Fundamentals of Geography Online Test 11th Geography Lesson 1 Questions in English

Fundamentals of Geography-11th Geography Lesson 1 Questions in English Online Test

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Question 1
Eratosthenes the scholar of _________ coined the term Geography.
A
Latin
B
Greek
C
Italy
D
German
Question 1 Explanation: 
Eratosthenes is the scholar of Greek who coined the term Geography by combining two Greek words Geo (The Earth) and Graphien (to describe ). So, Geography means literally the Earth.
Question 2
Which of the followings are two distinct method to study Geography?
  1. Systematic approach      2. Analytical approach     3. Regional approach    4. Periodic approach
A
1&2
B
2&3
C
1&3
D
1&4
Question 2 Explanation: 
Systematic and Regional approaches are the methods to study the discipline of Geography which is concerned with descriptions also with analysis as well as prediction.
Question 3
Nomothetic approach is another name of
A
Systematic approach
B
Analytical approach
C
Regional approach
D
Periodic approach
Question 3 Explanation: 
The study of specific natural or human phenomenon that gives rise to certain spatial patterns and structures on the earth surface is called systematic study.
Question 4
Nomothetic approach to study geography was developed by___________
A
Carl Ritter
B
Humboldt
C
Pattison
D
Hartshorne
Question 4 Explanation: 
Nomothetic/ systematic approach to study Geography was introduced by Alexander Von Humboldt a German geographer (1769- 1859).
Question 5
Choose the wrongly matched pair
A
Physical geography - study of biosphere
B
Biogeography - focuses on forest etc
C
Human geography - study of human nature relationship
D
Geographical methods - techniques for field study
Question 5 Explanation: 
Human geography is the study of human culture, population, dynamic socio economic political aspects. The study of human nature relationship is about biogeography.
Question 6
Study of various elements of earth systems like atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water), lithosphere (rock) and biosphere (life) and their distributions is described as
A
Environmental geography
B
Physical Geography
C
Biogeography
D
Human geography
Question 6 Explanation: 
Physical geography is study of various elements of earth systems like atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water), lithosphere (rock) and biosphere (life) and their distributions.
Question 7
Whose quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography?
A
Carl Ritter
B
Humboldt
C
Pattison
D
Hartshorne
Question 7 Explanation: 
Born on 14 September 1769 Alexander Von Humboldt was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist. Humboldt’s quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography.
Question 8
Humboldt was the first person to describe the phenomenon and cause of human induced climate change, in ________
A
1800
B
1700
C
1850
D
1750
Question 8 Explanation: 
Alexander Von Humboldt who was a geographer was the first person to describe the phenomenon and cause of human induced climate change, in 1800.
Question 9
_______ is called as “The spring of the good priest”
A
Binagadi asphalt lake
B
Trinidad asphalt lake
C
Lake Pitch
D
Guanoco asphalt lake
Question 9 Explanation: 
Alexander Von Humboldt described the Guanoco asphalt lake as “The spring of the good priest”. It is the world’s second largest natural tar pit and lies in Venezuela in northern South America.
Question 10
Regional approach is otherwise called as
A
Quantitative approach
B
Ideographical approach
C
Cartographical approach
D
Qualitative approach
Question 10 Explanation: 
Regional approach is otherwise called as Ideographical approach. The regions could be classified based on a single factor like relief, rainfall, vegetation or there could also be multifactor regions.
Question 11
Ideographical approach of geography has been classified into ______ main sub branches?
A
Three
B
Five
C
Two
D
Four
Question 11 Explanation: 
Regional studies ii) Regional analysis iii) Regional development and iv) Regional planning are the four main sub branches of regional geography.
Question 12
Regional approach of geography was developed by_____?
A
Carl Ritter
B
Humboldt
C
Pattison
D
Hartshorne
Question 12 Explanation: 
Regional approach of study of geography otherwise called as ideographical approach which was developed by Carl Ritter (1779 – 1859), a contemporary of Humbolt.
Question 13
Brian J.L. Berry adopted geographical data matrix method from ____ for studying geography?
A
Anthropology
B
Geo1ogy
C
Meteorology
D
Climatology
Question 13 Explanation: 
The matrixis a simple method of arranging many information in rows and columns to understand complex spatial problems. Brian J.L. Berry adopted this method from anthropology for studying geography more effectively.
Question 14
Which of the following is not a major domain of geography?
A
Physical Geography
B
Human Geography
C
Biological geography
D
Geographic Techniques.
Question 14 Explanation: 
Based on content and the available techniques, geography has been divided into three major domains. Physical Geography, Human Geography and Geographic Techniques.
Question 15
Study of ozone layer depletion, global warming, melting of polar ice caps, rising sea level is described as
A
Biogeography
B
Environmental Geography
C
Oceanography
D
Climatology
Question 15 Explanation: 
Environmental Geography is the study of environmental issues arising out of misuse of various spheres of the earth and their impacts. The ozone layer depletion, global warming, melting of polar ice caps, rising sea level and other related aspects.
Question 16
Which of the following are branches of biogeography?
  1. Phytogeography
  2. Plant Geography
  3. Zoo Geography
  4. Animal geography
  5. Ecology
A
1,2,3,5
B
2,3,4,5
C
1,3,5
D
1,2,3,4,5
Question 16 Explanation: 
Phytogeography or plant Geography, Zoo Geography or animal geography and Ecology are the branches of biogeography. Biogeography is a study of ecosystems (distribution of plants, animals etc) spread over geographical space. It also analyses the changes occur in the ecosystems.
Question 17
_________ comprises a study of underground water and its recharge and also pollution of water bodies.
A
Oceanography
B
Climatology
C
Hydrology
D
Soil Geography
Question 17 Explanation: 
Hydrology is the study of earth’s realm of water such as oceans and surface water bodies like rivers, reservoirs, streams, lakes and ponds. It also comprises a study of underground water and its recharge and also pollution of water bodies( causes & effects)
Question 18
Meteorology is comes under _____
A
Oceanography
B
Climatology
C
Hydrology
D
Soil Geography
Question 18 Explanation: 
Climatology deals with the study of global and regional weather and climatic conditions averaged over a period of time. Meteorology provides basic information on the composition, structure and the changes in the atmosphere.
Question 19
Economic Geography is comes under _____?
A
Physical Geography
B
Human Geography
C
Biological geography
D
Geographic Techniques.
Question 19 Explanation: 
Economic Geography deals with the distribution of economic activities such as, primary (agriculture and mining), secondary (manufacturing) and tertiary (the service sectors).
Question 20
_______Geography is closely related to cultural geography?
A
Social Geography
B
Political Geography
C
Historical Geography
D
Economic Geography
Question 20 Explanation: 
Social Geography is closely related to cultural geography. It examines the relationships among the social groups and social relationships of the groups in where they are living.
Question 21
Which of the following are not comes under human geography?
  1. Settlement Geography
  2. Population Geography
  3. Soil Geography
  4. Anthropogeography
  5. Environmental Geography
  6. Medical Geography
  7. Biogeography
A
a, c, e, b
B
c, d, e, f, g
C
c, e, g
D
a, g, f, c
Question 21 Explanation: 
Human Geography is concerned with the changes made by the humans in the environment. It comprises Historical geography Anthropogeography Cultural geography Social geography Population geography Settlement geography Political geography Economic geography Medical geography
Question 22
Distribution of human communities on the earth is study of _______?
A
Settlement geography
B
Population geography
C
Anthropogeography
D
Political geography
Question 22 Explanation: 
Anthropo Geography deals with the distribution of human communities on the earth in relation to their geographical environment
Question 23
Find out incorrect pair the following
A
GPS - USA
B
GLONASS - Russia
C
Galileo - Europe
D
Beidou - Japan
Question 23 Explanation: 
GNSS is the standard generic term for satellite navigation systems that provide geo-spatial positioning with global or regional coverage. This term includes the GPS (USA), GLONASS (Russia), Galileo (Europe), Beidou (China), IRNSS (India) and other systems
Question 24
The GPS was the first GNSS system of the USA and originally used for _____ applications?
A
Agriculture
B
Military
C
Vehicles
D
Police
Question 24 Explanation: 
The GPS was the first GNSS system of the USA and originally used for military applications. Today it is commonly used in mobiles, vehicles, agriculture and other areas that allow us to use it in all fields of mapping.
Question 25
_________is a computer-based tool of the recent decades for geographical studies?
A
GPS
B
GNSS
C
GIS
D
GLONASS
Question 25 Explanation: 
Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer-based tool of the recent decades for geographical studies. GIS is used for storing, retrieving, transforming, analyzing and displaying data to prepare useful thematic maps.
Question 26
Geology provides basic information to the study of ______?
A
Geomorphology
B
Biogeography
C
Climatology
D
Oceanography
Question 26 Explanation: 
Geomorphology deals with the distribution of land forms, their origin and the forces related to their changes. Geology provides basic information to the study of geomorphology.
Question 27
________are considered as two sides of the ‘geography coin’?
A
Cartography & prediction
B
Quantification & cartography
C
Accuracy & Quantification
D
Mapping & refinement
Question 27 Explanation: 
Geographers who specialize in cartography branch make traditional maps, digital maps, atlases, charts, globes and models. Quantification and cartography are considered as two sides of the ‘geography coin’
Question 28
GPR, one of the emerging field survey instruments. Definition of GPR
A
Ground Penetrating Radio
B
Glass Penetrating Radar
C
Ground Position Radar
D
Ground Penetrating Radar
Question 28 Explanation: 
The geographical knowledge and training enable the students to interpret large scale maps of India and other countries of the world. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), one of the emerging field survey instruments, is gaining importance not only in earth sciences discipline but also in archaeology, civil engineering, city planning and other related fields
Question 29
________background is an asset for careers in ‘Travel Journalism’
A
Geography
B
Journalism
C
Tourism
D
Travel Management
Question 29 Explanation: 
The geographers are also employed as climatologists, geomorphologists, GIS specialists and hydrologists. Geography background is an asset for careers in travel and tourism, particularly for ‘Travel Journalism’.
Question 30
The Indian Geographical Society is conducting talent test examination to ________?
A
School students
B
Final year UG & PG geography students
C
C. Geography Ph.d graduates
D
D.Geography PG students only
Question 30 Explanation: 
The Indian Geographical Society is conducting talent test examination to final year UG and PG geography students across the State.
Question 31
Who is the founder of IGS?
A
Prof N. Subrahmanyam
B
Prof. A.Ramesh
C
Prof .B. M. Thirunaranan
D
Prof.V.L.S.PrakasaRao
Question 31 Explanation: 
The Indian Geographical Society is conducting talent test examination to final year UG and PG geography students across the State. The award has been given in the names of the IGS Founder Prof N.Subrahmanyam and the former Head of the Department of Geography of University of Madras Prof. A.Ramesh, respectively.
Question 32
Who is conducting talent test examination to school students?
A
The Indian Geographical Society
B
Indian Space Research Organisation
C
Indian Meteorological Department
D
The Association of Geography Teachers of India
Question 32 Explanation: 
The Association of Geography Teachers of India conducts Annual Geography Talent Tests to the school students across the state. This talent test is conducted at two levels: Students of classes 7 and 8 will take Junior Level test while the students of classes 9 and 10 will take it at the Senior Level.
Question 33
Who identified the core themes of geographic studies as ‘The Four Traditions of geography’
A
Carl Ritter
B
Humboldt
C
Pattison
D
Hartshorne
Question 33 Explanation: 
In 1963, William D. Pattison identified the core themes of geographic studies as The Four Traditions of Geography
Question 34
Which of the following will not come under four traditions of geography?
A
Spatial tradition
B
Man animal tradition
C
Area studies tradition
D
Earth science tradition
Question 34 Explanation: 
William D. Pattison identified the core themes of geographic studies as The Four Traditions of Geography. These are spatial tradition, Area studies tradition, Man land tradition, Earth science tradition.
Question 35
Identify the correct pair
A
Spatial tradition - areal distribution
B
Area studies tradition - man and physical environment
C
Man animal tradition - process of earth
D
Earth science tradition - hierarchy of areas
Question 35 Explanation: 
Spatial tradition (areal distribution and spatial distribution), Area studies tradition (hierarchy of areas), Man land tradition (man and physical environment), Earth science tradition (process of earth).
Question 36
Five themes of geography was adopted in the year ___?
A
1983
B
1981
C
1986
D
1984
Question 36 Explanation: 
Themes of Geography are the educational tools for the better understanding of geography in detailed manner which was adopted in the year 1984.
Question 37
Five themes of geography was adopted by ______?
A
Association of Japanese Geographers
B
Association of German Geographers
C
Association of American Geographers
D
Association of Russian Geographers
Question 37 Explanation: 
Five themes of geography was adopted in the year 1984 by the Association of American Geographers and these five themes were published in the National Council for Geographic Education/Association of American Geographers’ publication Guidelines for Geographic Education
Question 38
Which of the following are ‘Five themes of Geography’?
A
Location, place, human – environment interaction, movement and regions.
B
Location, relief, human – environment interaction, movement and regions
C
Location, place, human – environment interaction, movement and technology.
D
Location, forces, human – environment interaction, movement and technology.
Question 38 Explanation: 
The Association of American Geographers published the ‘Five themes of Geography’ and it has been widely accepted by the geographers worldwide. The themes are location, place, human – environment interaction, movement and regions.
Question 39
Every point on earth has a location, then the two types are?
A
Relative & Actual location
B
Relative & Absolute location
C
Absolute & Potential location
D
Absolute &Actual location
Question 39 Explanation: 
Every point on earth has a location. They are divided into two - The absolute and relative location
Question 40
_________location is a location as described by its latitude and longitude on the  earth
A
Relative location
B
Actual location
C
Absolute location
D
Potential location
Question 40 Explanation: 
Absolute location is a location as described by its latitude and longitude on the earth. For instance, the coordinates of Chennai Central Railway station are 13°04'56" N latitude and 80°16'32" E longitude.
Question 41
_______is the position of a place in relation to another well-known landmark?
A
Relative location
B
Actual location
C
Absolute location
D
Potential location
Question 41 Explanation: 
Relative location is the position of a place in relation to another well-known landmark. For instance, Kallanai Dam or Grand Anicut is located roughly 350 km south –southwest of Chennai City.
Question 42
A place name, one derived from its topographical feature is called as_______?
A
Toponym
B
Site
C
Situation
D
Region
Question 42 Explanation: 
A place is an area that is defined by everything present in it. Toponym is a place name, especially one derived from topographical feature.
Question 43
What is called as situation?
A
An area of ground on which a town, building, or monument is constructed.
B
A place name, especially one derived from topographical feature
C
An area that is defined by everything in it
D
The location and surroundings of a place.
Question 43 Explanation: 
Situation is described as the location and surroundings of a place. Site is an area of ground on which a town, building, or monument is constructed. Toponym is a place name, especially one derived from topographical feature. A place is an area that is defined by everything present in it.
Question 44
Which of the following is not a concept of human environment interactions?
A
Adaptation
B
Movement
C
Modification
D
Dependency
Question 44 Explanation: 
It is known as how people interact with the environment and how the environment reacts to it. There are three key concepts Dependency: How humans depend on the environment (Ex: For water, sunlight etc.) Adaptation: How humans adapt to the environment (Ex: Life in polar or desert regions) Modification: How humans modify the environment (Ex: Construction of Underground Metro and shifting agriculture)
Question 45
Air transport and Internet are examples of ______?
A
Adaptation
B
Modification
C
Movement
D
Dependency
Question 45 Explanation: 
Movement is the network of travel of people, goods and ideas from one location to another. Air transport which carries people and goods and the internet that allows access to ideas and knowledge across the world are also examples of this kind.
Question 46
Which of the following are characteristics of a region?
  1. Climate
  2. Monsoon regions
  3. Natural vegetation
  4. Tropical rain forests
  5. Crops
  6. Landforms
A
1, 2, 3, 6, 4
B
6, 3, 5, 4, 2
C
1, 3, 5, 6, 4
D
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Question 46 Explanation: 
Regions are areas which is having distinct homogenous characteristics such as climate (Monsoon regions), natural vegetation (Temperate rain forests), crops (Corn Belt of USA), major landforms (Himalayan regions), Industry (Chota-Nagpur plateau).
Question 47
Which paved way for the development of modern cartography and GIS?
A
Interaction of astronomy, mathematics and computer science with geography
B
Interaction of astronomy, mathematics and physics with geography
C
Interaction of astronomy, geology and computer science with geography
D
Interaction of astronomy, mathematics and geology with geography
Question 47 Explanation: 
The interaction of astronomy (deals with space), mathematics (measuring size and location of celestial bodies in space) and computer science with geography has paved way for the development of modern cartography and GIS.
Question 48
Geomorphology is the study of ______?
A
Natural vegetation
B
Landforms
C
Climatic regions
D
Minerals
Question 48 Explanation: 
Interaction between geology (study of rocks) and geography leads to formation of the new branch of study called geomorphology, the study of landforms
Question 49
Find out incorrectly matched pair
A
The physics of atmosphere - climatology
B
The physics of hydrosphere - oceanography
C
The physics of lithosphere - geology
D
The physics of biosphere - meteorology
Question 49 Explanation: 
The study of biosphere is important for ecology, the study of life and its interactions with physical environment.
Question 50
Raja Raja Chola or Rajendra Chola had trade relations especially with
A
South Asian countries
B
East African countries
C
South American countries
D
North American countries
Question 50 Explanation: 
Raja Raja Chola or Rajendra Chola had trade relations with other countries of the world, especially South Asian countries because they had a vast knowledge in geography and by understanding the relief, seasons, ocean current movements they maintained good trade relation.
Question 51
The study of ‘apartheid’ a system existed in South Africa is an example of_________?
A
Cultural geography
B
Historical geography
C
Anthropogeography
D
Bio geography
Question 51 Explanation: 
The study of ‘apartheid’ (a system of institutionalized racial segregation which existed in South Africa) is an instance of anthropogeography, the study of human races and their classification.
Question 52
The relationship between anthropology and geography is________?
A
Study of animals
B
Study of plants
C
Study of marine animals
D
Study of humans
Question 52 Explanation: 
Anthropology attempts to study human races (on the basis of their habitat and cultural traits etc) and their classification. The relationship between anthropology and geography has resulted in the development of ‘anthropogeography’ or geography of humans
Question 53
Which of the following has relationship with geography?
  1. Physics, Chemistry with Geography
  2. Botany, Zoology with Geography
  3. Economics with Geography
  4. Sociology with Geography
  5. History with Geography
A
3, 4, 5
B
2, 3, 4, 5
C
1,2,4,5
D
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Question 53 Explanation: 
Geography have strongest affiliations with subjects like mathematics and environmental sciences, while others have very close connection with history and sociology. Some subjects deal with distinctive type of phenomena while geography examines several kinds of phenomena together.
Question 54
Who published ‘Kosmos’ in 1844?
A
Carl Ritter
B
Humboldt
C
Pattison
D
Hartshorne
Question 54 Explanation: 
Humboldt’s publication ‘Kosmos’ in 1844, examines the geology and physical geography of the earth. This work is still considered by many academics as a milestone contribution to geography.
Question 55
During which period two schools of thought that emerged to explain human environment interaction?
A
The period between 1800 -1950
B
The period between 1400-1800
C
The period after 1950
D
The period between 1600 – 1700
Question 55 Explanation: 
There are two schools of thought that emerged during the period between 1800 - 1950 as an attempt to explain the interaction between human beings and their environment. These were environmental determinism and possibilism.
Question 56
Who is not the proponent of environmental deterministic school of thought?
A
Mackinder
B
Ellen Semple
C
Huntington
D
La Blache
Question 56 Explanation: 
The proponents of possibilistic school of thought - Vidal de la Blache
Question 57
Who thought environment as a limiting factor rather than as a deterministic force?
A
Mackinder
B
Ellen Semple
C
Huntington
D
Ratzel
Question 57 Explanation: 
The proponents of possibilistic school of thought, such as Vidal de la Blache and Ratzel saw the environment as a limiting factor rather than as a deterministic force. For instance in many arid countries, humans have overcome the constraints set by the natural environment such as low rainfall, high temperatures and poor soils.
Question 58
The discipline geography was in an embryonic stage during _________?
A
The period between 1800 -1950
B
The period between 1400-1800
C
The period after 1950
D
The period between 1600 -1700
Question 58 Explanation: 
The period between 1400 and 1800 was when the subject matter and the methodology of geography were not fully developed. So, it is called as embryonic stage of discipline geography. This period was well known by the discovery and conquest through the voyages of Vasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus.
Question 59
The first Greek geographer was________?
A
Thales
B
Herodotus
C
Aristotle
D
Eratosthenes
Question 59 Explanation: 
The Greek scientist focused on the nature of human and physical features of the Earth. The first Greek geographer was Herodotus (484 - 425 BCE) who wrote a number of volumes on the human and physical geography of the Persian Empire. The other early Greek contributors to geography are, Thales, Aristotle and Eratosthenes (276 - 194 BCE).
Question 60
Which subject was considered as ‘The Mother of all Sciences’?
A
Physics
B
Geography
C
Science
D
Chemistry
Question 60 Explanation: 
The subject ‘Geography’ was considered as ‘The Mother of all Sciences’ because most streams of sciences took root from geography. It is a subject much needed in everyday life.
Question 61
An imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory at England is called
A
Zero degree equator
B
Zero degree line of longitude
C
Parallels of latitude
D
Parallels of longitude
Question 61 Explanation: 
Prime Meridian is an imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England, serving by agreement as the zero degree line of longitude
Question 62
Mercator projection, devised in 1569, is useful for
A
Population distribution
B
Shape and size projection
C
Navigational charts
D
Place projection
Question 62 Explanation: 
Mercator projection, devised in 1569, in this all lines of latitude are in the same length as the equator. This results in increased deflection of area, moving from the equator towards the poles. So, this projection is suitable for navigation charts.
Question 63
Which projection has no area distortion it is useful for showing population distribution?
A
Mercator
B
The globe
C
Mollweide
D
Cartography
Question 63 Explanation: 
The Mollweide projection shows the land masses in the correct size but there is deviation of shape. As the Mollweide projection has no area distortion it is useful for showing distributions such as population distribution.
Question 64
The only true representation of the Earth’s surface is?
A
Mercator
B
The globe
C
Mollweide
D
Cartography
Question 64 Explanation: 
As the Mollweide and the Mercator projections shows some distortion, the globe is the only true representation of the Earth’s surface
Question 65
Consider the following statements, choose the correct one
  1. Incoming solar radiation are long wave in nature
  2. Outgoing terrestrial radiation are short wave in nature
A
1 only
B
2 only
C
both 1&2
D
neither 1 nor 2
Question 65 Explanation: 
The main source of heating of atmosphere is sun through the incoming solar radiation (atmosphere is transparent) which is short wave in nature. The radiation reflected from the earth’s surface is called outgoing terrestrial radiation (atmosphere is opaque) which is long wave in nature.
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