Employment in India and Tamil Nadu Notes 9th Social Science
9th Social Science Lesson 8 Notes in English
8. Employment in India and Tamil Nadu
- In the present world, one more essential need has to be added in this list. That is employment. To survive in the world, we all need employment to earn money.
- Those who are engaged in economic activities, in whatever capacity– high or low – are called employees. People who employ these workers and pay rewards for their work are called the employers.
- Labour force of the economy is the number of people in the country who work and also capable of working. We take the age group of 15–60 years for the computation of workforce.
- Persons who are less than 15 years are considered as children, and person who have crossed 60 years of age are excluded as they are not physically fit to undertake productive occupation.
- If larger percentage of population is accounted by children and oldage persons, then the progress of the country would be very slow as the working force is very small.
- Besides, the small working force will have to maintain larger non-working force for feeding out of the small national product.
Employment Structure in India
- The nature of employment in India is multi-dimensional. Some get employment throughout the year; some others get employed for only a few months in a year.
- The economy is classified into three sectors: primary or agriculture sector, secondary or industrial sector and tertiary or service sector. The structure of employment denotes the number of workers engaged in different sectors of the economy.
- Though the occupational pattern varies from one country to another, one can find in developing countries like India that a large work force will be engaged in primary sector, while a small proportion in secondary and tertiary sectors.
- Whereas, in well-developed countries, the proportion of workforce engaged in agriculture will be very small and a majority of labour force will be in the industrial and tertiary sectors.
- Employment has always featured as an important element of development policy in India. Employment growth has increased at an average rate of 2% during the past four decades since 1972–73.
Primary sector : Agriculture, forestry animal husbandry, poultry, dairy farming, fishing etc.
Secondary sector : Manufacturing, small and largescale industries and constructional activities.
Tertiary sector : Transport, insurance, banking, trade, communication, real estate, government and non-government services
Types of Employment: Organised and Unorganised Sectors
- The organised sector is one that is incorporated with the appropriate authority or government and follows its rules and regulations.
- In India employees of central and state governments, banks, railways, insurance, industry and so on can be called as organised sector.
- This sector works according to certain rules and regulations given in the law. Organised sector has some formal processes and procedures.
- The employees in this sector are provided with job security and receive higher wages than those of the unorganised sectors.
- Organised sector gives good salary, fixed working hours, paid holidays and provides medical allowance and insurance also.
- The unorganised sector of the economy characterised by the household manufacturing activity and small-scale industry.
- Jobs here are low paid and often not regular, Mostly, they do not have paid leave, holiday, leave due to sickness and so on.
- Employment is not secure. When there is no work, people are asked to leave the job. This sector includes a large number of people who are employed on their own doing small jobs such as selling on the street, doing repair work and so on.
- In the unorganised sector, the employment terms are not fixed and regular. They do not enjoy any special benefits or job security. These enterprises are not registered with the government.
Public Sector vs Private Sector
Economic activities are classified into public and private sector based on who owns assets and is responsible for the delivery of services.
In recent years, there has been a change in the employment pattern and this has helped the employers to develop more flexible working patterns among their employees. The trends are
(a) increasing self-employment
(b) firms using fewer full-time employees and tending to offer more short-term contracts
(c) there has been a growth in part-time employment. This may be due to lifestyle of the people.
Employment Trends in Tamil Nadu
- Agriculture, despite a sharp decline in gross domestic product, continues to be the largest employer in Tamil Nadu.
- This is because the non-agriculture sectors are yet to generate enough employment to affect a shift of labour force.
- Most of the employment growth in Tamil Nadu has been contributed by the unorganised and informal sectors.
More to know:
1. In the medieval period, Feroz Shah Th uglaq, the Sultan of Delhi, had set up an ‘Employment Bureau’ to solve the unemployment problem.
2. Public Sector NLC SAIL BSNL
3. Private Sector TVS Motors Ashok Leyland TATA Steel
4. Employment in Iruvelpattu: A case study
- What is happening in the employment scenario can be understood not only from national or state level, but also from the study of the village economy. Iruvelpattu is one such village in Villupuram district in Tamil Nadu.
- This village has been studied for more than 100 years by many scholars. This village is also called Slater village as Gilbert Slater was the first scholar working in the University of Madras to go with his students to study this village in 1916.
- Over the years, many scholars surveyed the occupation of villagers and collected many more details of each person in the village.
- It was clearly observed that the government brought social security awareness among the people of the village through primary health care, provision of schools and maintenance of public distribution system.
- Though this village underwent many changes, it in still dependent on agriculture as the main occupation. Look at the following table or chart. You will notice that during 1981, out of 100 families, 24 were engaged in nonagriculture employment.
- In 2008, the member of families engaged in such employment increased to 41.
- During 1981–2008, the proportion of families engaged in agriculture has declined– both as agriculture labourers and as cultivators.