Political Thought Online Test 11th Political Science Lesson 7 Questions in English

Political Thought-11th Political Science Lesson 7 Questions in English-Online Test

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Question 1
Which among the following city in Greece, Plato was born?
A
Serres
B
Tripoli
C
Corinth
D
Athens
Question 1 Explanation: 
Plato was born in 427/428 BCE. He belonged to an aristocratic family in Athens a Greek City State. Plato’s real name was ‘Aristocles’. Some historical sources say his wrestling coach Ariston of Argos dubbed him ‘Platon’ meaning‘Broad’ on account of his large build.
Question 2
Plato was a disciple of which philosopher of Greece?
A
Homer
B
Socrates
C
Aristotle
D
Pythagoras
Question 2 Explanation: 
Plato was a disciple of Socrates who was one of the foremost philosophers of Greece. During his time there was great chaos in the political life of Athens which was a Greek City State. This resulted in the Athenian government condemning Socrates to death because of his teachings.
Question 3
Who among the following founded his ‘Academy’ in 387CE?
A
Homer
B
Socrates
C
Aristotle
D
Plato
Question 3 Explanation: 
In about 387 BCE Plato founded his ‘Academy’. The name ‘Academy’ comes from the name of a famous Athenian hero called ‘Akademos’. Here Plato taught Political Philosophy which contained politics, ethics, mathematics and sociology.
Question 4
Which among the following is not the work of Plato?
A
The Organon
B
The Republic
C
The Statesman
D
The Laws
Question 4 Explanation: 
The three most important works of Plato are ‘The Republic’ (386 BCE), ‘The Statesman’ (360 BCE) and ‘The Laws’ (347 BCE). Apart from these works, he has written a number of other smaller books.
Question 5
Which among the following statement is incorrect
  1. Plato designs an education system based on various stages suited to the age of the students from childhood to adulthood. He also devices methods of eliminations.
  2. Plato’s idea of a constitution is much different from the modern understanding of this term. By constitution he meant a particular way of life the people of a society have designed for their wellbeing.
  3. According to Plato in an Ideal State should be made up of two classes namely Ruling Class and Economic Class. He gives details of how this is possible in his subsequent ideas of Justice and Education.
A
Only 2
B
Only 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
Both 1 and 2
Question 5 Explanation: 
In Political Science, the most important concept around which the subject is built is ‘The State’. According to Plato in an Ideal State should be made up of three classes namely Ruling Class, Military Class and Economic Class. He gives details of how this is possible in his subsequent ideas of Justice and Education.
Question 6
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Plato believed that justice resided only in the State. He said every human being is endowed with three qualities though in different proportions.
  2. Plato said these qualities are Reason, which resides in a person’s head, Spirit which resides in a person’s heart and Appetite which resides in a person’s stomach. He said these are the three parts of the human soul.
  3. Firstly, he said true justice is that, these three parts should do their rightful business in order to make a human being whole. Secondly, these three parts existing in every individual, should be faithfully reflected in the State
A
Both 1 and 2
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 6 Explanation: 
Plato believed that justice resided both in one single human being as well as the State. He said every human being is endowed with three qualities though in different proportions.
Question 7
In which work of Plato, he practically condemned Democracy?
A
The Statesman
B
The Laws
C
Apology
D
The Republic
Question 7 Explanation: 
In his work ‘The Republic’ Plato had practically condemned Democracy. He had developed the idea that all were not fit to rule and that only the philosophers who had been specially trained for the purpose should rule. He said this because it was Athenian Democracy which condemned his teacher Socrates to death.
Question 8
Which among the following statement is correct regarding Plato’s concept of Education
  1. Plato also devices methods of eliminations as higher stages of education is reached by human beings depending on the proportion of the three parts of their souls namely reason, spirit and appetite
  2. Persons who are found suited to fulfil economic duties of the State are separated from the ones suited for Ruling and Military services.
  3. In the second process of elimination the persons suited for ruling are given special training to become what Plato calls ‘Philosopher Kings’ to rule his ‘Ideal State’.
A
Both 1 and 2
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 9
Plato classified the Constitution as how many types?
A
Two
B
Four
C
Five
D
Six
Question 9 Explanation: 
Plato classified constitutions as Aristocracy, Timocracy, Oligarchy, Democracy and Tyranny. He also said that there is a tendency of Aristocracy to degenerate into Timocracy, Timocracy into Oligarchy, Oligarchy into Democracy and Democracy into Tyranny.
Question 10
Which is a question and answer type of method where the student has a vague idea about something and throws questions to the teacher about it and the teacher’s answers are again questioned?
A
Dialectics
B
Pragmatics
C
Statistics
D
Didactics
Question 10 Explanation: 
‘Dialectics’ is a question and answer type of method where the student has a vague idea about something and throws questions to the teacher about it and the teacher’s answers are again questioned. By this the teacher facilitates the student to formulate and reformulate his idea in order to arrive at the best possible understanding of the idea.
Question 11
According to Plato, who were national possession and as such it was obligatory on the part of the State to bring them up according to their attitudes?
A
Teachers
B
Women
C
Military
D
Children
Question 11 Explanation: 
According to Plato, children were national possession and as such it was obligatory on the part of the State to bring them up according to their attitudes.
Question 12
In which Book of Plato, he is asking questions as a student and Socrates is answering as his teacher?
A
The Apology
B
The Statesman
C
The Republic
D
The Laws
Question 12 Explanation: 
Plato used this method in his book ‘The Republic’. He writes this book as if he is asking questions as a student and Socrates is answering as his teacher. By this the teacher facilitates the student to formulate and reformulate his idea in order to arrive at the best possible understanding of the idea.
Question 13
Who among the following was the student of Plato at his ‘Academy’?
A
Aristotle
B
Pythagoras
C
Homer
D
Heraclitus
Question 13 Explanation: 
Aristotle was Plato’s student at his ‘Academy’. William Ebenstien says” in the history of political philosophy no one has surpassed Aristotle in encyclopaedic interest and accomplishment”.
Question 14
What was the school started by Aristotle after the death of Plato?
A
The Epicurus
B
The Lucretius
C
The Lyceum
D
The Citium
Question 14 Explanation: 
After Plato’s death, Aristotle found his own school called ‘The Lyceum’ in 335 BCE.
Question 15
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Aristotle’ whose name means ‘the best purpose’ stood true to his name when he proposed the ‘Best Practicable State’ as opposed to Plato’s ‘Ideal State’. According to Aristotle, “the State exists for an end and this end is the supreme good of man in both moral and intellectual life”
  2. Aristotle wrote many books on subjects ranging from Greek literature to Zoology. Like Plato’s agreement with his teacher Socrates, Aristotle agree on many things his teacher Plato had to say.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 15 Explanation: 
Aristotle wrote many books on subjects ranging from Greek literature to Zoology. Unlike Plato’s agreement with his teacher Socrates, Aristotle did not agree on many things his teacher Plato had to say. Almost all his political ideas are known through his book ‘Politics’
Question 16
Who among the following was the student of Aristotle studied in The Lyceum?
A
Alexander
B
Xerxes I
C
Spartacus
D
Achilles
Question 16 Explanation: 
Alexander studied in The Lyceum under Aristotle. The teaching and research program included every branch of knowledge. Aristotle was born in Stagira in 384 BCE. Unlike Plato, Aristotle came from an upper middle-class family. His father Nicomachus was the personal physician to king Amyntas of Macedon.
Question 17
Who agreed with Pythagoras that Mathematics were essential in understanding the world?
A
Aristotle
B
Homer
C
Socrates
D
Plato
Question 17 Explanation: 
Plato agreed with Pythagoras that Mathematics were essential in understanding the world.
Question 18
Which among the following statement is incorrect
  1. According to him authority of the State is moral and the State is natural. Since the family could not satisfy the ever-increasing needs of the people, they had to come out of their limited circle and thought of creating the State
  2. The families combined together to make the State and made it a perfect association. Aristotle believes that the State is a group writ large because the group can think of perfection only in a State.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 18 Explanation: 
The families combined together to make the State and made it a perfect association. Aristotle believes that the State is an individual writ large because the individual can think of perfection only in a State.
Question 19
Which among the following statement is incorrect
  1. According to Aristotle the foremost function of the State is to promote good life and create essential conditions for mental, moral and physical development of the people.
  2. The State should also function in such a way that good habits of individuals are converted into good actions and promote good, happy and honourable life.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 20
According to Aristotle, who is the first of the animate property of a Master?
A
Student
B
Slave
C
Priest
D
Soldier
Question 20 Explanation: 
According to Aristotle, the slave is the first of the animate property of a Master, i.e., the slave is first among all living property of the household of which the master is the head. He says those who are not virtuous are slaves.
Question 21
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Aristotle did not believe that mere residence or enjoyment of legal rights or birth should confer the right of citizenship on a person. A citizen should be able to partake in decision making process of the government.
  2. He said, “It is the function which entitles a person to become citizen”. A person should participate in the popular assembly which was vested with the authority of exercising sovereign power.
  3. The slave is not instrument of action but that of production. As soon as he starts performing productive functions, he Promotes his character as a slave and become soldier.
A
Both 1 and 2
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 21 Explanation: 
The slave is an instrument of action and not that of production because as soon as he starts performing productive functions, he loses his character as a slave and becomes virtuous.
Question 22
According to Aristotle which is the natural institution and in fact it existed prior to the State?
A
Temple
B
School
C
Military
D
Family
Question 22 Explanation: 
Aristotle believes that the family is a natural institution and in fact it existed prior to the State. It is natural as individuals become members from their very birth. It is the starting point of moral life and the nucleus of the State.
Question 23
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. The reason Aristotle says the citizens of a State must have property as well as slaves is because the citizens must have leisure, so that the citizen may spend useful time in thinking and deliberating on furthering the good life of all though the State.
  2. Aristotle did not support the possession of private property which is unessential for good and normal life. However, he prescribed limits to private property. He also objected to the abolition of state property.
  3. Aristotle is of the opinion that revolutions occur firstly due to constitutional changes. For e.g.: change from Monarchy to Tyranny could set off a revolution by the people. Secondly, he says revolutions could occur due to loss of purpose of the State though there may not be any change in the State’s constitution.
A
Only 3
B
Both 1 and 2
C
Both 1 and 3
D
Both 2 and 3
Question 23 Explanation: 
Aristotle supported the possession of private property which is essential for good and normal life. However, he prescribed limits to private property. He also objected to the abolition of private property.
Question 24
According to Aristotle, if sovereignty resides in one person it is ____
A
Aristocracy
B
Monarchy
C
Oligarchy
D
Polity
Question 24 Explanation: 
According to Aristotle, if sovereignty resides in one person it is Monarchy. It degenerates into Tyranny. Thus, the people wrest the State from the tyrant and give it to a few rulers and thus Aristocracy comes into being.
Question 25
When polity is degenerates it becomes what?
A
Democracy
B
Monarchy
C
Oligarchy
D
Polity
Question 25 Explanation: 
Aristocracy perverts into Oligarchy, people again revolt and transfer power to many rulers by which the State becomes a Polity. When these degenerates, it becomes a Democracy because these rulers no longer have sight of the common good for which the State came into being. This again gives rise to Monarchy.
Question 26
In Western Europe which Century was regarded as the golden age of western medieval philosophy?
A
Eighth century
B
Thirteenth century
C
Sixteenth century
D
Tenth century
Question 26 Explanation: 
In Western Europe the thirteenth Century was regarded as the golden age of western medieval philosophy. Catholicism emerged as the universal religion in Western Europe. Eventually Aristotle’s Politics, re-emerged during the thirteenth century.
Question 27
Who among the following was the father of political science?
A
Aristotle
B
Homer
C
Socrates
D
Plato
Question 27 Explanation: 
Aristotle’s most famous work is called ‘Politics’ from which modern Political Science has grown. Thus, he is called as the ‘father of Political Science’. Though the exact date of its publication is not known, it is a voluminous work consisting of 8 books and having more than 1000 pages.
Question 28
In thirteenth century sharp difference arouse between Aristotle secular view and whose religious view?
A
Augustine
B
Ambrose
C
Plotinus
D
Boethius
Question 28 Explanation: 
Sharp differences arose between Aristotle’s secular views and Augustine’s religious ideas on sin, the Fall, and political society which were accepted by the church and as a binding doctrine. However, some philosophers faced the challenge of how to accommodate their theological views and a set of secular political assumptions, which finally resulted in the reconciliation of two different ways of understanding the world.
Question 29
Who among the following philosopher was born in the family castle of Roccasecca, north of Naples?
A
Augustine of Hippo
B
Thomas Aquinas
C
Plotinus
D
Niccolo Machiavelli
Question 29 Explanation: 
St. Thomas Aquinas (1224 or 12251274) was born in the family castle of Roccasecca, north of Naples. His father was Landulf of Aquino, who headed a minor branch of an important land-owning family and his mother was Theodora Rossi belonging to Neapolitan Carracciolo family.
Question 30
Which among the following statement is incorrect
  1. In thirteenth century, some philosophers faced the challenge of how to accommodate the theological views and a set of secular political assumptions, which finally resulted in the reconciliation of two different ways of understanding the world.
  2. They finally succeeded by terming politics and political theorizing as a trivial pursuit vis-à-vis people’s higher calling of getting right with God. St. Thomas Aquinas was the greatest among these Christian theologians who architected this major philosophical triumph.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 31
In nineteenth century, which pope declared that the philosophical system which Aquinas founded to be official Catholic theology?
A
Pope Benedict XVI
B
Pope John XXIII
C
Pope Gregory VIII
D
Pope Luis XIII
Question 31 Explanation: 
In the nineteenth century, Pope Luis XIII declared that the philosophical system which Aquinas founded to be official Catholic theology, which made reading his works not only important for Catholics but also for those who sought a more than surface understanding of that branch of Christianity.
Question 32
Which among the following is not the work of Thomas Aquinas?
A
The Sentences
B
Summa Theologica
C
Summa Contra Gentiles
D
On Kingship
Question 32 Explanation: 
Aquinas works included commentaries that stem from his theological design. Some of his important works include, (i) Summa Contra Gentiles (1264), (ii) Summa Theologica (1274) and (iii) On Kingship.
Question 33
Which book of Aquinas is often said as a manual or text book designed to be used by the Dominican missionaries working in Spain where Islam was then a force to be reckoned with by Christians?
A
Summa Theologica
B
Summa Contra Gentiles
C
On Kingship
D
Policraticus
Question 33 Explanation: 
It has often been said that Aquinas wrote the Summa Contra Gentiles (SCG) as a manual or text book designed to be used by the Dominican missionaries working in Spain where Islam was then a force to be reckoned with by Christians.
Question 34
In his Summa Theologica, Aquinas establishes the existence of how many levels of law?
A
Two
B
Four
C
Six
D
Nine
Question 34 Explanation: 
In his Summa Theologica, Aquinas establishes the existence of four levels of law which had an underlying unity which is reason. What differentiates one form of law from the other is the level of reason involved.
Question 35
Which among the following statement is correct according to Aquinas
  1. The highest and most comprehensive among the law is divine law which is a special category of eternal law which is the revealed word of God in the Scripture.
  2. The Next (Second) is eternal law which is reason that is operative in the universe as a whole. It is the natural and the ethical order which God had established.
  3. The next (Third) level of law, Aquinas identifies as the natural law. The idea of natural law goes back to the stoics and refers to moral law that is discovered by reason alone.
A
Only 3
B
Both 1 and 2
C
Both 1 and 3
D
Both 2 and 3
Question 35 Explanation: 
The highest and most comprehensive among them is eternal law which is reason that is operative in the universe as a whole. It is the natural and the ethical order which God had established. The next (Second) is divine law which is a special category of eternal law which is the revealed word of God in the Scripture.
Question 36
Which among the following statement is incorrect
  1. Fourth level of Law is human law. It is the application of human reason to the precepts of natural law in specific earthly conditions.
  2. The Summa Theologica is evidently an apologetic work, since it defends a series of Christian beliefs that were under criticisms or that could come under potential criticisms.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 36 Explanation: 
The Summa Contra Gentiles is evidently an apologetic work, since it defends a series of Christian beliefs that were under criticisms or that could come under potential criticisms.
Question 37
Which Aquinas’ theory of law establishes a link between the natural and the supernatural – between nature and spirit?
A
Eternal Law
B
Divine Law
C
Natural Law
D
Human Law
Question 37 Explanation: 
The uniqueness of Aquinas’ theory of natural law is that it establishes a link between the natural and the supernatural – between nature and spirit. This is so because, says Aquinas, that right and wrong are determined by God and hence natural law is nothing else that the rational creature’s participation in the eternal law.
Question 38
Aquinas largely follows the pattern of arguments that were adopted by whom in his ‘Politics’?
A
Socrates
B
Augustin
C
Plato
D
Aristotle
Question 38 Explanation: 
The political theory of Aquinas closely parallels Aristotle’s. His writings ‘On Kingship’ can be considered as the most methodical political work. Aquinas largely follows the pattern of arguments that were adopted by Aristotle in his ‘Politics’.
Question 39
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Aristotle argues that the State is natural because it is natural for man… to be a social and political animal, and to live in a group. Consequently, he emphasizes that political activity in necessary and good.
  2. Aquinas further like Aristotle, roots people’s political nature in their capacity to reason and to speak. Subsequently he emphasizes that it is through reasoned action in the political sphere that humans achieve virtue and there for happiness and fulfilment.
  3. Unlike Aristotle, he did not believe that the state is a moral community where the moral good of its members are considered as its objective. Thus, he argues that the state should be based on justice and the people should rule for the good of the public which should be under the constraints of law.
A
Both 1 and 2
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 39 Explanation: 
Like Aristotle, he believes that the state is a moral community where the moral good of its members are considered as its objective. Thus, he argues that the state should be based on justice and the best should rule for the good of the public which should be under the constraints of law.
Question 40
St. Thomas Aquinas who is regarded as one of the great figures of medieval thought founded a tradition which came to be known as _____
A
Aquinism
B
Perlism
C
Thomism
D
Bub
Question 40 Explanation: 
St. Thomas Aquinas who is regarded as one of the great figures of medieval thought founded a tradition which came to be known as Thomism.
Question 41
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. The basis of Aquinas political theory can be found in his commentary on Aristotle’s Politics in de masileprincipum (on the Rule of Democracy) while he was at the papal court in England (1259-68).
  2. Following Aristotle, he held that the state is a natural and not a conventional institution and it is a perfect society (communities perfecta). He argued that it is natural and not conventional because human beings were social animals.
  3. They needed to form a society to survive, prosper and for their cultural development. Gregarious animals do this by instinct but humans on the other hand do it by reason.
A
Only 2
B
Both 1 and 2
C
Both 1 and 3
D
Both 2 and 3
Question 41 Explanation: 
The basis of Aquinas political theory can be found in his commentary on Aristotle’s Politics in de regimineprincipum (on the Rule of Sovereigns) while he was at the papal court in Italy (1259-68).
Question 42
All power according to Aquinas comes from where?
A
People
B
State
C
God
D
Elites
Question 42 Explanation: 
All power according to Aquinas comes from God since it involves the power of life and death which in the Church’s doctrine is a prerogative of God. It is at this juncture that Aquinas deviates from Aristotle but returns when he turns to the question of the sovereign which is natural.
Question 43
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. The sovereign or government in the view of Aquinas is the representative of those people. The state therefore, is dependent on the church. Aquinas argued that each had a separate role and an end.
  2. However, in Aquinas’ view the Church is subordinate to the state, whereas the state on the other hand must not take into consideration of the Church since its end is not higher than that of the state and is the ultimate end of the citizen.
  3. Aquinas likens the relationship of the church to the state to that of the soul and the body. Each has a separate role to play but ultimately the soul’s purpose is loftier.
A
Only 3
B
Both 1 and 2
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2and 3
Question 43 Explanation: 
The sovereign or government in the view of Aquinas is the representative of those governed. The state therefore, is not in any way dependent on the church. Aquinas argued that each had a separate role and an end. However, in Aquinas’ view the Church is not subordinate to the state, whereas the state on the other hand must take into consideration of the Church since its end is higher than that of the state and is the ultimate end of the citizen.
Question 44
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Machiavelli writings reveal that he received an excellent humanist education that was informed by the Renaissance values. He entered the service of the Republican Government in 1494, the tear of expulsion of the Medici.
  2. From 1498 to 1512 he was Secretary to the Chancellery an important post which was concerned with diplomatic, military and administrative affairs.
  3. In 1512, consequent upon the restoration of the Medici, Machiavelli lost his office and underwent a brief imprisonment after which he embarked on a literary career.
A
Only 3
B
Both 1 and 2
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2and 3
Question 45
According to Machiavelli who by nature are purely selfish and they, in their lives, are always motivated by selfish desires?
A
God
B
Elites
C
Men
D
Labours
Question 45 Explanation: 
Machiavelli’s theory of Government is determined by his conception of the study of human nature. Like Hobbes, he is very pessimistic about human nature and believes that men by nature are purely selfish and they, in their lives, are always motivated by selfish desires. At one place in ‘The Prince’ he says,” Men are ungrateful, fickle, deceitful, cowardly and avaricious.”
Question 46
According to Machiavelli, which should aim to be feared by the people than be loved?
A
Monarch
B
Democracy
C
Republic
D
Oligarchy
Question 46 Explanation: 
According to Machiavelli that a monarch should aim to be feared by the people than be loved. For Machiavelli, love implies a bond of obligation which men, being essentially selfish, break on every occasion where their own interest demands it, while fear, for the same reason, holds them indefinitely.
Question 47
Which among the following statement is Incorrect
  1. Machiavelli holds the view that men have endless desires and one of the most important desire is the love for private property. He makes materialistic individualism as the explanation of love of independence and self-government
  2. He says that this motive of the people makes them desire for monarch and dislike Republic. Under Monarch government there are more chances for people to get material gain. This is not possible in a Republic because the statesman takes all the gains and profits himself.
  3. He feels that men judge things by appearances and so the ruler should take advantage of this fact and act. For him men are weak and ignorant and are essentially vicious and become good only by necessity. He cautions the ruler never to trust his councillors but to use his own judgement.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
Both 1 and 3
Question 47 Explanation: 
Machiavelli says that this motive of the people makes them desire for republic and dislike monarchy. Under Republican government there are more chances for people to get material gain. This is not possible in a monarchy because the Prince takes all the gains and profits himself.
Question 48
In Greek political thought, who was viewed as the foundation of politics?
A
Science
B
Logic
C
Law
D
Ethics
Question 48 Explanation: 
In Greek political thought, ethics was viewed as the foundation of politics. But Machiavelli made a striking departure from this classical ideal. He believed that politics is governed by its own independent standards; hence it cannot be bound by the conventional ethical standards.
Question 49
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Machiavelli insisted on separation between politics and ethics. According to him the ruler should be honest, righteous and true to his word, but in reality, nobody can have all these qualities and these qualities will not enable a ruler to rule over vicious people.
  2. Machiavelli contend that ‘ends justify the means’ also he claims that a ruler’s success will be judged by popular verdict, and that he will be excused for using dubious means if he is successful in the end. If political expediency requires the Prince to set aside traditional morality, he should not go ahead in the interest of successful politics.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 49 Explanation: 
Machiavelli does not contend that ‘ends justify the means’ but he claims that a ruler’s success will be judged by popular verdict, and that he will be excused for using dubious means if he is successful in the end. If political expediency requires the Prince to set aside traditional morality, he should go ahead in the interest of successful politics.
Question 50
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Like Plato, Aristotle, St. Thomas Aquinas and others Machiavelli also believed in the religious purpose of the State. He separates politics from morality not from religion and gives an autonomous status to politics. According to Machiavelli, it is practical policy for the prince to follow the principles of religion
  2. The Prince and The Discourses on Livy. Both deal with the same subject-The causes of the rise and decline of States and the means of making them permanent. The Prince deals with monarchies and the Discourses mainly with the expansion of the Roman republic.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 50 Explanation: 
Machiavelli breaks away from the tradition maintained by Plato, Aristotle, St. Thomas Aquinas and others who believed in the ethical purpose of the State. He separates politics from both religion and morality and gives an autonomous status to politics. According to Machiavelli, it is not a practical policy for the prince to follow the principles of religion and ethics in his statecraft.
Question 51
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Machiavelli’s enunciation of statecraft is his most notable as well as controversial contribution. It is notable because it provides unique guidelines, it is controversial because it allows the ruler to use certain immoral practices for successful governance.
  2. While Machiavelli advised the ruler to set aside moral bindings in order to achieve his end, he did not think that conventional morality was totally irrelevant to politics. He enunciates a double standard of morals, one for the ruler and another for his servants and citizens.
  3. According to Machiavelli’s Rulers performance will be judged by his success in fulfilling his responsibility. But his servants and citizens are not allowed to depart from the conventional morality, otherwise the purpose of the state itself will be defeated.
A
Only 3
B
Both 1 and 2
C
Both 1 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 52
Machiavelli advice whom to provide for security of women in the state?
A
Men
B
God
C
Prince
D
Philosophers
Question 52 Explanation: 
A wise ruler will frame his policy with a view to creating an atmosphere of security of life, property and honour of the people. He advises the Prince to provide for security of women in the state. People will be loyal to their ruler when they are sure that their life, property and women are safe in the state.
Question 53
Italy was fragmented into how many parts during Machiavelli period?
A
Three
B
Five
C
Six
D
Four
Question 53 Explanation: 
As a sincere patriot, Machiavelli was particularly anxious to build a strong nation-state in Italy which was then fragmented into five parts: Florence, Venice, Naples, Milan and the territory of the Roman Catholic Church. He wanted his country to win a respectable place among other nation-states of Europe.
Question 54
Who among the following was the sixteenth century English Philosopher who lived during the scientific revolution was the first to attempt a modern theory of society?
A
Thomas Hobbes
B
Desiderius Erasmus
C
Michelangelo
D
Montesquieu
Question 54 Explanation: 
Thomas Hobbes the sixteenth century English Philosopher who lived during the scientific revolution was the first to attempt a modern theory of society. Thomas Hobbes was born prematurely in Malmesbury on 5 April 1588, when his mother was told that the Spanish Armada was spotted off the coast of England.
Question 55
Which among the following college did Thomas Hobbes graduated?
A
Peterhouse College
B
Pembroke College
C
Magdalene College
D
St Catherine’s College
Question 55 Explanation: 
Hobbes grew in the house of his well-to-do uncle after his father abandoned his family. Hobbes began his schooling early and entered the Magdalen college in Oxford. Upon his graduation at the age of nineteen he became connected with the Cavendish family where he served as a tutor to William Cavendish.
Question 56
In the year 1629, Hobbes translated which book of Thucydides and published it?
A
History of the Peloponnesian War
B
The Landmark Thucydides
C
How to Think About War
D
Speeches
Question 56 Explanation: 
Hobbes showed little interest on the elements of philosophy, he began to study the classics with earnest after he went on a tour with William Cavendish in the European continent. He developed an interest in the movement of history and on the fates of nations and empires. In the year 1629, he translated Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War and published it.
Question 57
Which among the following work of Hobbes is his most mature and exciting work attempts to demonstrate the Galilean physics provides a model of human psychology which on turn lays the foundation for modern politics?
A
De Cive
B
Leviathan
C
De Corpore
D
The Correspondence
Question 57 Explanation: 
Hobbes’ Leviathan which is his most mature and exciting work attempts to demonstrate that the Galilean physics provides a model of human psychology which on turn lays the foundation for modern politics.
Question 58
Which term is often used to denote a very pessimistic view of man as essentially, anti-social, selfish, brutish and power lusting?
A
Hobbesian
B
Proletarian
C
Valetudinarian
D
Callithumpian
Question 58 Explanation: 
Very often political scientists use the term ‘Hobbesian’ which probably could denote a very pessimistic view of man as essentially, anti-social, selfish, brutish and power lusting. At most times, the Leviathan of Hobbes is taken as the starting point and begins with a coherent theory of ‘Man’, as a pre requisite to an understanding of politics.
Question 59
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. In Hobbes’ words human beings are driven by their passions and use their intellectual capacity simply as a means to determine what will bring them the greatest pleasure or the least pain.
  2. Hobbes further adds that the object of man’s desire is only to enjoy once and for one instant only, but not to assure forever the way of his future desire.
  3. Hobbes is careful to also state that different people desire different forms of pleasure but there is one desire which is common in man – Power. Hobbes thus regards human nature as utterly self-interested and self-regarding.
A
Both 1 and 2
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 59 Explanation: 
Hobbes further adds that the object of man’s desire is not to enjoy only once, and for one instant only, but to assure forever the way of his future desire. Given that all are pleasure seekers, it must logically follow logically that all are power seekers.
Question 60
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Hobbes in his theory of the state of nature provides a corollary method of understanding human behaviour. In the state of nature Hobbes argues, that it a condition of absolute liberty and equality.
  2. Absolute liberty since there would be no laws to constrain individuals and thus would have a right to everything; absolute equality because human beings have roughly equivalent physical and intellectual capabilities.
  3. Hobbes argues when everyone has a right to everything and all have equal capabilities in exercising their rights, all are subject to attacks from all. The state of nature is thus a state of war where survival remains the ultimate motive for human beings to acquire power. It is thus by nature that human beings are by nature antisocial power seekers.
A
Both 1 and 2
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 61
Which was the scientific theory of politics put forward by Hobbes Knowing the true nature of human beings?
A
Political contract
B
Natural contract
C
Social contract
D
Economical contract
Question 61 Explanation: 
Hobbes’ view of human nature has a profound impact on his political theory. Knowing the true nature of human beings, Hobbes puts forward a scientific theory of politics – the ‘Social Contract’.
Question 62
Which is the result of a contract between human beings in which the scope and extent of the powers of the government are to be determined by an analysis of the terms of the contract by idea of the social contract?
A
State
B
Monarch
C
Democracy
D
Aristocracy
Question 62 Explanation: 
The fundamental idea of the social contract is quite simple: The state is the result of a contract between human beings in which the scope and extent of the powers of the government are to be determined by an analysis of the terms of the contract.
Question 63
Which among the following statement is Incorrect
  1. The state is created by mutual agreement or the consent of its members. As a result, government is legitimate if it corresponds to what people have consented to. This is a very modern notion of the modern secular state which is contrary to medieval thought where the secular government exists by divine sanction
  2. Such an idea was still employed by the Royalists who argued that the Republic ruled by divine right. The consent-contract flatly support this idea and, on the contrary, claimed that the government is legitimate only to the extent that people have consented to.
  3. The importance of Hobbes theory of social contract is that he believes that it is strictly a logical and scientific analysis of the state. He argues that human beings would consent only to that which rationally accords to their needs and desires
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
Both 1 and 3
Question 63 Explanation: 
Such an idea was still employed by the Royalists who argued that the monarch ruled by divine right. The consent-contract flatly rejected this idea and, on the contrary claimed that the government is legitimate only to the extent that people have consented to.
Question 64
According to Hobbes the relationship between whom was the absolute absence of power and the absolute unity of power?
A
Law and Sovereign
B
Master and Individual
C
Individual and Sovereign
D
Law and Ruler
Question 64 Explanation: 
Hobbes’s conception of the sovereign/ sovereignty can be summed up in the relationship between the individual and the sovereign. The relationship between the individual and the sovereign was one that was between the absolute absence of power and the absolute unity of power.
Question 65
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Hobbes is consistent in his argument in the commonwealth the removal of all bases of power from the sovereign on the one hand and the concentration of it with the individual was essential.
  2. The key to his political thinking is found in the absolute necessity to create an absolute authority. The sovereign could be one man or an assembly of men, although he preferred the sovereignty of one man.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 65 Explanation: 
Hobbes is consistent in his argument in the commonwealth the removal of all bases of power from the individual on the one hand and the concentration of it with the sovereign was essential. In other words, Hobbes supported the creation of an absolute sovereign which would lack no power to enforce law and order against any possibility of man’s irrationality.
Question 66
Which among the following statement is incorrect
  1. The importance of Hobbes lies not only on his political philosophy but also on his contributions towards the development of an anti- Machiavelli and thoroughly philosophical conception of politics.
  2. It is in his work that the beginnings of understanding politics from a non-teleological point of view emerged. His political philosophy served as the basis for other political philosophers such as John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who followed the tradition of examining politics from a modern scientific approach.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 66 Explanation: 
The importance of Hobbes lies not only on his political philosophy but also on his contributions towards the development of an anti-Aristotelian and thoroughly materialist conception of politics.
Question 67
Who among the following was the father of philosophical liberalism?
A
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
B
Immanuel Kant
C
David Hume
D
John Locke
Question 67 Explanation: 
John Locke, the father of philosophical liberalism, was born on 29 August, 1632 at Wrington, Somersetshire, United Kingdom. He spent his childhood at Pensford, near Bristol His acquaintance with William, the Prince of Orange and his ascendency to the English throne after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, brought Locke back to London.
Question 68
When Locke was made the Commissioner for Appeals by William III?
A
1610
B
1639
C
1689
D
1658
Question 68 Explanation: 
Locke was made the Commissioner for Appeals by William III in 1689. The unfavourable political climate induced him to resign again and led to his settlement at Essex. He ended his public life with his last assignment as the Commissioner on the Board of Tea.
Question 69
Which among the following is not the work of John Locke?
A
Letter Concerning Toleration
B
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
C
Two Treatises on Civil Government
D
The Social Contract
Question 69 Explanation: 
John Locke important works are ‘Letter Concerning Toleration’ (1689), an ‘Essay Concerning Human Understanding’ (1690), ‘Two Treatises on Civil Government’ (1690), ‘A Second Letter on Toleration’ (1692) ), ‘A Third Letter on Toleration’ (1692), ‘A Fourth on Toleration’ (1693) and ‘Some Thoughts Concerning Education’ (1693).
Question 70
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Locke’s comprehension of the human nature is reflected in his “‘Letter Concerning Toleration”. Unlike Hobbes, Locke subscribe to a pessimistic view of human nature. He identifies reason as the factor which shapes a rational human being.
  2. Lockean view also upholds the natural state of equality for individuals. To him, humans are entitled to natural liberty. It is qualified as an inherent privilege to be free from any superior element but to be subversive towards the “dictate of the nature”.
  3. He also reaches a consensus on the fact that individuals are prone to some degrees of discrepancies in terms of intelligence, strength and their skills. Nevertheless, his reliance on similarities among individuals were outweighing the differences.
A
Only 3
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 70 Explanation: 
Locke’s comprehension of the human nature is reflected in his “Essay on Human Understanding”. Unlike Hobbes, Locke does not subscribe to a pessimistic view of human nature. He identifies reason as the factor which shapes a rational human being.
Question 71
Following whose line, Locke says, humans seek to strike a balance of pleasure over pain?
A
Kant
B
Austin
C
Beccaria
D
Bentham
Question 71 Explanation: 
Locke is also particular in reflecting the utilitarian trait of humans. Following the line of Bentham, Locke says, humans seek to strike a balance of pleasure over pain. It is this notion of pleasure or utility which forms the basis of his covenant.
Question 72
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. The Locke a contemplation on the state of nature can be found in his “Second Treatise”. In contrast to the Hobbesian state of nature, Locke postulates a peaceful condition by virtue of the social instinct of humans. As dictated by the canons of natural law, his state of nature is based on perfect freedom.
  2. In his own words, “state of nature is a state of peace, goodwill, mutual assistance and preservation”. In short, Locke underscores the optimistic nature of human beings.
  3. Natural law is considered to be the source of both rights and duties. Humans derive their rights from the domain of natural law and it expects them to respect the ordained rights on a mutual basis for safeguarding the same.
A
Only 2
B
Both 1 and 2
C
Both 1 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 73
Locke goes to the extent of denoting which law as the moral law enacted by God, which is sensible through reason?
A
Eternal law
B
Divine law
C
Natural law
D
Human law
Question 73 Explanation: 
Locke goes to the extent of denoting natural law as the moral law enacted by God, which is sensible through reason. It would not be wrong to refer his state of nature as “an anarchist’s paradise”.
Question 74
Locke identifies how many fundamental demerits which threatened the balance of state of nature?
A
Three
B
Five
C
Seven
D
Six
Question 74 Explanation: 
Finally, Locke identifies the three fundamental demerits which threatened the balance of state of nature. Firstly, the absence of a legal framework. Secondly, the lack of a “known and impartial judge”. Thirdly, the requirement of an executive agency for the enforcement of decisions.
Question 75
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Social contract is configured as an instrument of admission to the civil society. The Lockean view proposes three contracts. The first one establishes the civil society, the second one calls for the constitution of government and third one for the maintenance of state as one.
  2. Locke also recognises consent as the bedrock of the contract. To him, no individual can be admitted into this commonwealth without his/her own consent.
  3. Locke speaks of two kinds of consent: 1) formal or active consent, which is irrevocable in nature and 2) implied or tacit consent, which sanctions the departure of the stakeholders from the ‘trust’ and initiate a new order.
A
Only 2
B
Both 1 and 2
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2and 3
Question 75 Explanation: 
Social contract is configured as an instrument of admission to the civil society. The Lockean view proposes two contracts. The first one establishes the civil society and the second one calls for the constitution of government.
Question 76
Which among the following statement is incorrect
  1. Locke’s contract is that individuals do not surrender their rights which they enjoyed in the state of nature. Submission of the rights would defeat the purpose of the contract itself as the state is being raised as the guarantor and protector of rights.
  2. Therefore, the contract is synonymous to a “charter of liberty” than a license for subjugation. The Locke a vision on social pact do not authorises the option for revolution against a tyrannous system of governance.
  3. On the question of the nature of authority, he outlines the notion of Absolute-sovereignty. Limited sovereignty is against his construct of civil society. Locke was also not hesitant to offer an alternative blueprint on the separation of powers.
A
Only 2
B
Both 1 and 2
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2and 3
Question 76 Explanation: 
The Locke a vision on social pact also authorises the option for revolution against a tyrannous system of governance. This is included in order to reaffirm the role of the state as the guardian of the natural rights of individuals. On the question of the nature of authority, he outlines the notion of limited-sovereignty. Absolute sovereignty is against his construct of civil society. Locke was also not hesitant to offer an alternative blueprint on the separation of powers
Question 77
Which among the following did not come under the Locke’s separation of powers of Government?
A
Judicial
B
Legislature
C
Executive
D
Federative
Question 77 Explanation: 
According to Locke, the powers of the government were separated among three organs. Firstly, the legislature, which he refers as the “supreme power of the commonwealth”. Secondly, the executive, which also includes the judicial powers. Thirdly, the federative, which implies the power of external relations of a state.
Question 78
According to whom Locke’s Two Treatises on Government “became the textbook of American Revolution”?
A
Voltaire
B
Parrington
C
Diderot
D
Rousseau
Question 78 Explanation: 
According to Parrington, Locke’s Two Treatises on Government “became the textbook of American Revolution”. In the words of Prof. Laski, “Locke’s worked with an impossible psychology and sought no more than the prescription against disorder.
Question 79
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. John Locke, being an individualist by conviction, he believed that humans are the makers of their own destiny. His works were a great source of impetus and inspiration for thinkers like Voltaire, Diderot and Rousseau, and even for the French Revolution.
  2. Burke wrote rather a textbook for the cautious administrator than a guide for the liberal statesman. But Locke saw that the main problem of the state is the conquest of freedom and it was for its definition in terms of individual good that he above all strove”.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 80
Who among the following was the most prominent philosophers in the modern political discourse, was born on 28 July, 1712 in Geneva?
A
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
B
Immanuel Kant
C
David Hume
D
Karl Marx
Question 80 Explanation: 
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, one of the most prominent philosophers in the modern political discourse, was born on 28 July, 1712 in Geneva. Hailing from a broken family, Rousseau was devoid of the opportunity to enjoy the privilege of a nurtured childhood.
Question 81
By whose help Rousseau was introduced to formal education in a monastery based in Turin and a seminary in Annecy?
A
Madame Bovary
B
Madame Helena Blavatsky
C
Madame de Warrens
D
Madame Tussauds
Question 81 Explanation: 
With the help a young widow named Madame de Warens, Rousseau was introduced to formal education in a monastery based in Turin and a seminary in Annecy. The eventual aversion towards the style of pedagogy in those institutions, induced him to abandon the same.
Question 82
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Out of the repeated failures, she was forced to send him to Toulouse in 1730. After two year of wandering, he re-joined her in 1731 and lived under her bounty till 1740.
  2. Influenced by her intellectual halo and her invaluable assistance, he joined as a teacher in the family of Monsieur de Malby. Nonetheless, he left the assignment and resorted to his journey as an aimless soul.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 82 Explanation: 
Out of the repeated failures, she was forced to send him to Lyons in 1730. After a year of wandering, he re-joined her in 1731 and lived under her bounty till 1740.
Question 83
When was Rousseau second trip to France happened?
A
1742
B
1744
C
1752
D
1749
Question 83 Explanation: 
Rousseau second trip to France in 1744 brought significant changes in his life. Despite his unsuccessful experiments in various fields like opera, theatre, poetry and so forth, Rousseau sustained his determination and positive spirit.
Question 84
In the year 1749, Rousseau received price for essay on which topic?
A
Has the progress of sciences and arts contributed to corrupt or purify morals?
B
Profession of faith of the Savoyard Vicar
C
Discourse on the Inequality of politics and society
D
The effect of Art and Moral effect contribution on the politics and state
Question 84 Explanation: 
The year 1749 was a turning point in his life. The Academy of Dijon announced the prize for the best essay on “Has the progress of sciences and arts contributed to corrupt or purify morals?”. Rousseau writes in his Confessions, “Instantly I saw another universe, and I became another man”. The work he submitted had received the first prize in 1750 and it was published under the title – “A Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences”.
Question 85
Which among the following statement is Incorrect
  1. On his return to Geneva in 1754, Rousseau, a Catholic by himself, accepted Calvinistic denomination and reacquired the citizenship.
  2. After his travel to Paris, he spent 8 years of his life at Montmorency as a ward of Madame d’Epinay. Rousseau’s demise on 2 July, 1778, was received with a shock and was seen as a great loss to philosophy
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 86
Which among the following is not the work of Rousseau?
A
The New Heloise
B
My Thoughts
C
Emile
D
The Social Contract
Question 86 Explanation: 
Rousseau composed his most important works - The New Heloise (1761), Emile (1762) and the Social Contract (1762) – during his life at Montmorency. Condemnation was the response received for his books which led to his further resettlements in various places.
Question 87
Which among the following statement is incorrect
  1. The idyllic character of the state of nature was short-lived. Th e emerging template of human complexities defined by economic advancement and social evolution facilitated only havoc. Humans were left with no alternative, but to constitute the civil state.
  2. In the sixth chapter of the ‘The New Heloise’ Rousseau says, “I assume that men have not reached a point where primitive conditions can no longer subsist and the human race would not perish unless it changed its mode of existence”.
  3. Th e state of nature is thriving on an individual’s pursuit of self-interest until a point wherein he/she realises that his/her self-preserving prowess against the insecurity posed by others is not strong enough.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 87 Explanation: 
In the sixth chapter of the ‘Social Contract’ Rousseau says, “I assume that men have reached at a point where primitive conditions can no longer subsist and the human race would perish unless it changed its mode of existence”.
Question 88
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Rousseau occupies a critical position in the realm of political philosophy. He is predominantly known for his contribution towards the “theory of social contract”.
  2. In the view of Rousseau, human progress and rational advancement accompanied by the revolution in the conduct of life and human thought brought a new layer of evils in its wagon.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 89
Who among the following quoted “Fear and I were born twins”?
A
Thomas Hobbes
B
John Locke
C
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
D
Niccolo Machiavelli
Question 89 Explanation: 
Thomas Hobbes quoted that “Fear and I were born twins”.
Question 90
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Like Hobbes, Rousseau’s proposition of state of nature was not an epitome of perfect liberty, perfect equality and perfect innocence. He also identifies it with a sophisticatedly peaceful, pleasant and idyllic environment.
  2. The man in his state of nature lived in solitude characterized by a care-free living with no desires. Despite the inconsistency in terms of a settled life, and inarticulate speech, the life was shaped by contentment, independence, self-sufficiency and prosperity.
  3. Absence of wickedness paved the way for idyllic happiness. As he says, “supreme bliss” was the norm of the time. In due course, the status quo was threatened by changes in terms of sophistication of human life.
A
Only 2
B
Both 1 and 2
C
Both 1 and 3
D
Both 2 and 3
Question 90 Explanation: 
Unlike Hobbes, Rousseau’s proposition of state of nature was an epitome of perfect liberty, perfect equality and perfect innocence. He also identifies it with a more peaceful, pleasant and idyllic environment.
Question 91
According to Rousseau which concept created a new cleavage at the social sphere – rich and poor?
A
Monarch
B
Democracy
C
Private Ownership
D
Oligarchy
Question 91 Explanation: 
Rousseau identifies the origin of inequality with this shower of changes that shook the fabric of the state of nature. The concept of private ownership created a new cleavage at the social sphere – rich and poor. In his words, “the first man who after enclosing a piece of land said to himself ‘this is mine’ and found people simply to believe him, was the real founder of civil society”.
Question 92
As a social contractualist by conviction, Rousseau sought to unearth the origin of state as an expression of what?
A
Moderate Will
B
State Will
C
Public Will
D
General Will
Question 92 Explanation: 
As a social contractualist by conviction, Rousseau sought to unearth the origin of state as an expression of the “general will”. He attributed the origin of state as a consequence of two phases – “state of nature” and “social contract”.
Question 93
Which among the following statement is incorrect
  1. Rousseau opines that there are two premises on which a savage-acts. Firstly, a human is driven by the need of self-preservation and out of the interest of his/her own welfare. Secondly, the fear of death. He finds the genesis of rationality and reason in this emotional consciousness.
  2. Rousseau is of the view of that the humans by nature are capable of thinking. Civil society is viewed as convertibility to nature and it is apparently an outcome of the march of human reason. He insists on the slogan of “sustaining to nature”.
  3. His demand for the retrospection to the nature does not tantamount to a prescription for the collapse of the newly woven social fabric, but the rule of nature. Such a call necessarily unveils Rousseau’s revelation that it is the philosophy and reason that allured the human life to entropy.
A
Only 2
B
Both 1 and 2
C
Both 1 and 3
D
Both 2 and 3
Question 93 Explanation: 
Rousseau is of the view of that the humans by nature are incapable of thinking. Civil society is viewed as antithetical to nature and it is apparently an outcome of the march of human reason. He insists on the slogan of “returning to nature”.
Question 94
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Rousseau’s equation for the civil state can be summed as follows: “Each of us puts his person and all his power under the supreme direction of the general will and in one corporate capacity, we receive each number as an indivisible part of the whole”.
  2. Rousseau holds that state is just an amalgamation of individuals and a new body with an inherent identity, personality and life of its own. Above all, the state did not possess a will of its own, what he terms as volente general or general will. Any separate or particular will shall be considered to be subordinate to it.
  3. Unlike Hobbes and Locke, Rousseau professes a total surrender of the individual to the sovereign community in pursuit of attaining equality. His idea of individual delegation of all the rights to the body-politic fosters reconciliation between liberty and authority.
A
Both 1 and 2
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 94 Explanation: 
Rousseau holds that state is not just an amalgamation of individuals, but a new body with an inherent identity, personality and life of its own. Above all, the state possesses a will of its own, what he terms as volente general or general will. Any separate or particular will shall be deemed to be subordinate to it.
Question 95
Who among the following quoted “Government has no other end, but the preservation of property”?
A
Aristotle
B
John Locke
C
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
D
Niccolo Machiavelli
Question 95 Explanation: 
John Locke quoted that “Government has no other end, but the preservation of property”
Question 96
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. General will or the community is identical to the state. People submit their powers and personality under the command of the general will. The individual’s wills are outweighed by the general will. Besides, sovereignty rests in the body-politic as a whole and it coincides with nothing, but the general will.
  2. He emphasises the transferability of power. The general will is not equivalent to the will of all since the former considers the common interest whereas the latter attaches private interest into its fold.
  3. There are three premises that determine the general will. First, it seeks general good, which refers to the objective of will. Secondly, it must come from all and apply to all, which proposes its origin. Thirdly, it should not be compulsion, people should come forward to embrace general will.
A
Both 1 and 2
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 96 Explanation: 
There are two premises that determine the general will. First, it seeks general good, which refers to the objective of will. Secondly, it must come from all and apply to all, which proposes its origin.
Question 97
Who opined about Rousseau’s ‘Social Contract’ to be “still far by the best of all text-books of political philosophy”?
A
Harold Laski
B
R. H. Tawney
C
G. D. H. Cole
D
Beatrice Web
Question 97 Explanation: 
Opinions are manifold about Rousseau’s personality and works. G. D. H Cole opined about his ‘Social Contract’ to be “still far by the best of all text-books of political philosophy”.
Question 98
Where John Stuart Mill was born on 20 May 1806 to Harriet Barrow and James Mill?
A
London
B
France
C
Dutch
D
America
Question 98 Explanation: 
John Stuart Mill was born on 20 May 1806 in Bentonville, a northern suburb of London to Harriet Barrow and James Mill, a Scotsman who was educated at Edinburgh University. The development of John Stuart Mill as a social and political thinker can be divided into three specific periods.
Question 99
Which among the following is not the work of John Stuart Mill?
A
A System of Logic
B
Principles of Political Economy
C
The Wealth of Nation
D
On Liberty
Question 99 Explanation: 
The final period which extends to over thirty years of Mill’s career, marks the time in which he published his major works that included, A System of Logic, Principles of Political Economy, On Liberty and Considerations on Representative Government.
Question 100
Which among the following book brought Mill enduring fame, and predicted that among all his works, this was destined to survive the longest and is has?
A
A System of Logic
B
Principles of Political Economy
C
The Wealth of Nation
D
On Liberty
Question 100 Explanation: 
On Liberty (1859) brought Mill enduring fame, and predicted that among all his works, this was destined to survive the longest and is has. The transformation of society from aristocratic to democratic forms of organization brought with it both advantages and disadvantages.
Question 101
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Mill held that, the dominance of the majority carried no risks that from a monarch that had the capacity to place restrictions over the freedoms of individuals, which could not be legislatively enacted. Informal mechanisms of social pressure and expectation could in democratic societies could be all-controlling
  2. Mill expressed that such powers could have the capacity of stifling conformism in thought, character and action. In was in this context that On Liberty was written. The aims of this work are written in the first chapter which asserts one simple principle.
  3. This principle states that “the sole end for which mankind are warranted, individually or collectively, in interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number, is self-protection” Thus, the practical philosophy of this argument by Mill is primarily utilitarian
A
Only 3
B
Both 1 and 2
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2and 3
Question 101 Explanation: 
Mill held that, the dominance of the majority carried with it more risks that from a monarch that had the capacity to place restrictions over the freedoms of individuals, which could be legislatively enacted. Informal mechanisms of social pressure and expectation could in democratic societies could be all-controlling.
Question 102
Who among the following quoted “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains. One man thinks himself the master of others, but remains more of a slave than they are”?
A
John Start Mill
B
Karl Marx
C
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
D
Niccolo Machiavelli
Question 102 Explanation: 
Jean Jacques Rousseau quoted that “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains. One man thinks himself the master of others, but remains more of a slave than they are”.
Question 103
Who said  “Human nature is not a machine to be built after a model, and set to do exactly the work prescribed for it, but a tree, which requires to grow and develop itself on all sides, according to the tendency of the inward forces which make it a living thing”?
A
John Start Mill
B
Karl Marx
C
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
D
Niccolo Machiavelli
Question 103 Explanation: 
On the one hand Mill argues for freedom of space for individuals which individuals should have to develop their own character while on the other, he maintains that it is best for society too. “Human nature is not a machine to be built after a model, and set to do exactly the work prescribed for it, but a tree, which requires to grow and develop itself on all sides, according to the tendency of the inward forces which make it a living thing”.
Question 104
Mill encourages which model of self-development?
A
Rome
B
Greek
C
Catholic
D
Indian
Question 104 Explanation: 
Mill encourages the Greek model of self-development. It is important for society to create conditions where individuals can develop their own ways of living. This will enable variety and diversity of character and culture which will become the engine of productive tension that will drive a nation forward.
Question 105
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Mill’s insistence throughout On Liberty, sought to preserve the individual’s freedom against the possibility of legislative or state coercion and also from the deceptive forms of social coercion.
  2. Mill was a convinced democrat; however, this work reveals his disappointment, doubts, and difficulties about self-government. His view is paradoxical in nature where he views that the majority ought to rule but minority rule was probably right.
  3. Mill in this work expresses the dangers posed by the tyranny of the majority undertook to provide the criterion for good government. He concluded that ideally the best form of government was one that was representative where the sovereignty is vested in the entire aggregate of the community.
A
Both 1 and 3
B
Both 1 and 2
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 106
Who among the following said “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggle”?
A
David Ricardo
B
Karl Marx
C
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
D
Niccolo Machiavelli
Question 106 Explanation: 
Karl Marx said that “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggle””. For Marx, any theory should not only support in understanding the world around, but be a step towards transforming the world.
Question 107
Which among the following is not the work of Karl Marx?
A
Communist Manifesto
B
Materialistic Concept of History
C
Das Capital
D
On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation
Question 107 Explanation: 
Karl Marx works – Communist Manifesto, Materialistic Conception of History and Das Capital, are a culmination of various economic ideas, channelled towards the single goal of self- emancipation of working class. It is important to know that, Marxism draws many elements from earlier thinkers like Hegel, Saint-Simon, J. C. L. de Sismondi, David Ricardo, Fourier, and Louis Blanc
Question 108
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Second half of the 18th century and 19th century witnessed the growth of Socialism in Europe. This period was also known as dual revolution era wherein politically France witnessed the Revolution of 1772, which overthrew absolute Democracy and Anarchy was proclaimed with liberty, equality and fraternity declared the right of every Frenchmen
  2. Second important revolution during this period that had a long-lasting impact on Europe was the Industrial Revolution. These two events had a major impact on Marx’s work.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 108 Explanation: 
This period was also known as dual revolution era, wherein politically France witnessed the Revolution of 1789, which overthrew absolute monarchy and republic was proclaimed with liberty, equality and fraternity declared the right of every Frenchman.
Question 109
Which work of Karl Marx is known as “Bible of the working class”?
A
Materialistic Concept of History
B
Communist Manifesto
C
Das Capital
D
Economic and Philosophic Manuscript 1844
Question 109 Explanation: 
Marx’s masterpiece, Das Capital, the “Bible of the working class,” as it was officially described was published in 1867 in Berlin. Only the first volume was completed and published in Marx’s lifetime.
Question 110
The second and third volumes of Da Capital, unfinished by Marx, were edited by whom?
A
Friedrich Engels
B
Adam Smith
C
Max Weber
D
Leon Trotsky
Question 110 Explanation: 
The second and third volumes, unfinished by Marx, were edited by Engels and published in 1885 and 1894. The first volume deals with the process of production of capital; the second volume deals with the process of circulation of capital; the third volume deals with the totality of the process of capitalist production
Question 111
When Communist manifesto was published by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels?
A
1888
B
1848
C
1827
D
1832
Question 111 Explanation: 
The Communist Manifesto published in 1848 is a collaborative work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It was a product of the social, economic and political turmoil that characterized Europe before 1850. This essay explains the social change through revolution.
Question 112
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. The Communist Manifesto goes on to argue that the nature of that class struggle varies according to the nature of production. Hence in feudal societies, where the main form of production was agriculture, the class struggle was between those who owned the land and those who worked on it
  2. In a modern industry, the struggle is between the proletariat (factory or business owners) and the bourgeoisie (workers in the factory). In reality the society as a whole is more and more splitting up into three great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other proletariat and bourgeoisie.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 112 Explanation: 
In a modern industry, the struggle is between the bourgeoisie (factory or business owners) and the proletariat (workers in the factory). In reality the society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other – bourgeoisie and proletariat.
Question 113
Marx in this work also emphases that the communist should aim to replace which property with public control of all properties?
A
Government property
B
Private property
C
Monastery property
D
Elites property
Question 113 Explanation: 
In conclusion the Communist Manifesto simply places two ideas side by side; “to raise the proletariat to the position of the ruling class” and “to win the battle of democracy”. Marx in this work also emphases that the communist should aim to replace private property with public control of all properties.
Question 114
Which among the following statement is incorrect
  1. Marx and Engels look at every basic sections of society as materials and change in society takes place only through “the struggle of opposites”. Materialism principally dealt with social world.
  2. The material world has always been in constant motion, contradictions and change. Marx believes that friction caused by constant motion in the society leads to contradictions within the society, which eventually leads to change in the society.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 115
Theory of Surplus Value, comes from which work of Karl Marx?
A
Communist Manifesto
B
Materialistic Concept of History
C
Das Capital
D
Economic and Philosophic Manuscript 1844
Question 115 Explanation: 
Theory of Surplus Value, comes from the Das Capital. Karl Marx opines that human labour was the source of economic value, hence the term ‘surplus value’ denotes the difference between labour and labour power
Question 116
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. The Capitalists gets surplus value for the extra labour that has been put in by the labourer. Surplus value is produced no matter how long the working day is: even if the factory only ran for an hour the capitalist would still extract his quota of surplus labour and therefore surplus value.
  2. The capitalist pays his workers less than the value their labour, and in most occasions usually only enough to maintain the worker at a subsistence level.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 117
Who among the following quoted that “Law is nothing other than a certain ordinance of reason for the common good, promulgated by the person who has the care of the community”?
A
Thomas Aquinas
B
Niccolo Machiavel
C
Friedrich Engels
D
Aristotle
Question 117 Explanation: 
Thomas Aquinas said that “Law is nothing other than a certain ordinance of reason for the common good, promulgated by the person who has the care of the community”.
Question 118
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Class consciousness and struggle are not related to the social relations of production. Marx does not look at class as a person who holds particular social status, but as a factor of ideology. The term class relates to ownership based on property.
  2. Marx’s work on the “Class Struggle of France”, in the years 1848 – 1850 assesses the arguments on the class struggle and the need for revolution. Marx bases his idea of class conflict from the French Revolution of 1848
  3. Having come to power with the support of the proletariat during the February revolution, the bourgeoisie used the election process to claim legitimacy of their rule. The bourgeoisie class instead of emancipating the working class of all bondages increasingly alienated them
A
Both 1 and 2
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 118 Explanation: 
Class consciousness and struggle are related to the social relations of production. Marx does not look at class as a factor of ideology, but as a person who holds particular social status. The term class relates to ownership based on property.
Question 119
During the French revolution both bourgeoisie and proletariat fought together against whom?
A
Democracy
B
Communist
C
Aristocracy
D
Socialist
Question 119 Explanation: 
During the French revolution both bourgeoisie and proletariat fought together against the aristocracy and succeeded in the proclamation of republic
Question 120
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Dictatorship of the Proletariat is a phrase used by Karl Marx to refer to the assumption of state power by the working class. For Marx, it is a transitional period of permanent revolution between the overthrow of bourgeois political rule and a classless society.
  2. When the first group of the workers class (proletariat) assert themselves over the traditional ruling class (bourgeoisie) capitalist forms of production is abolished and the socialist forms of production takes the lead.
  3. Establishment of socialist forms of production results in the disappearance of class groups within the society eventually bringing about Dictatorship of the Bourgeoisie. Of all Marx’s contribution to political thought, probably the “dictatorship of the bourgeoisie” has had the most profound implication for actual governance.
A
Both 1 and 2
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 120 Explanation: 
Establishment of socialist forms of production results in the disappearance of class groups within the society eventually bringing about Dictatorship of the Proletariat. Of all Marx’s contribution to political thought, probably the “dictatorship of the proletariat” has had the most profound implication for actual governance.
Question 121
By whom taking control, the society will become classless according to Karl Marx?
A
Proletariat
B
Bourgeoisie
C
Elites
D
All the above
Question 121 Explanation: 
“The proletariat will take control of the State and converts the means of production into State production. Taking control of the state and production, the proletariats, destroy all class differences and class antagonisms, and finally resulting in the ‘Withering Away of the State’.
Question 122
Who among the following leader was not influenced by writing of Marx?
A
Mao
B
Stalin
C
Napoleon
D
Lenin
Question 122 Explanation: 
Karl Marx writings did influence leaders like Lenin, Stalin, Mao and others who used Marxist theories in order to bring about change in countries like Russia, China, Cuba, Vietnam, etc. Hence, so long there are capitalists and exploitation in the society, Marx’s ideas can never be ignored or forgotten.
Question 123
A state in which governing power is held by the nobility is known as ____
A
Aristocracy
B
Republic
C
Monarchy
D
Timocracy
Question 123 Explanation: 
A state in which governing power is held by the nobility is known as Aristocracy.
Question 124
A small group of people having control of a country or organization is Known as ___
A
Oligarchy
B
Republic
C
Monarchy
D
Timocracy
Question 124 Explanation: 
A small group of people having control of a country or organization is known as Oligarchy
Question 125
A form of government in which possession of property is required in order to hold office is Known as _____
A
Oligarchy
B
Republic
C
Monarchy
D
Timocracy
Question 125 Explanation: 
A form of government in which possession of property is required in order to hold office is known as Timocracy.
Question 126
According to whom the right method to study political Science was historical and says that human desires and passions remain the same always?
A
Aquinas
B
Hobbes
C
Machiavelli
D
Plato
Question 126 Explanation: 
According to Machiavelli, the right method to study political Science was historical. He says that human desires and passions remain the same always and when the incidents of life are comparable, humanity will tend to find the same remedies and repeat the same conduct.
Question 127
Who among the following was born in Florence, the centre of Italian culture where influence of Italian culture as the third child of Bartolomea di Stefano Nelli?
A
Thomas Hobbes
B
Niccolo Machiavelli
C
John Locke
D
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Question 127 Explanation: 
Machiavelli was born in Florence, the centre of Italian culture where influence of Italian culture where influence of the European Renaissance was the strongest among all areas as the third child of attorney Bernardo di Niccolo Machiavelli and his wife Bartolomea di Stefano Nelli.
Question 128
Which among the following was the famous monograph written by Machiavelli?
A
The Prince
B
The Art of War
C
The Statesman
D
De Corpore
Question 128 Explanation: 
Machiavelli wrote his famous monograph The Prince in 1513 which is addressed to Lorenzo de’Medici. Simultaneously he started writing another important work- the Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livius (in short, the Discourses on Livy) which was completed in 1517.
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