paintings are found in a cave temple dedicated to Vishnu in Badami. Chalukyas adopted the Vakataka style in painting. Many of the paintings are of incarnations of Vishnu. The most popular Chalukya painting is in the palace built by the King Mangalesan.
Question 73
The Pallavas were associated with Tondaimandalam, the land between which two rivers?
A
North Pennar and South Cauvery
B
North Vellar and South Cauvery
C
North Pennar and North Vellar
D
North Vellar and North Vaigai
Question 73 Explanation: 
The Pallavas were associated with Tondaimandalam, the land between the north Pennar and north Vellar rivers.
Question 74
Who is believed to have conquered the Chola country up to the Kaveri and consolidated his dynastic rule?
A
Nandivarma
B
Simhavishnu
C
Mahendravarman I
D
Skanda Varman
Question 74 Explanation: 
Simhavishnu is believed to have conquered the Chola country up to the Kaveri and consolidated his dynastic rule, started by his father Simhavarman. Simhavishnu, vanquishing the Kalabhras, conquered the land up to the Kaveri, thereby coming into conflict with the Pandyas.
Question 75
Which pallava king was converted by Appar from Jainism to Saivism, was a patron of arts, and a poet and musician in his own right?
A
Nandivarma I
B
Simhavishnu
C
Mahendravarman I
D
Skanda Varman
Question 75 Explanation: 
Simhavishnu’s successor Mahendravarman I (590-630), whom Appar, converted from Jainism to Saivism, was a patron of arts, and a poet and musician in his own right.
Question 76
On whose reign the Pallavas managed to settle scores by winning several victories over the Chalukyas with the aid of their ally Manavarman?
A
Nandivarma I
B
Aparajitavarman
C
Mahendravarman I
D
Narasimhavarman I
Question 76 Explanation: 
During the reign of Narasimhavarman I (630-668), the Pallavas managed to settle scores by winning several victories over the Chalukyas with the aid of their ally Manavarman, a Sri Lankan prince, who later became ruler of the island kingdom.
Question 77
During Mahendravarman’s reign, whose army annexed the northern part of Pallava kingdom and almost reached the Pallava capital of Kanchipuram?
A
Aditya Karikalan
B
Parantaka Chola II
C
Chandragupta II
D
Pulikesin II
Question 77 Explanation: 
During Mahendravarman’s reign, the army of Pulikesin II annexed the northern part of Pallava kingdom and almost reached the Pallava capital of Kanchipuram.
Question 78
Who claims to have defeated the Cholas, Cheras and Kalabhras?
A
Narasimhavarma I
B
Aparajitavarman
C
Mahendravarman I
D
Paramesvaravarman I
Question 78 Explanation: 
The climax was Narasimhavarman’s invasion of the Chalukyan kingdom and his capturing of the Badami. Narasimhavarman claims to have defeated the Cholas, Cheras and Kalabhras.
Question 79
Which Chalukya king invaded the pallava country during reign of , Paramesvaravarman I?
A
Kirtivarman
B
Vikramaditya
C
Adityavarman
D
Pulikesin II
Question 79 Explanation: 
The Pallava-Chalukya conflict continued during the subsequent decades, with some intermittent peace. During the reign of his grandson, Paramesvaravarman I (670-700), Vikramaditya of the Chalukya kingdom invaded the Pallava country.
Question 80
Which Rashtrakuta king invaded Kanchi during the reign of the Pallava Dantivarman?
A
Govinda III
B
Krishna III
C
Karka II
D
Indra III
Question 80 Explanation: 
In the early ninth century, the Rashtrakuta king, Govind III, invaded Kanchi during the reign of the Pallava Dantivarman.
Question 81
Which among the following statement is Incorrect
  1. Paramesvaravarman fought against him with the support of the Gangas and Pandyas. As a result, the Pallavas came into conflict with the Pandyas in the south.
  2. Dantivarman’s son Nandivarman III aided by western Gangas and Cheras, defeated the Pandyas at the battle of Koppam.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 81 Explanation: 
Dantivarman’s son Nandivarman III aided by western Gangas and Cholas, defeated the Pandyas at the battle of Sripurambiyam or Thirupurambiyam.
Question 82
Aparajita, grandson of Nandivarman III, lost his life in a battle fought against which Chola king?
A
Rajaraja I
B
Rajendra I
C
Aditya I
D
Kulothunga I
Question 82 Explanation: 
Aparajita, grandson of Nandivarman III, lost his life in a battle fought against Aditya I of the Chola kingdom who invaded Tondaimandalam. This sealed the fate of the Pallavas. Thereafter, control over Tondaimandalam passed into the hands of the Cholas.
Question 83
Which among the following statement is Incorrect
  1. Under the Pallavas, kinship was held to be of divine origin and was hereditary. The king took high-sounding titles, some of which, such as maharajadhiraja, were borrowed from north Indian traditions.
  2. Distinctions are made between amatyas and mantrins. While a mantri is generally understood to be a diplomat, amatya is a counsellor. Some of the ministers bore semi-royal titles and may well have been appointed from among the feudatories.
  3. The king was assisted by a group of ministers, and in the later Pallava period this ministerial council played a prominent part in state policy. Mantri Mandala was a council of ministers.
A
Only 3
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 84
Who was the supervisor of the Manikkappandaram-kappan?
A
Rahasyadhikrita
B
Manikkappandaram-Kappan
C
Kosa-adhyaksa
D
Dharmadhikarins
Question 84 Explanation: 
Kosa-adhyaksa was the supervisor of the Manikkappandaram-kappan (Manikka - valuables; Pandaram - treasury; Kappan – keeper)
Question 85
Match the following List I with List II and choose correct answer
  • List I                                                           List II  
  • Officers                                                  Officers field                                                
  1. Rahasyadhikrita                                         1. Judges
  2. Manikkappandaram-Kappan                 2. Private secretary of king
  3. Kodukkappillai                                           3. Officer of Gift
  4. Dharmadhikarins                                       4. Officer in charge of treasury
A
2 – 1 – 4 – 3
B
3 – 4 – 1 – 2
C
3 – 1 – 4 – 2
D
2 – 4 – 3 – 1
Question 85 Explanation: 
Rahasyadhikrita was a private secretary of the king. Manikkappandaram-Kappan was an officer in charge of the treasury. Kodukkappillai was the officer of gifts. They were central officers under the Pallava king. Judicial courts were called Adhikarna Mandapa and judges called Dharmadhikarins.
Question 86
Which among the following statement is Incorrect
  1. Fines are mentioned in the Kasakudi plates of Mahendravarman Pallava as parandandam (fine in superior/ higher court) and kalaradandam (fine in district level).
  2. The governor of a province was advised and assisted by officers in charge of districts who worked in close collaboration with local autonomous institutions, largely in an advisory capacity.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 86 Explanation: 
Fines are mentioned in the Kasakudi plates of Nandivarman Pallava as Karanadandam (fine in superior/ higher court) and Adhikaranadandam (fine in district level).
Question 87
The village donated to a single Brahman or a group of Brahmans is known as ____
A
Devadana
B
Brahmadeya
C
Paramedaya
D
Akradana
Question 87 Explanation: 
The brahmadeya villages were donated to a single Brahman or a group of Brahmans. These villages tended to be more prosperous than the others because no tax was paid
Question 88
The villages, donated to a temple was known as ____
A
Devadana
B
Brahmadeya
C
Paramedaya
D
Akradana
Question 88 Explanation: 
There were devadana villages, donated to a temple, and the revenue was consequently received by the temple authorities and not by the state. The temple authorities assisted the village by providing employment in the service of the temple
Question 89
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Crown lands were leased out to tenants-at-will. The status of the village remained same according to the tenures prevailing. The village with an inter-caste population has no need to pay land revenue.
  2. Land ownership was with the king, who could make revenue grants to his officers and land-grants to Brahmans, or else continue to have land cultivated by small-scale cultivators and landlords
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 89 Explanation: 
Crown lands were leased out to tenants-at-will. The status of the village varied according to the tenures prevailing. The village with an inter-caste population paid land revenue.
Question 90
Where eleven plates held together by a ring of copper, stamped with a royal seal depicting a bull and a lingam was found in 1879?
A
Adichanallur
B
Arikamedu
C
Urrukkattukottam
D
Ariyalur
Question 90 Explanation: 
In 1879, eleven plates held together by a ring of copper, its two ends soldered and stamped with a royal seal depicting a bull and a lingam (the Pallava symbol) were discovered in Urrukkattukottam, near Puducherry.
Question 91
The eleven plates discovered in Urrukkattukottam records a grant of a village made in the twenty-second year of which king?
A
Nandivarman
B
Aparajitavarman
C
Mahendravarman I
D
Narasimhavarman
Question 91 Explanation: 
The eleven plates discovered in Urrukkattukottam records a grant of a village made in the twenty-second year of the king Nandivarman (753 CE). The inscriptional text commences with a eulogy of the king in Sanskrit, followed by the details of the grant in Tamil, and a concluding verse in Sanskrit.
Question 92
In village of pallava period, what was the basic assembly known as?
A
Uru
B
Nadu
C
Sabha
D
Manu
Question 92 Explanation: 
In the village, the basic assembly was the Sabha, which was concerned with all matters relating to the village, including endowments, land, irrigation, cultivated, punishment of crime, the keeping of a census and other necessary records.
Question 93
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Village courts dealt with any large criminal cases. At a higher level, in towns and districts, courts were presided over by government officers, with the Dharmadhikarins as the supreme arbiter of justice.
  2. The Sabha was a formal institution but it worked closely with the urar, an informal gathering of the entire village. Above this was a district council which worked with Nadu or district administration.
  3. Villages populated entirely or largely by Brahmans preserved records of the functioning of assemblies and councils. The link between the village assembly and the official administration was the headman of the village.
A
Only 3
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 93 Explanation: 
Village courts dealt with petty criminal cases. At a higher level, in towns and districts, courts were presided over by government officers, with the king as the supreme arbiter of justice.
Question 94
What was the special category of land known only in south India, that was donated by Individuals?
A
Kulanadu
B
Thanabhoomi
C
Thannadu
D
Eripatti
Question 94 Explanation: 
A special category of land, eripatti or tank land, was known only in south India. This land was donated by individuals, the revenue from which was set apart for the maintenance of the village tank.
Question 95
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. The tank, lined with brick or stone, was built through the cooperative effort of the village, and its water was shared by all cultivators. The maintenance of these tanks was essential to the village.
  2. Practically every inscription from the Pallava period pertaining to the rural affairs refers to the upkeep of the tank. Next in importance came wells.
  3. Water was distributed by canals, which were fitted with sluices to regulate the water level and prevent overflowing at the source. The distribution of water for irrigation was supervised by a special tank committee appointed by the village.
A
Both 1 and 3
B
Both 1 and 2
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 96
How many categories of taxes were levied on the village?
A
Two
B
Five
C
Three
D
Seven
Question 96 Explanation: 
Two categories of taxes were levied on the village. The land revenue paid by the cultivator to the state varied from 1/6th to 1/10th of the produce, and was collected by the village and paid to the state collector. In the second category were local taxes, also collected in the village but utilized for services in the village itself.
Question 97
Which among the following statement is Incorrect
  1. Land grants recorded mainly on copperplates provide detailed information on land revenues and taxation. Revenue came almost exclusively from rural sources, mercantile and urban institutions being largely unplanned.
  2. Pallava considered war to be very important and a series of sculptures depicting the important events connected with the reign of Mahendravaram Pallava, notably Pallava troops attacking a fort are seen in the Vaikunta Perumal temple at Kanchipuram.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 97 Explanation: 
Pallava considered war to be very important and a series of sculptures depicting the important events connected with the reign of Nandivarama Pallava, notably Pallava troops attacking a fort are seen in the Vaikunta Perumal temple at Kanchipuram.
Question 98
Where the Pallavas developed a navy and built dockyards?
A
Pullicat
B
Kaveripoompattinam
C
Nagapattinam
D
Musuri
Question 98 Explanation: 
The Pallavas developed a navy and built dockyards at Mamallapuram and Nagapattinam. However, the Pallava navy was inconsiderable compared to the naval strength of the Cholas who succeeded them.
Question 99
Which among the following statement is incorrect
  1. Less of the state revenue went to maintain the army. The Army general maintained a standing army under his direct control. The army consisted of foot-soldiers, cavalry and a large force of elephants.
  2. Chariots were by now almost out of use and in any case were ineffective in the hilly terrains, as much of the fighting took place there. Cavalry, though effective, was expensive, as horses had to be imported.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 99 Explanation: 
Much of the state revenue went to maintain the army. The king maintained a standing army under his direct control. The army consisted of foot-soldiers, cavalry and a small force of elephants.
Question 100
Which among the following coins was issued by pallavas in later time?
A
Copper coins
B
Silver coins
C
Bronze coins
D
Brass coins
Question 100 Explanation: 
Barter system generally prevailed but later the Pallavas issued gold and silver coins. Merchants had their own organizations such as Manigramam.
Question 101
Which was an important trading centre in the Pallava period?
A
Vellore
B
Ennore
C
Pullicat
D
Kanchipuram
Question 101 Explanation: 
Kanchipuram was an important trading centre in the Pallava period. The merchants had to obtain license to market their goods.
Question 102
In which among the following country pallava did not have foreign trade?
A
Java
B
China
C
Rome
D
Burma
Question 102 Explanation: 
In foreign trade, spices, cotton textiles, precious stones and medicinal plants were exported to Java, Sumatra, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, China and Burma. Mamallapuram was an important seaport.
Question 103
Foreign merchants were known as ____
A
Sudesi
B
Nanadesi
C
Ainurruvar
D
Pataiyar
Question 103 Explanation: 
Traders founded guilds and called themselves as sudesi, nanadesi, ainurruvar and others. Foreign merchants were known as Nanadesi.
Question 104
Where trader’s main guild functioned?
A
Mahabalipuram
B
Musuri
C
Aihole
D
Gokarna
Question 104 Explanation: 
Traders main guild functioned at Aihole. Foreign merchants had a separate flag with the figure of bull at the centre, and they enjoyed the right of issuing vira-sasanas. The jurisdiction of this guild stretched over entire south-east Asia.
Question 105
Which among the following name chief of nanadesi guild is not registered?
A
Bothydhesa
B
Pattanswamy
C
Pattnakilar
D
Dandanayaka
Question 105 Explanation: 
The chief of this guild is registered in the inscriptions as pattanswamy, pattnakilar, and dandanayaka. Its members were known as ayyavole-parameswariyar.
Question 106
In which among the following kingdom the Pallavas had maritime trade in south-east Asia?
A
Kambuja
B
Champa
C
Mothiya
D
Srivijaya
Question 106 Explanation: 
The Pallavas had maritime trade with south-east Asia, where by now there were three major kingdoms: Kambuja (Cambodia), Champa (Annam), and Srivijaya (the southern Malaya peninsula and Sumatra).
Question 107
Which among the following statement is Incorrect
  1. Like in the Ganges plain, where large areas were available for cultivation, the regions controlled by the Pallavas and the Chalukyas commanded a Great income from land.
  2. On the west coast, the initiative in the trade with the West was gradually passing into the hands of the foreign traders settled along the coast, mainly Arabs.
  3. Indian traders were becoming suppliers of goods rather than carriers of goods to foreign countries, and communication with the west became indirect, via Arabs, and limited to trade alone
A
Only 1
B
Both 2 and 3
C
Both 1 and 2
D
Both 1 and 3
Question 107 Explanation: 
Unlike in the Ganges plain, where large areas were available for cultivation, the regions controlled by the Pallavas and the Chalukyas commanded a limited income from land. Mercantile activity had not developed sufficiently to make a substantial contribution to the economy.
Question 108
Who were exempted from paying taxes and capital punishment?
A
Brahmins
B
Vaishyas
C
Women
D
Sudras
Question 108 Explanation: 
Brahmins as learned scholars in literature, astronomy, law and others functioned as the royal counsellors. They were exempted from paying taxes and capital punishment.
Question 109
What was the social group ruled the state was called?
A
Vaishyas
B
Sat-Kshatryas
C
Mudaliyar
D
Nattapara
Question 109 Explanation: 
The next important social group which ruled the state was called sat-kshatryas (quality kshatriyas). Not all the kshatryas were of warring groups; some of them were involved in trading as well. They also enjoyed the right to read the Vedas, a privilege denied to lower varnas.
Question 110
Which among the following statement is Incorrect
  1. Brahmins not only were they in the teaching profession, they were also involved in agriculture, animal husbandry, and handicraft works
  2. People engaged in scavenging, fishing, dry-cleaning and leather works were positioned outside the varna system.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 110 Explanation: 
Brahmins not only were they in the teaching profession, they were also involved in agriculture, trade and war. The people who were at the bottom of the society worked in agriculture, animal husbandry, and handicraft works.
Question 111
Most scholars agree that Aryanisation or the northern influence on the south picked up pace during whose period?
A
Chola period
B
Chalukya period
C
Pallava period
D
Maurya period
Question 111 Explanation: 
Most scholars agree that Aryanisation or the northern influence on the south picked up pace during the Pallava period. This is evident from the royal grants issued by the kings. Sanskrit came to be held in high esteem. The caste structure had firmly established.
Question 112
The followers of Vedic religion were devoted to the worship of which god in Pallava period       ?
A
Vishnu
B
Siva
C
Durga
D
Rama
Question 112 Explanation: 
Kanchipuram continued to be a great seat of learning. The followers of Vedic religion were devoted to the worship of Siva.
Question 113
Who was the first, during the middle of his reign, to adopt the worship of Siva.?
A
Nandivarman
B
Aparajitavarman
C
Mahendravarman
D
Narasimhavarman
Question 113 Explanation: 
Mahendravarman was the first, during the middle of his reign, to adopt the worship of Siva. But he was intolerant of Jainism and destroyed some Jain monasteries. Many of the great Nayanmars and Alwars, Saiva and Vaishanava poet-saints lived during his time.
Question 114
Hiuen-Tsang is reported to have seen at Kanchipuram one hundred Buddhist monasteries and 10,000 priests belonging to the which school?
A
Mahayana
B
Hinayana
C
Theravada
D
Vajrayana
Question 114 Explanation: 
Hiuen-Tsang is reported to have seen at Kanchi one hundred Buddhist monasteries and 10,000 priests belonging to the Mahayana school.
Question 115
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Perhaps the most obvious sign of the influence of Aryan culture in the south was the pre-eminent position given to Brahmins. They gained materially through large gifts of land.
  2. In the early part of this period education was controlled Predominantly by Jains, but gradually the Brahmins superseded them. The Jains who had brought with them their religious literature in Prakrit, began to use Sanskrit.
  3. In addition, Mahendravarman I lost interest in Jainism and took up the cause of Saivism, thus depriving the Jains of valuable royal patronage. Jainism was extremely popular, but the competition of Hinduism in the succeeding centuries greatly reduced the number of its adherents.
A
Only 1
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 1 and 2
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 115 Explanation: 
In the early part of this period education was controlled by Jains and Buddhists, but gradually the Brahmins superseded them. The Jains who had brought with them their religious literature in Sanskrit and Prakrit, began to use Tamil.
Question 116
Who developed religious centres at Shravanabelagola in Karnataka?
A
Buddhists
B
Ajivikas
C
Vaishnavism
D
Jains
Question 116 Explanation: 
The Jains had developed a few educational centres near Madurai and Kanchi, and religious centres such as the one at Shravanabelagola in Karnataka. But a vast majority of the Jaina monks tended to isolate themselves in small caves, in hills and forests.
Question 117
Which among the following statement is Incorrect
  1. Monasteries continued to be the nucleus of the Buddhist educational system and were located in the region of Kanchi, and the valleys of the Krishna and the Godavari rivers.
  2. Buddhist centres were concerned with the study of Buddhism, particularly as this was a period of intense conflict between orthodox and heterodox sects
  3. Buddhism was fighting a losing battle. Royal patronage, which the Buddhists lacked, gave an edge to the protagonists of Jain religions.
A
Only 1
B
Only 3
C
Both 1 and 3
D
Only 2 and 3
Question 117 Explanation: 
Buddhism was fighting a losing battle. Royal patronage, which the Buddhists lacked, gave an edge to the protagonists of Vedic religions.
Question 118
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Tamil was the recognized medium, and was also the official language at the court, which led to its adoption in literary circles. Apart from the university at Kanchipuram, which acquired a fame equal to that the Nalanda, there were a number of other Pali colleges.
  2. In the eighth century the mathas (mutts) became popular. This was a combination of a rest house, a feeding-centre, and an education centre, which indirectly brought publicity to the particular sect with which it was associated.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 118 Explanation: 
Apart from the university at Kanchi, which acquired a fame equal to that the Nalanda, there were a number of other Sanskrit colleges. Sanskrit was the recognized medium, and was also the official language at the court, which led to its adoption in literary circles.
Question 119
Who composed Mathavilasa Prahasanam in Sanskrit?
A
Mahendravarman I
B
Amoghavarsha I
C
Veera Ballala
D
Harsha
Question 119 Explanation: 
Mahendravarman I composed Mathavilasa Prahasanam in Sanskrit.
Question 120
Who was the author of the great treatise on rhetoric Kavyadarsa, seems to have stayed in Pallava court for some time?
A
Bharavi
B
Dandin
C
Harsha
D
Amoghavarsha I
Question 120 Explanation: 
Dandin of Kanchipuram, author of the great treatise on rhetoric Kavyadarsa, seems to have stayed in Pallava court for some time.
Question 121
Who was the author of Kiratarjuniya?
A
Bharavi
B
Dandin
C
Harsha
D
Koshiya
Question 121 Explanation: 
Two extraordinary works in Sanskrit set the standard for Sanskrit literature in the south: Bharavi’s Kiratarjuniya and Dandin’s Dashakumaracharita.
Question 122
Who is credited with the introduction of rock-cut temples in the Pallava territory?
A
Simhavishnu
B
Simhavarman I
C
Mahendravarman I
D
Narasimhavarman I
Question 122 Explanation: 
Mahendravarman I was credited with the introduction of rock-cut temples in the Pallava territory. Mahendravarman’s rock temples are usually the mandapa type with a pillared hall or the mandapa in front and a small shrine at the rear or sides.
Question 123
In which inscription Mahendravarman claims that his shrine to Brahma, Isvara and Vishnu was made without using traditional materials?
A
Annaicoddai
B
Aihole
C
Kodumanal
D
Mandagapattu
Question 123 Explanation: 
Mahendravarman claims in his Mandagappattu inscription that his shrine to Brahma, Isvara and Vishnu was made without using traditional materials such as brick, timber, metal and mortar.
Question 124
Which district in Maharashtra is the centre of the groups of caves in Ellora and Ajanta?
A
Amravati
B
Washim
C
Aurangabad
D
Nagpur
Question 124 Explanation: 
Aurangabad district in Maharashtra is the centre of the groups of caves in Ellora and Ajanta. The Ellora group of caves are famous for sculptures while the Ajanta group of caves are famous for paintings. The dates of these temples range from c. 500 to c. 950 CE.
Question 125
To whom the first cave temple was created?
A
Buddhism
B
Jainism
C
Ajivikas
D
Vaishnavism
Question 125 Explanation: 
The first cave temple was created for the Ajivikas. Some of the temples are incomplete.
Question 126
The rock-cut cave temples in Ellora are in How many caves?
A
Twenty-two
B
Thirty-four
C
Eighteen
D
Forty-two
Question 126 Explanation: 
The rock-cut cave temples in Ellora are in 34 caves, carved in Charanadri hills. Without knowledge of trigonometry, structural engineering, and metallurgy, the Indian architects could not have created such exquisite edifices.
Question 127
Which sects first set the trend of creating rock cut temples?
A
Heterodox
B
Orthodox
C
Tripainja
D
Heresy
Question 127 Explanation: 
The patrons of these caves range from the dynasties of Chalukyas to Rashtrakutas. The heterodox sects first set the trend of creating this model of rock cut temples. Later, orthodox sects adopted it as a medium of disseminating religious ideologies.
Question 128
Mural paintings in Ellora are found in how many caves?
A
Eleven
B
Five
C
Seven
D
Nine
Question 128 Explanation: 
Mural paintings in Ellora are found in five caves, but only in the Kailash temple are they preserved. Some murals in Jain temples are well preserved. Not only animals, birds, trees, flowers are pictured elegantly, but human emotions and character - greed, love, compassionare depicted with professional skill.
Question 129
When the Ellora caves were designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site?
A
1994
B
1967
C
1983
D
1999
Question 129 Explanation: 
The Ellora caves were designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983.
Question 130
How many Buddhist caves are there in Ellora?
A
Ten
B
Twelve
C
Fourteen
D
Twenty
Question 130 Explanation: 
There are 12 Buddhist caves. Every Buddhist cave temple is of a unique model in architecture. Some are modest; while others are double-storeyed or triple-storeyed.
Question 131
Which among the following statement is Incorrect
  1. The plans of the caves demonstrate that these were designed as religious centres where monks stayed and the disciples were trained in religious treatises and scriptures.
  2. The main hall in the front and the cubical rooms are on the back side were used as monasteries for teaching and preaching. This is attested by a figure, in cave number two, of man reading a manuscript on a folding table.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 131 Explanation: 
The main hall in the centre and the cubical rooms on either side were used as monasteries for teaching and preaching. This is attested by a figure, in cave number six, of man reading a manuscript on a folding table.
Question 132
How many different buddha characters are identified by the sculptures in the caves?
A
Four
B
Six
C
Seven
D
Three
Question 132 Explanation: 
The panels in these caves portray scenes from the life of the Buddha. Three different characters are indentified by the sculptures in the caves. The central figure is Buddha found in three sagacious postures: meditating (dhyana mudra), preaching (vyakhyana mudra) and touching the earth by index finger of right hand (bhumi-sparsha mudra).
Question 133
Who among the following is not the goddess represent in Buddhist cave?
A
Mahamayuri
B
Sujata
C
Gomateshi
D
Pandara
Question 133 Explanation: 
Buddhist caves represented goddesses by way of the carved images of Tara, Khadiravanitara, Chunda, Vajradhat-vishvari, Mahamayuri, Sujata, Pandara and Bhrikuti.
Question 134
In which cave, a stout female figure is depicted wearing a waistband and headgear of a cobra?
A
Cave Four
B
Cave Ten
C
Cave Eight
D
Cave Twelve
Question 134 Explanation: 
In cave twelve, a stout female figure is depicted wearing a waistband and headgear of a cobra. Khadrivani-tara also holds a cobra in one of her hands in the same cave.
Question 135
Which among the following Jain figures are found in Elora cave?
A
Eknath
B
Mahavira
C
Yakshamatang
D
Parsvanatha
Question 135 Explanation: 
A few Jain caves are also seen in Ellora group and are distinct from others. But they are incomplete. The figures of Yakshamatanga, Mahavira, Parsvanatha, and Gomatesvara are surrounded by attendants.
Question 136
which cave is a massive monolithic structure, carved out of a single solid rock (cave-16)?
A
Kailasanatha cave
B
Durgadevi cave
C
Buddha meditating cave
D
Mahavir cave
Question 136 Explanation: 
The earliest Vedic caves are modest and simple. Mostly, they are square-shaped except Kailasanatha cave (cave-16), which is a massive monolithic structure, carved out of a single solid rock. This temple is said to represent Kailash, the abode of Lord Shiva.
Question 137
Which among the following statement regarding caves of Vedic religion is correct in Ellora
  1. The monolithic temple is said to represent Kailash, the abode of Lord Shiva. The temple is two storeyed and the Kailasa temple is on the second one.
  2. The lower storey has carved life-size Bull, which looks like they are holding up the temple on their backs.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 137 Explanation: 
The monolithic temple is said to represent Kailash, the abode of Lord Shiva. The temple is two storeyed and the Kailasa temple is on the first one. The lower storey has carved life-size elephants, which looks like they are holding up the temple on their backs.
Question 138
Which among the following statement regarding caves of Vedic religion is correct in Ellora
  1. The temple exterior has richly carved windows, images of deities from the Hindu scriptures and Mithunas (amorous male and female figures).
  2. Most of the deities to the left of the temple entrance are Saivite and the deities to the right of the entrance are Vaishnavite. The courtyard has two huge pillars with the flagstaff and a Nandi mandapa.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 139
The attempted lifting of the Kailasa mountain by whom was sculptured in Kailasanatha cave?
A
Lord Siva
B
Krishna
C
Ravana
D
Varahar
Question 139 Explanation: 
The wedding ceremony of SivaParvati, the attempted lifting of the Kailasa mountain by Ravana, and the destruction of Mahisasura by the goddess Durga are beautiful specimens. Weapons and musical instruments of the gods are also depicted through the panel sculptures.
Question 140
Which goddess sculpture was depicted by mounted on Tortoise in Ellora cave?
A
Durga
B
Ganga
C
Yamuna
D
Kaveri
Question 140 Explanation: 
An interesting sculpture is that of the river goddess Ganga mounted on a crocodile and the river goddess Yamuna mounted on a tortoise in Ellora cave.
Question 141
Totally how many caves have been scooped out of volcanic rocks?
A
Twenty-five
B
Thirty
C
Eighteen
D
Twenty-one
Question 141 Explanation: 
The Ajanta caves are situated at a distance of about 100 km north of Aurangabad in Maharashtra. Totally 30 caves have been scooped out of volcanic rocks.
Question 142
Which sect of Buddhism started the excavation of caves in Ajanta?
A
Mahayana
B
Hinayana
C
Theravada
D
Vajrayana
Question 142 Explanation: 
Ajanta caves chiefly famous for mural paintings, there are some sculptures too. The Hinayana sect of Buddhism started the excavation of caves in Ajanta. The patrons were the kings who ruled the Deccan plateau during the period c. 200 BCE to 200 CE.
Question 143
The Paintings of the early phase are mostly in Ajanta caves nine and ten, belong to whose period?
A
Satavahanas
B
Mauryas
C
Guptas
D
Vijayanagar
Question 143 Explanation: 
Ajanta caves are the repository of rich mural paintings. Paintings of the early phase are mostly in caves nine and ten, which belong to the period of the Satavahanas.
Question 144
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. The authors of Ajanta paintings followed ingenious techniques. First, they plastered the ridged surface of the volcanic rock. This plaster was made of mixing two animal fats by tradition.
  2. This surface was overlaid with a thin layer of lime, ready to receive the pigment. Recently it was noticed that a stretch of cloth was reinforced on the surface for the application of pigment
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 144 Explanation: 
The authors of Ajanta paintings followed ingenious techniques. First, they plastered the ridged surface of the volcanic rock. This plaster was made of vegetable fibres, paddy husk, rock-grit, and sand.
Question 145
In the story panel what was are the central theme of the paintings in Ajanta caves?
A
Ramayana
B
Mahabharat
C
Jataka tales
D
Destruction of Mahisasura by the goddess Durga
Question 145 Explanation: 
The story panels are attractive and informative. Scenes from the Jataka stories and select episodes from the life history of Buddha are the central theme of the paintings.
Question 146
Which among the following celestial figures is not depicted in paintings and sculptures in Ajanta caves?
A
Kinnaras
B
Idumbans
C
Vidyadharas
D
Gandharvas
Question 146 Explanation: 
The celestial figures of Kinnaras, Vidyadharas and Gandharvas are depicted in paintings and sculptures. In the paintings of the later period Bodhisattva is shown in larger relief.
Question 147
Which among the following statement regarding Ajanta cave is correct
  1. The aesthetic features of the paintings are garland, necklaces, headgear, ear-rings and the perfection of the movements of the human hands. The prominent colours used are black, red, white, yellow, blue and green.
  2. Light and shadow are intelligently used. Human figures depicted in same colours have been interpreted to mean that they are from same ethnicities.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 147 Explanation: 
Light and shadow are intelligently used. Human figures depicted in different colours have been interpreted to mean that they are from different ethnicities. Though a variety of human moods are presented, the dominant ones are of compassion and peace.
Question 148
Ajanta caves are grouped into how many types, Architecturally?
A
Two
B
Three
C
Four
D
Five
Question 148 Explanation: 
Architecturally, Ajanta caves are grouped into two: chaityas and viharas.
Question 149
Which have vaulted ceilings with long halls?
A
Viharas
B
Chaityas
C
Doom
D
Mandap
Question 149 Explanation: 
The chaityas have vaulted ceilings with long halls. In the rear end of the halls the statue of Buddha is seen. The sculpture of Buddha in the garbagriha is in the classical model. His image is the embodiment of benevolence.
Question 150
Whose sculpture with children are significant in Ajanta cave?
A
Venda
B
Megha
C
Kesini
D
Hariti
Question 150 Explanation: 
Heaviness is the general character of the sculptures. Sculptures of Yakshis and Hariti with children are significant. Bodhisattva carved out independently is another important feature.
Question 151
During whose reign the iconic Shore Temple of Pallavas at Mamallapuram (Mahabalipuram) was constructed?
A
Rajasimha
B
Mahendravarman I
C
Nandivarman II
D
Simhavarman I
Question 151 Explanation: 
The iconic Shore Temple of Pallavas at Mamallapuram (Mahabalipuram) was constructed during the reign of Rajasimha (Narasimhavarman) (700-728).
Question 152
The shore temple comprises of how many shrines?
A
Four
B
Two
C
Three
D
Seven
Question 152 Explanation: 
The shore temple comprises three shrines, where the prominent ones are dedicated to Siva and Vishnu. The exterior wall of the shrine, dedicated to Vishnu, and the interior of the boundary wall are elaborately carved and sculpted.
Question 153
How many storeyed is rock-cut monolithic shore temple?
A
Three
B
Five
C
Six
D
Four
Question 153 Explanation: 
Unlike other structures of the region, the Shore Temple is a five-storeyed rock-cut monolith. The monolithic vimanas are peculiar to Mamallapuram.
Question 154
The Rathas in Mamallapuram are known as what?
A
Surya Narayana Rathas
B
Panchapandava Rathas
C
Buddha Rathas
D
Rama Rathas
Question 154 Explanation: 
The Rathas in Mamallapuram are known as the Panchapandava Rathas.
Question 155
Whose Ratha in Mamallapuram contains artistically carved sculptures of Siva, Vishnu, mithuna and dwarapala?
A
Arjuna Ratha
B
Dharmaraja Ratha
C
Bhima Ratha
D
Nakula Ratha
Question 155 Explanation: 
The Arjuna Ratha contains artistically carved sculptures of Siva, Vishnu, mithuna and dwarapala.
Question 156
Whose Ratha is rectangular in plan and has beautiful sculptures of Harihara, Brahma, Vishnu, Skanda, Ardhanarisvara and Siva as Gangadhara?
A
Sahadeva Ratha
B
Dharmaraja Ratha
C
Bhima Ratha
D
Nakula Ratha
Question 156 Explanation: 
The Bhima Ratha is rectangular in plan and has beautiful sculptures of Harihara, Brahma, Vishnu, Skanda, Ardhanarisvara and Siva as Gangadhara.
Question 157
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. The most important piece of carving in Mamallapuram is the Descent of the Ganga (variously described as ‘Bhagirata’s Penance’ or ‘Arjuna’s Penance’).
  2. The portrayal of puranic figures with popular local stories reveals the skill of the artists in blending various aspects of human and animal life.
  3. Sculptural panel in the Siva mandapa, where village life with cows and cowherds is depicted with beauty and skill, is yet another artistic wonder to behold.
A
Only 2
B
Both 1 and 2
C
Both 1 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 157 Explanation: 
Sculptural panel in the Krishna mandapa, where village life with cows and cowherds is depicted with beauty and skill, is yet another artistic wonder to behold.
Question 158
Whose Ratha is with a three-storied vimana and a square base?
A
Sahadeva Ratha
B
Krishna Ratha
C
Dharmaraja Ratha
D
Nakula Ratha
Question 158 Explanation: 
The most exquisite of the five is the Dharmaraja Ratha, with a three-storied vimana and a square base.
Question 159
Which of the following statement is incorrect
  1. The structural temples and the free-standing temples at Aihole and Badami in the Deccan and at Kanchipuram and Mamallapuram provide testimony to the architecturalexcellence achieved during the period.
  2. The Deccan style of sculpture shows a close affinity to Satavahana art. Pallava sculpture owed a lot to the Jains tradition. Yet the sculpture and the architecture of the Deccan and Tamil Nadu were not mere off shoots of the northern tradition.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 159 Explanation: 
The Deccan style of sculpture shows a close affinity to Gupta art. Pallava sculpture owed a lot to the Buddhist tradition. Yet the sculpture and the architecture of the Deccan and Tamil Nadu were not mere off shoots of the northern tradition.
Question 160
The Pallavas of Kanchipuram in north and the Pandyasof Madurai in south of Tamil country patronised which religious movement?
A
Arya Samaj
B
Aligarh Movement
C
Bhakti movement
D
Mahayana movement
Question 160 Explanation: 
The Pallavas of Kanchipuram in north and the Pandyas of Madurai in south of Tamil country patronised the religious movement of Bhakti, spearheaded by the elite and the wealthy merchant class.
Question 161
Totally how many Azhwars are there?
A
63
B
18
C
24
D
12
Question 161 Explanation: 
The saints of Saivism and Vaishnavism simplified the use of Tamil language with the application of music. They brought the local and regional ethos into the mainstream. Azhwars (totally 12) and Nayanmars (totally 63), came from different strata of Tamil society, such as artisans and cultivators.
Question 162
Who among the following was the women saint in Azhwar?
A
Avvaiyar
B
Andal
C
Mirabai
D
Karaikkal Ammaiyar
Question 162 Explanation: 
There were women saints as well like Andal, an Azhwar saint.
Question 163
Which among the following statement is incorrect
  1. The local temple became the nucleus of Bhakti movement. Bhakti became the instrument to touch the hearts of people emotionally, and mobilize them.
  2. Bhakti cult as a religious movement opened a new chapter in the history of Tamilnadu in the early medieval period. A strong wave of Tamil devotionalism swept the country from the sixth through the ninth centuries. Th e form was in hymns of the Nayanmars and the Azhwars
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 164
Who among the following was the prominent female Nayanmar saints?
A
Avvaiyar
B
Mirabai
C
Karaikkal Ammaiyar
D
Anaya
Question 164 Explanation: 
The poet Karaikkal Ammaiyar (Tilakawathi), and the Pandya queen Mangayarkkarasiyar were prominent female Nayanmar saints.
Question 165
Which among the following are the source of Bhakti movement?
A
Civaka Cintamani
B
Periyapuranam
C
Nalayira divyaprapandam
D
Tiruvasagam
Question 165 Explanation: 
Hymns of Thevaram corpus; Nalayiradivyaprapandam; Periyapuranam; Tiru-thondarthogai; Manickavasakar’s Tiruvasagam; Hymns engraved on the walls of temples. Miniature sculptures in the circumambulation of temples; paintings in the temples are the sources.
Question 166
Which among the following is not the Bhakti hymns major themes
  1. First and foremost is the idea of devotion to a personal god
  2. The second is a support to orthodox Vedic Brahmanism and the inclusiveness of the Brahmans in their access to divine grace and salvation.
  3. The third is the outright condemnation of Jains and Buddhists as heretics.
A
Only 2
B
Both 1 and 2
C
Both 2 and 3
D
Only 3
Question 166 Explanation: 
The second is a protest against orthodox Vedic Brahmanism and the exclusiveness of the Brahmans in their access to divine grace and salvation.
Question 167
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Originating with folk dancing, the choreography of temple dancing became highly sophisticated and complex renderings of religious themes as apparent in the final form.
  2. From the Pallava period onwards trained groups of dancers were maintained by the more prosperous temples. Classic scenes from puranas, and itihasas were sculpted on the walls of the temples, in bronze and stone
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 168
Which was probably the most frequently used instrument in Temple?
A
Mridangam
B
Flute
C
Veena
D
Ghatam
Question 168 Explanation: 
Religious hymns set to music were popularized by the Tamil saints, and the singing of these hymns became a regular feature of the temple ritual. The veena was probably the most frequently used instrument. Sometime around the fifth century CE, it was replaced in India by a lute with a pear-shaped body.
Question 169
Azhwars composed moving hymns addressed to which god?
A
Siva
B
Vishnu
C
Karthikeya
D
Durga
Question 169 Explanation: 
Azhwars composed moving hymns addressed to Vishnu.
Question 170
Who compiled in the Nalayira Divviyaprabandham?
A
Nammalvar
B
Madhurakavi Alvar
C
Tulsidas
D
Nadamuni
Question 170 Explanation: 
Moving hymns composed by Azhwars were compiled in the Nalayira Divviyaprabandham by Nadamuni, at the end of the ninth century.
Question 171
Nadamuni served as a priest in which Temple?
A
Brihadeeshwara Temple in Tanjore
B
Meenakshi Amman Temple in Madurai
C
Ranganatha Temple in Srirangam
D
Kailasanathar Temple in Kanchipuram
Question 171 Explanation: 
Nadamuni who served as a priest at the Ranganatha temple in Srirangam is credited with compiling this work comprising four thousand poems.
Question 172
Who is the hero in Andal’s hymns?
A
Krishna
B
Siva
C
Karthikeya
D
Brahma
Question 172 Explanation: 
Krishna is the hero in Andal’s hymns. Her songs convey her abiding love for Krishna.
Question 173
Who is considered the greatest amongst Alvars?
A
Andal
B
Periyalvar
C
Nammalvar
D
Thiruppan Alvar
Question 173 Explanation: 
convey her abiding love for Krishna. Nammalvar, from Kurugur (Alvar Tirunagari), now in Thoothukudi district, is considered the greatest amongst Alvars.
Question 174
Nammalvar authored how many works including Tiruvaymoli?
A
Three
B
Four
C
Seven
D
Twelve
Question 174 Explanation: 
Nammalvar authored four works that include the Tiruvaymoli. Vaishnava devotees believe that his hymns distil the essence of the four Vedas. From the twelfth century, the Vaishnava hymns were the subject of elaborate and erudite commentaries.
Question 175
Who among the following was known as Appar?
A
Tirunavukarasar
B
Tirugnanasambandar
C
Sundarar
D
Manikkavasagar
Question 175 Explanation: 
The prominent Saiva poets include Tirunavukarasar also known as Appar, Tirugnanasambandar and Sundarar, and Manikkavasagar.
Question 176
Who compiled Nayanmars hymns into an anthology of eleven books, towards the end of tenth century?
A
Rudra Pasupathi
B
Chandeshvara
C
Nambi Andar Nambi
D
Cheraman Perumal
Question 176 Explanation: 
Nambi Andar Nambi compiled their hymns into an anthology of eleven books, towards the end of tenth century.
Question 177
Which among the following statement is Incorrect
  1. The first seven books, commonly known as Thevaram, contain the hymns of Sambandar (I to III), Appar (books IV to VI) and Sundarar (book VII) and Manikkavasagar (book VIII).
  2. Nandanar Periyapuranam is the twelfth thirumurai of the Saiva canon. It is a hagiography of the sixty-three Nayanmars but contains an undercurrent of historical information as well.
  3. This collection of 12 books is named Panniru Tirumurai. The Periyapuranam relates many stories about Nayanmars and the miraculous episodes in their lives.
A
Only 2
B
Only 3
C
Both 1 and 3
D
Both 2 and 3
Question 177 Explanation: 
Sekkilar’s Periyapuranam is the twelfth thirumurai of the Saiva canon. It is a hagiography of the sixty-three Nayanmars but contains an undercurrent of historical information as well.
Question 178
With arrival of whom Bhakti discourse began in Sanskrit in a philosophical mode?
A
Appar
B
Adi sankarar
C
Sri Ramanujar
D
Manikkavasagar
Question 178 Explanation: 
Every layman could understand this motto because Bhakti literary canons were composed in Tamil in simple syntactic and semantic style. But, with the arrival of Adi Sankara Bhakti discourse began in Sanskrit in a philosophical mode.
Question 179
Which among the following statement is incorrect
  1. Temples, in later Chola times, became great social institutions. Politically, the Bhakti movement prompted the rulers to establish the settlements for the invited Brahmin groups from the north of the Indian sub-continent
  2. Royal members, local administrative bodies and individuals initiated the calendrical celebrations and festivals to be conducted in the temples for which they started making endowments to meet their expenditure.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 180
From where, a new doctrine was expounded by Sankara?
A
Kochi
B
Kaladi
C
Pallipuram
D
Badami
Question 180 Explanation: 
Against the background of the emerging pan-Indian need for an ideology to evolve statehood, a new doctrine was expounded by Sankara from Kaladi, Kerala. With his new doctrine of Maya (illusion) he held debates with his counterparts from different sects of religions and won over them.
Question 181
Which among the following statement is incorrect
  1. Fundamentally, Sankara’s Advaita or non-dualism had its roots in Vedanta or Upanishadic philosophy. His attempts to root out Buddhism and to establish smarta (traditionalist) mathas resulted in the establishment of monasteries in different places
  2. Sankara looked upon Vaishnava worship more than Saiva worship as important aspects of the Vedic religion. Monastic organization and preservation of Sanskrit scriptures were the two major thrusts of Sankara school.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 181 Explanation: 
Sankara looked upon Saiva and Vaishnava worship as two equally important aspects of the Vedic religion. Monastic organization and preservation of Sanskrit scriptures were the two major thrusts of Sankara school.
Question 182
Which was the native of Sri Ramanujar?
A
Madurai
B
Vellore
C
Sriperumbudur
D
Trichy
Question 182 Explanation: 
Sri Ramanujar, a native of Sriperumpudur, underwent philosophical training under Yatavaprakasar in Kanchipuram in Sankara school of thought.
Question 183
who once found Sri Ramanujar in Kanchi invited him to Srirangam?
A
Sangarachary
B
Maheshwarar
C
Bothatheyar
D
Yamunachary
Question 183 Explanation: 
The young Ramanujar did not agree with the teachings of his guru and was fascinated by the teachings of the Srirangam school of thought. Yamunacharya who once found him in Kanchi invited him to Srirangam. But as soon as he reached Sri Rangam, Yamunacharya passed away.
Question 184
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Ramanujar was then declared the head of monastery in Srirangam. He took control of monastery, temple and united the sect with efforts at modifying the rituals in temples.
  2. Ramanuja was a teacher-reformer and a great organiser. He supported the monist ideology of Adi Sankara and his effort to widen the social base to include other Brahmans throughout country.
  3. He influenced some temple authorities to permit the social groups outside the varnashrama system to enter into temple at least once a year. It is believed that due to the perceived threat to their religious faith and existence, Ramanujar had to leave his place of residence
A
Only 3
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 184 Explanation: 
Ramanuja was a teacher-reformer and a great organiser. He challenged the monist ideology of Adi Sankara and in his effort to widen the social base to include social groups other than Brahmans.
Question 185
What was the philosophy of Sri Ramanujar that influenced many thinkers and developed into a separate tradition?
A
Dvaita
B
Advaita
C
Visishtadvaita
D
Somadvaita
Question 185 Explanation: 
Described as qualified monism, his philosophy of Visishtadvaita influenced many thinkers and developed into a separate tradition.
Question 186
The schism was developed into how many schools, century after Sri Ramanujar death?
A
Three
B
Ten
C
Two
D
Seven
Question 186 Explanation: 
A century after his death, there was a schism which developed into two separate schools under Vedanta Desikar and Manavala Mamuni.
Question 187
Arrange the following in chronological order
  1. Narasimhavarman I
  2. Simhavishnu
  3. Aparajitavarman
  4. Mahendravarman I
A
4 – 1 – 3 – 2
B
2 – 1 – 4 – 3
C
3 – 2 – 1 – 4
D
3 – 4 – 2 – 1
Question 188
Who among the following alvar lived in Srivilliputtur during the reign of Pandyan king Maravarman Srivallabha in the ninth century?
A
Nammalvar
B
Thiruppan Alvar
C
Periyalvar
D
Thirumalisai Alvar
Question 188 Explanation: 
Periyalvar lived in Srivilliputtur during the reign of Pandyan king Maravarman Srivallabha in the ninth century. The themes are mostly Krishna’s childhood.
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