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Early India: From the Beginnings to the Indus Civilisation Online Test 11th History Lesson 1 Questions

Early India: From the Beginnings to the Indus Civilisation Online Test 11th History Lesson 1 Questio

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Question 1
In Indus valley during which age it reached a matured stage of living?
A
Iron age
B
Bronze age
C
Megalithic age
D
Stone age
Question 1 Explanation: 
India experienced an early development of cultures and civilisations. Since the Old Stone Age, several groups in India had migrated multiple times and made cultural adaptations to diverse eco-zones. Each group evolved its own culture responding to their living experiences in each place, which eventually led to pluralistic beliefs and systems. From a life of foraging through nomadic pastoralism, the settlers in Indus region reached a matured stage of living in the Bronze Age.
Question 2
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Harappans used a script, it is yet to be deciphered
  2. The faunal (animal) and floral (plant) sources are important for understanding the relationship of the Stone Age people with their environment
  3. The mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) studies provide information on pre-historic migrations
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 2 Explanation: 
Archaeological sources form the bedrock of information for us to understand this long span of time in Indian history. There is no written evidence for this period. Although the Harappans used a script, it is yet to be deciphered. The faunal (animal) and floral (plant) sources are important for understanding the relationship of the Stone Age people with their environment. Floral evidence found in the form of charred seeds, pollens and phytoliths (plant stones) helps us to gain knowledge of farming practiced by Stone Age people. The human genes also constitute an important source for understanding prehistoric migrations. The mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) studies provide information on pre-historic migrations.
Question 3
Which of the following language families have flourished in India?
  1. Indo-Aryan
  2. Dravidian
  3. Austro-Asiatic
  4. Tibeto-Burman
A
1, 2, 3
B
1, 2, 3
C
1, 2, 4
D
1, 2, 3, 4
Question 3 Explanation: 
Language is another important source of history. Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman language families have flourished in India. These languages developed and evolved during the various phases of migrations in Indian history.
Question 4
The earliest human ancestor species to migrate out of Africa was____________
A
Homo habilis
B
Homo erectus
C
Homo sapiens
D
Neanderthal man
Question 4 Explanation: 
The period before the development of script is called the pre-historic times. It is also referred to as the Stone Age. When we talk about the Stone Age, we include the entire South Asia, the region covering India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bangladesh, as a whole. Human ancestors are likely to have first evolved in Africa and later migrated to different parts of the world. The earliest human ancestor species to migrate out of Africa was the Homo erectus.
Question 5
Match the following
  1. Old Stone Age    1. Acheulian
  2. Iron Age               2. Palaeolithic
  3. Harappan            3. painted grey ware culture
A
3, 1, 2
B
2, 3, 1
C
2, 1, 3
D
3, 2, 1
Question 5 Explanation: 
Generally, the period before the invention of script is broadly divided into Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age. Hence, the names of materials that they used (for example, painted grey ware culture or Iron Age culture) or the geographical region (Indus) or the first site to be identified (for example, Acheulian or Harappan) are used to name the cultures. The earliest age in history is called Old Stone Age or Palaeolithic.
Question 6
Arrange the following in chronological order
  1. Palaeolithic
  2. Neolithic
  3. Mesolithic
A
2, 3, 1
B
1, 3, 2
C
3, 2, 1
D
2, 1, 3
Question 6 Explanation: 
The period after the Old Stone Age (Palaeolithic) is called the Mesolithic Age. The period that followed the Mesolithic is called the Neolithic Age. This is the age in which animal and plant domestication developed, leading to food production. The classification of these cultures is done on the basis of stratigraphic, chronological and lithic (stone tool) evidence.
Question 7
In which age human ancestor species of Homo erectus is believed to have lived in India?
A
Middle Palaeolithic culture
B
Lower Palaeolithic culture
C
Upper Palaeolithic culture
D
Mesolithic age
Question 7 Explanation: 
The earliest lithic artefacts come from different parts of the Indian subcontinent. During the Lower Palaeolithic cultural phase, human ancestor species of Homo erectus is believed to have lived in India.
Question 8
Who found the first Palaeolithic tools in Pallavaram?
A
Tony Bruce
B
Robert Bruce Foote
C
H.D. Sankalia
D
Robert Clinch
Question 8 Explanation: 
The first Palaeolithic tools were identified at the site of Pallavaram near Chennai by Robert Bruce Foote in 1863. He found many prehistoric sites when he extensively surveyed different parts of South India. Since then, numerous Palaeolithic sites have been identified and excavated all over India.
Question 9
In which of the following places Acheulian tradition is absent?
  1. Western Ghats
  2. coastal areas
  3. north-western India
  4. north-eastern India
A
1, 2, 3
B
2, 3, 4
C
1, 2, 4
D
1, 3, 4
Question 9 Explanation: 
The Acheulian tradition is absent in the Western Ghats, coastal areas and north-eastern India. Heavy rainfall is attributed to its absence. Uncongenial conditions and lack of raw materials might have prevented the occupation of these areas. Perhaps there was no necessity for the pre-historic people to move into these areas. These sites are found more in Central India and in south-eastern part of India (near Chennai). These areas receive high rainfall and are therefore endowed with thick green cover and rich resources.
Question 10
Which of the following statement is incorrect?
  1. Sohan industry mainly had hand axes and cleavers.
  2. The Sohan industry gets its name from the Sohan river valley of Pakistan.
  3. The Acheulian industry is considered to have used only chopper and chopping tools.
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 10 Explanation: 
Based on research, two independent cultural traditions of hand axe (Acheulian) and pebble-flake (Sohanian) industries were confirmed in India. Acheulian industry mainly had hand axes and cleavers. The Sohan industry is considered to have used only chopper and chopping tools. The Sohan industry gets its name from the Sohan river valley of Pakistan. These two cultural traditions are not considered distinct any longer. Recent studies argue that there was no independent Sohan tradition as Acheulian tools are found in the Sohan industry as well.
Question 11
Match the following
  1. Chennai                          1. Bhimbetka
  2. Karnataka                       2. Gudiyam
  3. Madhya Pradesh            3. Isampur
A
2, 1, 3
B
2, 3, 1
C
3, 2, 1
D
2, 1, 3
Question 11 Explanation: 
Lower Palaeolithic tools are found in most parts of India, except in a few regions of the Ganges valley, southern Tamil Nadu and in the hilly areas of the Western Ghats. Athirampakkam, Pallavaram and Gudiyam near Chennai, Hunsgi valley and Isampur in Karnataka, and Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh are some important Palaeolithic sites where the Acheulian tools are found.
Question 12
Lower Palaeolithic age lasted before_______
A
10,000 years ago
B
60,000 years ago
C
20,000 years ago
D
30,000 years ago
Question 12 Explanation: 
Recent research places the beginning of lower Palaeolithic around two million years ago. This culture continued up to 60,000 years ago.
Question 13
Who is the immediate ancestor of Homo Sapiens?
A
Homo habilis
B
Homo erectus
C
Neanderthal man
D
Hominin
Question 13 Explanation: 
Unlike Africa, evidence of hominin [immediate ancestor of Homo Sapiens] fossil is rare in India. There is a report of a fossil fragment discovered by Robert Bruce Foote from Athirampakkam. Its whereabouts are not known now.
Question 14
The only well-known hominin fossil of India was found at_______
A
Hunsgi valley
B
Isampur
C
Hathnora
D
Pallavaram
Question 14 Explanation: 
The only well-known hominin fossil of India was found at Hathnora near Hoshangabad in Madhya Pradesh. The cranium is named Narmada human. A partly preserved hominid skull cap was found in a basal conglomerate deposit in 1982. It is considered to represent the Archaic Homo sapiens. It is the only existing fossil find of human ancestors in India.
Question 15
Match the following
  1. Elephas namadicus                   1. extinct great horse like animal
  2. Bos namadicus                           2. giant pre-historic elephant
  3. Equus namadicus                      3. wild cattle
  4. Stegodon Ganesa                       4. giant tusked pre-historic elephant
A
2, 4, 3, 1
B
2, 1, 3, 4
C
4, 3, 1, 2
D
4, 2, 1, 3
Question 15 Explanation: 
Animal fossils are useful to understand the palaeo-environmental context in which people lived. In the Narmada valley, animal fossils of Elephas namadicus (giant tusked pre-historic elephant), Stegodon ganesa (a giant pre-historic elephant), Bos namadicus (wild cattle) and Equus namadicus (extinct great horse like animal) have been recovered. Teeth of Equus, evidence of water buffalo and nilgai as well as 17 animal hoof prints have been uncovered at Attirampakkam.
Question 16
Which of the following are included in Equus?
  1. Horses
  2. Asses
  3. Zebras
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 16 Explanation: 
Teeth of Equus, evidence of water buffalo and nilgai as well as 17 animal hoof prints have been uncovered at Attirampakkam. Equus refers to the genus of animals including horses, asses and zebras.
Question 17
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. The people of Lower Palaeolithic culture hunted animals and gathered roots, nuts and fruits.
  2. The pre-historic human ancestors, who belonged to the species of Homo erectus, did not have a complex language culture like us, the Homo sapiens.
  3. They may have expressed a few sounds or words and used a sign language
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 17 Explanation: 
The people of Lower Palaeolithic culture hunted animals and gathered roots, nuts and fruits. They fed on the flesh and bones of animals killed by predators. They lived in open air, river valleys, caves and rock shelters, as seen from evidence in Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh and Gudiyam near Chennai. The pre-historic human ancestors, who belonged to the species of Homo erectus, did not have a complex language culture like us, the Homo sapiens. They may have expressed a few sounds or words and used a sign language. They were intelligent enough to select stones as raw material and used the hammer stones to carefully flake the rocks and design tools.
Question 18
Who identified Middle Palaeolithic phase for 1st time in India?
A
Robert Bose
B
H.D. Sankalia
C
H.D. Sharkaria
D
Robert Bruce Foote
Question 18 Explanation: 
In India, the Middle Palaeolithic phase was first identified by H.D. Sankalia on the Pravara River at Nevasa. After this discovery, several sites of this period have been identified. Recently, the Middle Palaeolithic of Athirampakkam is dated to be around 3.85-1.72 lakh years BP. Indian Middle Palaeolithics probably may be as old as the African Middle Palaeolithic culture.
Question 19
Which of the following industry was predominant in the Middle Palaeolithic period?
A
Iron Smelting
B
Flake industry
C
Copper Smelting
D
All the above
Question 19 Explanation: 
The tool types of the Middle Palaeolithic period are hand axes, cleavers, choppers, chopping tools, scrapers, borers and points, projectile points or shouldered points and knives on flakes. Flake industry was predominant in the Middle Palaeolithic period and tools such as scrapers, points and borers were made. Scrapers were used for wood and skin working.
Question 20
While the African Middle Stone Age is associated with the Homo sapiens, Europe is associated with_____
A
Hominin
B
Neanderthals
C
Homo habilis
D
Homo erectus
Question 20 Explanation: 
The Middle Palaeolithic culture in India is dated between 3,85,000 and 40,000 BCE. While the African Middle Stone Age is associated with the Homo sapiens, it is associated with the Neanderthals in Europe. No hominin fossil bones of this species have been found in India.
Question 21
Along which of the following river Middle Palaeolithic sites are found?
  1. Narmada
  2. Krishna
  3. Yamuna
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 21 Explanation: 
The Middle Palaeolithic sites are found in Narmada, Godavari, Krishna, Yamuna and other river valleys.
Question 22
Which of the following are features of the Indian Middle Palaeolithic period?
  1. Use of core preparation techniques in stone tool production
  2. The tools became larger
  3. The decrease in the use of hand axes in relation to other tools.
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 22 Explanation: 
The Middle Palaeolithic people occupied open-air, cave and rock shelter sites. They were hunter-gatherers. The main features of the Indian Middle Palaeolithic period include the following: The tools became smaller. The decrease in the use of hand axes in relation to other tools. Use of core preparation techniques in stone tool production. Use of chert, jasper, chalcedony and quartz as raw materials.
Question 23
Where did the modern humans evolved for the first time?
A
South Africa
B
Sub – Saharan Africa
C
South East Asia
D
East Asia
Question 23 Explanation: 
The cultural phase that followed the Middle Palaeolithic is called Upper Palaeolithic. This period is marked by innovation in tool technology and increased cognitive capability of humans. The modern humans, who first evolved in sub-Saharan Africa, sometime before 300,000 years ago, migrated to and occupied various parts of Asia around 60,000 years ago. They probably replaced the earlier populations. There is a possibility that these new groups were responsible for the Upper Palaeolithic culture of India.
Question 24
During which period Microliths tools were introduced?
A
Middle Palaeolithic
B
Upper Palaeolithic
C
Lower Palaeolithic
D
Iron age
Question 24 Explanation: 
The lithic industry of the Upper Palaeolithic period is based on blade and bone tool technologies. Microliths (tiny stone tools) were introduced in the Upper Palaeolithic Period and these tools were made using different varieties of silica-rich raw materials. Bone tools and faunal remains have been found in Kurnool caves in Andhra Pradesh.
Question 25
What is the time period of Upper Palaeolithic age?
A
30,000 years to 10,000 years BP
B
40,000 years to 10,000 years BP
C
60,000 years to 10,000 years BP
D
10,000 years to 5000 years BP
Question 25 Explanation: 
The Upper Palaeolithic culture is represented in India at several sites. A time bracket of c. 40,000 years to 10,000 years BP is suggested for this period.
Question 26
Which of the following places are some of the Upper Palaeolithic sites of India?
  1. Baghor I and Baghor III of Son Valley
  2. Pallavaram
  3. Meralbhavi
  4. Godavarikhani
A
1, 2, 3
B
1, 3, 4
C
2, 3, 4
D
1, 2, 4
Question 26 Explanation: 
The people of this period used caves as well as the open air space for living. Meralbhavi in Karnataka, Kurnool caves and Godavarikhani in Telangana, Baghor I and Baghor III of Son Valley in Madhya Pradesh and Patne in Maharashtra are some of the Upper Palaeolithic sites of India.
Question 27
Which of the following statement is incorrect?
  1. Sri Lanka has evidence of microliths and hominin fossils.
  2. Incised ostrich eggshell, and shell and stone beads have been found at Jwalapuram in Andhra Pradesh
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 27 Explanation: 
Sri Lanka has evidence of microliths and hominin fossils. Incised ostrich eggshell, and shell and stone beads have been found at Jwalapuram in Andhra Pradesh, Patne in Maharashtra and Batadomba-Lena and Fa Hien Cave in Sri Lanka.
Question 28
Evidence of ostrich Egg Shells from Patne have been dated to_________
A
15,000 BP
B
10,000 BP
C
25,000 BP
D
30,000 BP
Question 28 Explanation: 
Evidence of ostrich has been found in some pre-historic sites of India. The egg shell of this bird had been used as beads and those from Patne have been dated to 25,000 BP. They are found in Bhimbetka and Patne.
Question 29
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. The lithic blade industry advanced in Upper Palaeolithic period
  2. Some of the green colour paintings of Bhimbetka are dated to Upper Palaeolithic period based on style and archaeological evidence
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 29 Explanation: 
Evidence of art in the Upper Palaeolithic period appears in the form of paintings. Beads and ornaments of this period have also been found. The lithic blade industry advanced in this period. Some of the green colour paintings of Bhimbetka are dated to Upper Palaeolithic period based on style and archaeological evidence.
Question 30
Match the following Mesolithic sites with their state
  1. Paisra                               1. Gujarat
  2. Sankanakallu                 2. Uttar Pradesh
  3. Damdama                       3. Bihar
  4. Langhnaj                        4. Karnataka
A
3, 4, 1, 2
B
4, 2, 3, 1
C
3, 4, 2, 1
D
4, 1, 2, 3
Question 30 Explanation: 
Mesolithic sites in India are found in Paisra (Bihar), Langhnaj (Gujarat), Baghor II, Chopani Mando, Sarai Nahar Rai, Mahadaha and Damdama (all in Uttar Pradesh), Sankanakallu and Kibbanahalli (Karnataka). Rock shelter sites are found in Lekhakia, Baghai Khor, Adamgarh and Bhimbetka. Coastal sites are seen at Mumbai, teri sites of Thoothukudy in Tamil Nadu and Vishakapatnam, which have microlithic evidence.
Question 31
Between 10,000 and 3500 BP fresh water lakes were known to existed in________
A
Paisra
B
Bhimbetka
C
Didwana
D
Sankanakallu
Question 31 Explanation: 
After the Ice Age, with the advent of global warming, human groups became highly mobile and began to occupy various ecozones. The monsoon pattern had already emerged. Some regions witnessed higher rainfall. At Didwana in western Rajasthan, fresh water lakes were known to exist between 10,000 and 3500 BP. The animal bones from this period suggest a dry deciduous type of forest during the Mesolithic period.
Question 32
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. The date of the Mesolithic culture varies in different parts of the world.
  2. In India, Mesolithic cultures appeared around 10,000 BCE.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 32 Explanation: 
The date of the Mesolithic culture varies in different parts of the world. This culture is assigned to pre-agricultural times in certain areas. In Levant (Eastern Mediterranean), they are dated between 20,000 and 9500 BCE. In India, Mesolithic cultures appeared around 10,000 BCE.
Question 33
In which parts of India Mesolithic culture continued up to 1000 BCE?
  1. Kerala
  2. Karnataka
  3. Tamil Nadu
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 33 Explanation: 
In certain parts of India including Kerala and Tamil Nadu, Mesolithic culture continued up to 1000 BCE, till the beginning of the Iron Age. In Sri Lanka, the microliths appeared about 28,500 years BP.
Question 34
Which of the following statement is correct about Mesolithic culture?
  1. Hunting wild animals and gathering plant food and fishing were people’s main occupation during this age.
  2. Agriculture was practised from early stage itself.
  3. At the end of the Mesolithic period, humans domesticated animals and paved the way for the Neolithic way of life.
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 34 Explanation: 
Hunting wild animals and gathering plant food and fishing were people’s main occupation during this age. Agriculture was not practised in the early stages. At the end of the Mesolithic period, humans domesticated animals and paved the way for the Neolithic way of life. The rock paintings of Central India depict hunting, trapping, fishing and plant food collection.
Question 35
Match the following
  1. Kanewal                          1. Paintings of men and women hunting animals
  2. Loteshwar                       2. Camel bone
  3. Bhimbetka                       3. Domestic animal bones
A
2, 1, 3
B
2, 3, 1
C
3, 1, 2
D
1, 3, 2
Question 35 Explanation: 
The paintings of Bhimbetka show that various animals were hunted and for this men and women went together. The people used fire and perhaps roasted food. Domestic animal bones of cattle, sheep, goats, pig and dog have been found at Kanewal, Loteshwar and Ratanpur, and from Adamgarh and Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh sites. Camel bones have been found from Kanewal.
Question 36
Traces of oval and circular huts and possible wattle daub of Mesolithic period is found in
  1. Chopani Mando
  2. Damdama
  3. Bagor
  4. Tilwara
A
1, 2, 3
B
2, 3, 4
C
1, 3, 4
D
1, 2, 3, 4
Question 36 Explanation: 
The Mesolithic people were highly mobile. They moved in search of animals and plant foods. They made temporary huts and also used caves and rock shelters. Circular huts with postholes and burnt clay lumps bearing reed impressions have been found. Many of caves and shelters feature paintings. Circular huts are seen in rock paintings. The temporary huts were built using perishable materials. Traces of oval and circular huts and possible wattle daub are found in Chopani Mando and Damdama in Uttar Pradesh and Bagor and Tilwara in Rajasthan.
Question 37
During Mesolithic period at which place a man and a woman were buried together?
A
Mahadaha
B
Damdama
C
Sarai Nahar Rai
D
Tilwara
Question 37 Explanation: 
The Mesolithic people buried the dead, which suggests their beliefs and humane relationships. Human skeletons have been found in Mahadaha, Damdama and Sarai Nahar Rai in Uttar Pradesh. At Mahadaha, a man and a woman were buried together. One burial had an ivory pendant as the grave good.
Question 38
Which of the following statement is correct about art of Mesolithic age?
  1. Art is an integral part of human existence. While evidence of art is found in Europe in large volume, they are found only at a few sites in India
  2. Rock paintings are found in the rock shelters of Madhya Pradesh and Central India
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 38 Explanation: 
Art is an integral part of human existence. While evidence of art is found in Europe in large volume, they are found only at a few sites in India. A chert stone used as a core had geometric engravings from Chandravati in Rajasthan, bone objects from Bhimbetka and human tooth engraved with geometric design. Rock paintings are found in the rock shelters of Madhya Pradesh and Central India. They show people hunting, trapping animals and fishing and dancing. Bhimbetka near Bhopal, Raisen and Pachmarhi in Madhya Pradesh and South Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh are some of the sites. Haematite, an iron-rich stone with traces of rubbing, has been found. These people might have decorated themselves with flowers and leaves.
Question 39
When the Indus Civilisation was in its peak, Tamil Nadu had______
A
Chalcolithic age
B
agro-pastoralists
C
agro-pastoralists
D
microlithic hunter-gatherers
Question 39 Explanation: 
When the Indus Civilisation was in its peak, Tamil Nadu had microlithic hunter-gatherers. The Andhra–Karnataka region had the agro-pastoralists of the Neolithic period.
Question 40
Which of the following statement about Mesolithic Cultures is correct?
  1. The Mesolithic people lived in semi-permanent and temporary settlements
  2. They buried the dead.
  3. They occupied caves and open grounds
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 40 Explanation: 
The Mesolithic people lived in semi-permanent and temporary settlements. They occupied caves and open grounds. They buried the dead. They had artistic skill. They were spread over wider geographical regions. Cultural continuity is noticed in many parts of India from this period. Their microlithic tools enabled them to hunt smaller animals and birds.
Question 41
Which period marked the beginning of agriculture and animal domestication?
A
Chalcolithic
B
Mesolithic
C
Neolithic
D
Mesolithic
Question 41 Explanation: 
The Neolithic period marked the beginning of agriculture and animal domestication. It is an important phase in Indian history.
Question 42
When did agriculture emerged in Ganges valley of India?
A
10,000 BCE to 5000 BCE
B
20,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE
C
20,000 BCE to 15000 BCE
D
10,000 BCE to 1000 BCE
Question 42 Explanation: 
Early evidence of Neolithic culture is found in the Fertile Crescent region of Egypt and Mesopotamia, the Indus region, the Ganges valley of India and also in China. Between 10,000 BCE to 5000 BCE, agriculture emerged in these regions, which led to several cultural developments.
Question 43
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. The Neolithic cultures of India are divided into various regional cultures and they flourished in different time periods
  2. In north-eastern India, Neolithic cultures appeared at a very late date, around the early historic time.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 43 Explanation: 
The Neolithic cultures of India are divided into various regional cultures and they flourished in different time periods. In the north-western part of India and Pakistan, it began at a very early date. In north-eastern India, Neolithic cultures appeared at a very late date, around the early historic time.
Question 44
Which of the following are Neolithic sites?
  1. Mehrgarh
  2. Sarai Kala
  3. Jalilpur
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 44 Explanation: 
The Neolithic culture of north-western India is the earliest to have evidence of plant and animal domestication in India. Mehrgarh, Rana Ghundai, Sarai Kala and Jalilpur are some of the Neolithic sites. These sites are now situated in Pakistan.
Question 45
The site of Mehrgarh dating to_______
A
7000 BCE
B
4000 BCE
C
5000 BCE
D
3000 BCE
Question 45 Explanation: 
The site of Mehrgarh has produced evidence of early Neolithic times, dating to c. 7000 BCE. Wheat and barley were cultivated and sheep, goat and cattle were domesticated. This culture preceded the Indus Civilisation.
Question 46
Which of the following is correct about people of Neolithic Mehrgarh period I?
  1. They were semi-nomadic, pastoral groups.
  2. They built their houses with mud and buried the dead.
  3. The people belonging to this age did not use pottery, but cultivated six-row barley
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 46 Explanation: 
The people belonging to Neolithic Mehrgarh period I did not use pottery, but cultivated six-row barley, emmer and einkorn wheat, jujube, ilanthai and dates, and also domesticated sheep, goat and cattle. They were semi-nomadic, pastoral groups. They built their houses with mud and buried the dead. They used ornaments of sea shell, limestone, turquoise, lapis lazuli and sandstone.
Question 47
The period II of Neolithic Mehrgarh dates to_____
A
7000 to 5500 BCE
B
5500 to 4800 BCE
C
4800 to 3500 BCE
D
7000 to 3500 BCE
Question 47 Explanation: 
The first cultural period (I) of the Neolithic age at Mehrgarh dates from c. 7000 to 5500 BCE. The period II at Mehrgarh dates from c. 5500 to 4800 BCE and the period III from 4800 to 3500 BCE.
Question 48
During which period evidence for pottery were found in Neolithic Mehrgarh?
  1. 5500 to 4800 BCE
  2. 7000 to 5500 BCE
  3. 4800 to 3500 BCE
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 48 Explanation: 
The period II at Mehrgarh dates from c. 5500 to 4800 BCE and the period III from 4800 to 3500 BCE. There is evidence for pottery during these periods. Terracotta figurines and glazed faience beads have been found. Evidence for ornaments on women has been uncovered.
Question 49
The town of Badakshan abandoned after_______
A
Rise of early phase of the Indus Civilisation.
B
Rise of mature phase of the Indus Civilisation.
C
Fall of Indus Civilisation
D
Rise of Magdha empire
Question 49 Explanation: 
Longdistance trade was practiced, as revealed by Lapis Lazuli, which is available only in Badakshan. The town was abandoned after the rise of mature phase of the Indus Civilisation.
Question 50
Neolithic culture in Kashmir region was contemporary to_________
A
Harappan civilisation
B
Keezhadi civilisation
C
Mesolithic in North Western India
D
Chalcolithic in South India
Question 50 Explanation: 
Neolithic culture in Kashmir region was contemporary to the Harappan civilisation. Burzahom, an important site of this culture, provides evidence for the Megalithic and Early Historic Periods.
Question 51
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. The Neolithic period of Kashmir had domestic sheep, goat and cultivated plants.
  2. Neolithic people of Burzahom traded with the people of the Harappan Civilisation
  3. The houses were oval in shape, wide at the bottom and narrow on the top.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 51 Explanation: 
The Neolithic period of Kashmir had domestic sheep, goat and cultivated plants. The Neolithic people of Burzahom traded with the people of the Harappan Civilisation. They used handmade pottery. In this place, people lived in pit houses (about four metres in depth) in order to escape the cold weather. The houses were oval in shape, wide at the bottom and narrow on the top. Postholes used for constructing a thatched structure were found around the pit houses.
Question 52
The site of Lehuradeva has produced early evidence of rice cultivation dated to_____
A
6500 BCE
B
7000 BCE
C
5000 BCE
D
4500 BCE
Question 52 Explanation: 
In the Ganges Valley, and in Central India Neolithic sites are found at Lehuradeva, and Chopani Munda. The site of Lehuradeva has produced early evidence of rice cultivation dated to c. 6500 BCE.
Question 53
Which of the following statement about Neolithic Culture of South India is correct?
  1. The Neolithic cultures of South India have been found mainly in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka and the north-western part of Tamil Nadu
  2. These sites have been spotted in the river valleys of Godavari, Krishna, Pennaru, Tungabhadra and Kaveri
  3. These sites are found near the granite hills with water sources
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 53 Explanation: 
The Neolithic cultures of South India have been found mainly in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka and the north-western part of Tamil Nadu. These sites have ash mounds in the centre with settlements around them. More than 200 Neolithic sites have been identified as part of the Neolithic complex. These sites are found near the granite hills with water sources. These sites have been spotted in the river valleys of Godavari, Krishna, Pennaru, Tungabhadra and Kaveri. Sanganakallu, Tekkalakota, Brahmagiri, Maski, Piklihal, Watkal, Hemmige and Hallur in Karnataka, Nagarjunakonda, Ramapuram and Veerapuram in Andhra Pradesh and Paiyyampalli in Tamil Nadu are the major Neolithic sites in South India.
Question 54
The Neolithic cultures of north-eastern India generally date from________
A
2500-1500 BCE
B
2000-1500 BCE
C
4500-1500 BCE
D
2500-1000 BCE
Question 54 Explanation: 
In north-eastern India, Neolithic culture appears at to a very late period. The Neolithic cultures of north-eastern India generally date from 2500-1500 BCE or even later. Shouldered axes and splayed celts have been found at the sites in Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh. Daojali Hading and Sarutaru are the Neolithic sites in the Assam region.
Question 55
Which of the following site was identified first in Indus civilisation?
A
Mohenjadaro
B
Harappa
C
Lothal
D
Sindhu
Question 55 Explanation: 
The civilisation that appeared in the north-western part of India and Pakistan in third millennium BCE is collectively called the Indus Civilisation. Since Harappa was the first site to be identified in this civilisation, it is also known as Harappan Civilisation.
Question 56
What was the period of mature Harappan phase?
A
3000–2600 BCE
B
2600–1900 BCE
C
1900–1700 BCE
D
4500–3900 BCE
Question 56 Explanation: 
Harappan culture is divided into various phases: Early Harappan 3000–2600 BCE Mature Harappan 2600–1900 BCE Late Harappan 1900–1700 BCE
Question 57
During which period urban phase was prevalent in Harappan civilisation?
A
Early Harappan period
B
Mature Harappan period
C
Late Harappan period
D
None
Question 57 Explanation: 
The urban phase was prevalent in the mature Harappan period and began to decline afterwards. The beginnings of the Neolithic villages in this region go back to about 7000 BCE at the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh.
Question 58
Who visited the Indus valley site of Harappa for the first time in 1826?
A
Charles Mason
B
Charles Mayon
C
Alexander Burnes
D
Alexander Cunninghom
Question 58 Explanation: 
The Indus valley site of Harappa was first visited by Charles Mason in 1826, and Amri by Alexander Burnes in 1831. The explorations and excavations conducted after the 1950s have helped to understand the Harappan Civilisation and its nature.
Question 59
The site of Harappa was destroyed for laying the railway line from______
A
Lahore to Lothal
B
Lahore to Delhi
C
Lahore to Multan
D
Lahore to Peshawar
Question 59 Explanation: 
The ancient city of Harappa was heavily damaged under British rule, while laying the railway track line from Lahore to Multan.
Question 60
Who was the first surveyor of the Archaeological Survey of India?
A
Alexander Burnes
B
Alexander Cunningham
C
Sir John Marshal
D
Charles Mason
Question 60 Explanation: 
The seal from Indus valley civilisation (Harappa) site reached Alexander Cunningham, the first surveyor of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Alexander Cunningham visited the site in 1853, 1856 and 1875.
Question 61
Who played an important role in the development of archaeology in India?
A
Alexander Cunningham
B
Alexander Burnes
C
Sir John Marshal
D
Sir John Shore
Question 61 Explanation: 
The importance of the Indus valley site and the associated civilisation were not realised until Sir John Marshal took over as the Director General of ASI and initiated research at the site. Sir John Marshal played an important role in the development of archaeology in India.
Question 62
Which of the following are Indian sites that have been since excavated?
  1. Kalibangan
  2. Lothal
  3. Rakhi Garhi
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 62 Explanation: 
After the partition of the Indian subcontinent, many of the Harappan sites went to Pakistan and thus archaeologists were keen to trace the Harappan sites on the Indian side. Kalibangan, Lothal, Rakhi Garhi and Dholavira are the Indian sites that have been since excavated.
Question 63
Which of the following regions are core of the Indus Civilisation?
  1. Pakistan
  2. Gujarat
  3. Rajasthan
  4. Haryana
A
1, 2, 4
B
1, 3, 4
C
2, 3, 4
D
1, 2, 3, 4
Question 63 Explanation: 
The Indus Civilisation and the contemporary cultures covered nearly 1.5 million sq. km area in India and Pakistan. Its core area was in the regions of Pakistan, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Haryana.
Question 64
Match the following correctly
  1. Harappa                            1. Gujarat
  2. Mohenjo-Daro                 2. Punjab
  3. Dholavira                         3. Rajasthan
  4. Kalibangan                      4. Sindh
A
4, 1, 2, 3
B
2, 4, 1, 3
C
4, 1, 2, 3
D
3, 2, 1, 4
Question 64 Explanation: 
Harappa (Punjab, Pakistan), Mohenjo-Daro (Sindh, Pakistan), Dholavira, Lothal, and Surkotada (Gujarat, India), Kalibangan and Banawali (Rajasthan, India), and Rakhigarhi (Haryana, India) are the major cities in the Harappan period.
Question 65
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. The Indus region (Mehrgarh) is one of the areas of the world where agriculture and animal domestication began very early
  2. The early Harappan phase saw the development of villages and towns in the entire region
  3. In the Early Harappan phase, urban centres developed
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
1, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 65 Explanation: 
The Indus region (Mehrgarh) is one of the areas of the world where agriculture and animal domestication began very early. We do not know if there is any continuity between the Neolithic cultures of the Indus region and the later urban civilisation. The early Harappan phase saw the development of villages and towns in the entire region. In the Mature Harappan phase, urban centres developed.
Question 66
Which of the following statement is correct about Harappa?
  1. Fortification, well-planned streets and lanes and drainages are noticed in the Harappan towns
  2. The houses were built of mud bricks while the drainages were built with burnt bricks
  3. The Harappans used baked and unbaked bricks, and stones for construction.
A
1, 2
B
2, 3
C
1, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 66 Explanation: 
Fortification, well-planned streets and lanes and drainages are noticed in the Harappan towns. A civic authority perhaps controlled the planning of the towns. The Harappans used baked and unbaked bricks, and stones for construction. The towns had a grid pattern and drainages were systematically built. The houses were built of mud bricks while the drainages were built with burnt bricks. Houses had more than one floor.
Question 67
Which of the following statement is correct about town planning of Mohenjo-daro?
  1. The site of Mohenjo-Daro had a planned town, built on a platform.
  2. Many of the houses had a central courtyard with rooms all around
  3. The houses had bathrooms paved with burnt bricks and proper drains.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 67 Explanation: 
The site of Mohenjo-Daro had a planned town, built on a platform. It has two distinct areas. One is identified as a citadel and another as the lower town. The houses had bathrooms paved with burnt bricks and proper drains. Some houses had stairs indicating the existence of an upper floor. The houses had multiple rooms. Many of the houses had a central courtyard with rooms all around.
Question 68
In the great bath stairs are seen on_______ side
A
Northern and Southern
B
Eastern and western
C
Northern and Eastern
D
Southern and Western
Question 68 Explanation: 
The Great Bath is a tank situated within a courtyard. The corridors were present on all four sides and stairs are seen on the northern and southern sides. It was well paved with several adjacent rooms. Some structures are identified as granary. The bricks were laid watertight with gypsum mortar. It had drainage. It is associated with a ritual bath.
Question 69
Ploughed fields have been found at_____
A
Lothal
B
Kalibangan
C
Shortughai
D
Nageshwar
Question 69 Explanation: 
The Harappans used ploughs. They perhaps ploughed the land and then sowed the seeds. Ploughed fields have been found at Kalibangan. They used both canal and well irrigation.
Question 70
What type of Cropping was followed by Harappans?
A
Mono-Cropping
B
Double-Cropping
C
Mixed-Cropping
D
None
Question 70 Explanation: 
Agriculture was an important source of subsistence for the Harappans. Agricultural surplus was an important stimulus for a number of developments. They adopted a double cropping system.
Question 71
Who Study ancient agriculture, and human and environmental relationships?
A
Archaeobotanists
B
Archaeozoologists
C
Archaeologists
D
Botanist
Question 71 Explanation: 
Archaeobotanists study ancient agriculture, and human and environmental relationships. Harappans cultivated diverse crops such as wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea, sesame and various millets.
Question 72
Which of the following animal was not known to Harappans?
A
Buffalo
B
Pig
C
Elephant
D
Horse
Question 72 Explanation: 
Pastoralism was also practised by the Harappans. They had knowledge of various other animals including buffalo, pig and elephant. But horse was not known to them.
Question 73
The Harappan cattle are called______
A
Hebrew
B
Zebu
C
Cebu
D
Kendra
Question 73 Explanation: 
Harappans y domesticated sheep, goat and fowl. The Harappan cattle are called Zebu. It is a large breed, often represented in their seals. They also ate fish and birds. Evidence of boar, deer and gharial has been found at the Harappan sites.
Question 74
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Craft production was an important part of the Harappan economy
  2. They were exported to Mesopotamia and the evidence for such exported artefacts have been found from the excavations in Mesopotamian sites
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 74 Explanation: 
Craft production was an important part of the Harappan economy. Bead and ornament making, shell bangle making and metalworking were the major crafts. They made beads and ornaments out of carnelian, jasper, crystal, and steatite, metals like copper, bronze and gold and shell, faience and terracotta or burnt clay. The beads were made in innumerable designs and decorations. They were exported to Mesopotamia and the evidence for such exported artefacts have been found from the excavations in Mesopotamian sites.
Question 75
Match the following correctly
  1. Shell                                 1. Rajasthan
  2. Carnelian                         2. Shortughai
  3. Lapis lazuli                      3. Nageshwar
  4. Copper                             4. Lothal
A
3, 4, 1, 2
B
3, 4, 2, 1
C
2, 3, 4, 1
D
1, 3, 2, 4
Question 76
Match the following with their boundaries
  1. West                     1. Daimabad
  2. North                    2. Alamgirpur
  3. East                      3. Sutkagen-dor
  4. South                   4. Shortugai
A
3, 2, 1, 4
B
4, 2, 1, 3
C
3, 4, 2, 1
D
4, 3, 1, 2
Question 76 Explanation: 
The settlements of Sutkagen-dor in the west on the Pakistan– Iran border; Shortugai (Afghanistan) in the north; Alamgirpur (Uttar Pradesh, India) in the east and Daimabad (Maharashtra, India) in the south are the boundaries of this civilisation.
Question 77
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. The Harappans used diverse varieties of pottery for daily use
  2. Their potteries have a deep red slip and black paintings.
  3. The Harappan pottery is well-baked and fine in decorations
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 77 Explanation: 
The Harappans used diverse varieties of pottery for daily use. They use well-fired pottery. Their potteries have a deep red slip and black paintings. The pottery are shaped like dish-on-stands, storage jars, perforated jars, goblets, S-shaped jars, plates, dishes, bowls and pots. The painted motifs, generally noticed on the pottery, are pipal leaves, fish-scale design, intersecting circles, zigzag lines, horizontal bands and geometrical motifs with floral and faunal patterns. The Harappan pottery is well-baked and fine in decorations.
Question 78
The Harappan civilisation belongs to the_____ Age
A
Iron
B
Bronze
C
Chalcolithic
D
Mesolithic
Question 78 Explanation: 
The Harappan civilisation belongs to the Bronze Age civilisation and Harappans knew how to make copper bronze tools. Although they produced bronze implements, they needed various kinds of tools for agriculture and craft production.
Question 79
Which of the following metal was not known to Harappans?
A
Copper
B
Bronze
C
Iron
D
Gold
Question 79 Explanation: 
The Harappans used chert blades, copper objects, and bone and ivory tools. The tools of points, chisels, needles, fishhooks, razors, weighing pans, mirror and antimony rods were made of copper. The chert blades made out of Rohrichert was used by the Harappans. Their weapons include arrowheads, spearhead, celt and axe. They did not have the knowledge of iron.
Question 80
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. The Harappans wore clothes and used metal and stone ornaments.
  2. They had no knowledge of cotton and silk
  3. Rohri chert was used by the Harappans for making stone blades and tools
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 80 Explanation: 
The chert, a fine-grained sedimentary rock, was found in the region of Rohri in Pakistan. It was used by the Harappans for making stone blades and tools. The Harappans wore clothes and used metal and stone ornaments. They had knowledge of cotton and silk. The image identified as a priest is depicted wearing a shawl-like cloth with flower decorations.
Question 81
The image of dancing girl is found at_____
A
Harappa
B
Mohenjo-Daro
C
Lothal
D
Kalibangan
Question 81 Explanation: 
The terracotta images of women are shown wearing different types of ornaments. The image of dancing girl found at Mohenjo-Daro is shown wearing bangles in large numbers up to the upper arm.
Question 82
In which of the following places Harappan seals and materials have been found?
  1. Bahrain
  2. Oman
  3. Iraq
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 82 Explanation: 
One of the sources of Harappan economy was trade and exchange activities. Harappans had close trade contacts with the Mesopotamians and also with various cultures of India. The Harappan seals and materials have been found in the Sumerian sites in Oman, Bahrain, and Iraq and Iran.
Question 83
In which of the following place an Harappan jar has been found?
A
Iraq
B
Iran
C
Oman
D
Afghan
Question 83 Explanation: 
The cuneiform inscriptions mention the trade contacts between Mesopotamia and Harappans. The mention of “Meluhha” in the cuneiform inscriptions refers to the Indus region. A Harappan jar has been found in Oman. Harappan seals, weights, dice and beads are found in Mesopotamia. Carnelian, lapis lazuli, copper, gold and varieties of wood were exported to Mesopotamia. Harappans also interacted with various regions of India and acquired raw materials and processed them.
Question 84
What was the weight ratio used by the Harappans?
A
1 :2 :4 :8 :16: 32
B
1: 3: 6: 9: 18: 36
C
1: 2: 4: 8: 16: 32: 64
D
1: 2: 4
Question 84 Explanation: 
Harappans had developed proper weights and measures. Since they were involved in commercial transactions, they needed standard measures. Cubical chert weights have been unearthed from Harappan sites The weights exhibit a binary system. The ratio of weight is doubled as 1: 2: 4: 8: 16: 32. The small weight measure of 16th ratio weighs 13.63 grams.
Question 85
One inch in the scale used by Harappans is equal to_____
A
1.75 cm
B
1.45 cm
C
1.50 cm
D
1.00 cm
Question 85 Explanation: 
Harappans also used a measuring scale in which one inch was around 1.75 cm. Weights made of chert were cubical. They used binary numbering system (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, etc.). They might have been used for weighing jewellery and metal.
Question 86
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. The Harappan script has not yet been convincingly deciphered.
  2. Some scholars are of the view that it is Dravidian.
  3. The seals from various media such as steatite, copper, terracotta and ivory are frequently found in the Harappan sites
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 86 Explanation: 
The seals from various media such as steatite, copper, terracotta and ivory are frequently found in the Harappan sites. The Harappan script has not yet been convincingly deciphered. Some scholars are of the view that it is Dravidian.
Question 87
The longest text found in Harappan site consists of _______ signs
A
26
B
29
C
27
D
30
Question 87 Explanation: 
About 5,000 texts have been documented from the Harappan sites. The longest text has about twenty six signs. Seals might have been used as an identity marker on the materials that were transported. They might have indicated the ownership.
Question 88
“Priest king” found in Mohenjo-Daro is made of____
A
Steatite
B
Copper
C
Iron
D
Bronze
Question 88 Explanation: 
The terracotta figurines, the paintings on the pottery, and the bronze images from the Harappan sites suggest the artistic nature of the Harappans. “Priest king” of steatite, dancing girl of copper (both from Mohenjo-Daro), and stone sculptures from Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and Dholavira are the important objects of art. Toy carts, rattles, wheels, tops, marbles and hop scotches exhibit the amusement of the Harappan people.
Question 89
Which of the following tree was worshipped by Indus people?
A
Neem
B
Pipal
C
Mango
D
Bamboo
Question 89 Explanation: 
The Indus people worshipped nature. They worshipped the pipal tree. Some of the terracotta figures appear to be mother goddess. Fire altars have been identified at Kalibangan.
Question 90
Which of the following is correct about Indus people?
  1. They buried the dead
  2. The Harappan burials have pottery, ornaments, jewellery, copper mirrors and beads which suggest their belief in an afterlife
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 90 Explanation: 
The Indus people buried the dead. Burials were made elaborately and evidence of cremation is also reported. The Harappan burials have pottery, ornaments, jewellery, copper mirrors and beads. These suggest their belief in an afterlife.
Question 91
Which reveals that there might have had polity in Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro?
  1. Uniformity in pottery
  2. Labour mobilisation
  3. Uniformity in seals, weights
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 91 Explanation: 
Uniformity in pottery, seals, weights and bricks reveals the existence of a polity. Labour mobilisation may also suggest the existence of a political system. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro might have had a city-state like polity. The uniformity in the cultural materials and measurement units point to a central authority during the Harappan times.
Question 92
The Indus Valley Civilisation declined from about_______
A
2600 BCE
B
1900 BCE
C
3900 BCE
D
4500 BCE
Question 92 Explanation: 
The Indus Valley Civilisation declined from about 1900 BCE. Changes in climate, decline of the trade with the Mesopotamia, and the drying of the river and water resources due to continuous drought are some of the reasons attributed by historians for the decline.
Question 93
Which of the following places are part of the second urbanisation of India?
  1. Arikamedu
  2. Keezhadi
  3. Uraiyur
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
1, 2, 3
Question 93 Explanation: 
The towns of ancient Tamizhagam such as Arikamedu, Keezhadi and Uraiyur that flourished are part of the second urbanisation of India and these towns are quite different from the Indus cities.
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