Human Evolution Notes 6th Social Science
6th Social Science Lesson 2 Notes in English
2. Human Evolution
1. Show the various stages of Human Evolution:
After this the Modern Man evolved.
2. The story of human evolution can be scientifically studied with the help of archaeology and anthropology.
3. During 1850 describe the life of people?
There were no buses or cycles. Carts pulled by mules and bullocks were seen on the roads. Horse-drawn cart was a rare occurrence.
4. 8,000 years back People were engaged in raising crops and livestock.
5. Explain the condition people in 18,000 years ago:
The humans were living in caves. They were using tools made of stones and bones for hunting.
6. Where did the Anthropologists found the foot prints of humans?
Anthropologists have unearthed the footprints of humans in a country called Tanzania, which is in eastern Africa. They were found in rock beds submerged under the sand.
7. Define Archaeology:
Archaeology is the study of pre historic humans remained materials used by pre historic humans. Excavated material remains are the main source for archaeological studies.
8. Show the stages of Evolution of Humans in detail:
9. List the Evolution of Humans in Order:
2. Homo habilis
3. Homo erectus
5. Homo Sapiens
6. Cromagnons (Present Man)
10. Define Anthropology:
Anthropology is the study of humans and evolutionary history. The word anthropology is derived from two Greek words: anthropos meaning “man” or “human”; and logos, meaning “thought” or “reason.” Anthropologists attempt, by investigating the whole range of human development and behavior, to achieve a total description of cultural and social phenomena.
11. Define Cromagnons:
Cromagnons learned to live in caves. Lascaus caves in France is the evidence for cave living of Cromagnons. They habitude to bury the dead.
12. How Radio carbon dating is used?
Radio carbon dating was used to ascertain the period. It was found out that the foot prints of humans they had discovered were about 3.5 millions years old. When there is sudden change in nature, the living beings adapt themselves to the changes and survive. Humans have thus evolved over millions of years adapting themselves to the changing times.
13. Various ancient people and their Habitat:
- Australopithecus – East Africa
- Homohabilis – South Africa
- Homoerectus – Africa and Asia
- Neanderthal – Eurasia (Europe and Asia)
- Cro-Magnons – France
- Peking – China
- Homo sapiens – Africa
- Heidelbergs – London
14. Define Human Evolution:
Human evolution means the process through which the humankind changes and develops towards an advanced stage of life. See how the modern human has evolved.
15. How different Races are formed?
Homo sapiens who migrated out of eastern Africa settled in different parts of the world. Their lifestyle also evolved and they made it suitable to the environs in which they lived. So humans in different places adopted different forms of lifestyle. Based on the weather, climate and nature of the living place, their physique and complexion also differed. This resulted in the formation of different races.
16. How the ancient people Hunted their food?
You will be surprised to know that millions of years ago, our ancestors led a nomadic life. They lived in groups in a cave or a mountain range. Each group consisted of 30 to 40 people. They kept on moving in search of food. They hunted pig, deer, bison, rhino, elephant and bear for food. They also scavenged the animals killed by other wild animals like tiger. They learnt the art of fishing.
17. How the old people Gathered their foods?
They collected honey from beehives, plucked fruits from the trees and dug out tubers from the ground. They also collected grains from the forest. Once the food resource got exhausted in one area, they moved to another place in search of food. They wore hides of animals and barks of trees and leaves for protecting their bodies during winter. So humans began hunting to satisfy their need for food.
18. Mention the Various Hunting Methods?
1. Go as a group and hunt the prey.
2. Dig a pit and trap the animals and hunt.
19. Define the Art of Flasking?
Keeping a stone in the bottom and sharpening it with another stone.
To make a stone tool, two stones were taken. One was used as a hammer to sharpen the other for removing flakes.
20. Why Humans used Sharpened weapons?
Hunting was the main occupation of humans in the past. It was difficult for humans to kill a big animal with a stick or a stone. So they decided to use sharpened weapons.
21. Which is the best stone to make weapons?
The best stone for the making weapons was chikki – mukki kal (flint). It is known for its strength and durability. Humans spent many hours in search of a flint stone. They made sharp weapons and tools with the help of the stones and fitted them with wood to grip them. Humans created tools like axes with big stones.
22. Why were axes are made?
The axes were made to cut trees, remove barks, dig pits, hunt animals and remove the skin of animals.
23. Humans discovered the use of fire.
24. Even today in the villages of Nilgiris district in Tamil Nadu, people have the habit of making fire without use of match box.
25. Name the foremost Scientific invention of Human and explain it in detail?
The invention of wheel by humans is considered to be the foremost invention. When humans saw the stones rolling down from the mountains, probably they would have got the idea of making the wheel.
26. How Pot is made by Humans?
Humans learned to make pot with clay. The invention of wheel made pot making easier, and the pots made were burnt to make it stronger. They decorated pots with lot of colours. The colour dyes were made from the extracts of roots, leaves or barks. These natural dyes were used in rock paintings.
27. How the ancient people expressed their feelings?
In fact, it is the first art of humanity. Before the use of language, humans expressed their feelings through actions and also recorded it in rock paintings. The rock paintings give some information about the past. Approximately there are 750 caves, in which 500 caves have paintings. There are many more undiscovered caves. The rock paintings depict hunting pictures of the male and the female, dancing pictures and pictures of children playing.
28. Why people look for fruits and Vegetables?
There were many dangers involved in hunting. Due to large-scale hunting in the mountain areas and in the forests, many animals became extinct. Non availability of meat forced the humans to look for fruits and vegetables for food.
29. How the ancient people learned the art of Agriculture?
By observation and logic, they learn that:
A plant grows from a single seed and yields lots of fruits and vegetables.
Seeds that fall in the river beds sprout easily.
Plants grow faster in water fed areas.
Alluvial soil is more suitable for plant growth than any other.
With the above knowledge they gained, they realised that with proper sowing and nurturing, they could increase the number of plants more than the ones that grew naturally. Thus agriculture and farming came into existence. They domesticated the animals and used them in their farming.
30. Mention the places where Pre Historic Art places are found in Tamil Nadu:
- Keelvalai -Villupuram
- Usilampatti – Madurai
- Kumuthipathi – Coimbatore
- Mavadaippu – Coimbatore
- Porivarai cave-karikaiyur Nilgris
31. Breeding of animals now became an important part of their life. Oxen were used for ploughing. Oxen made the practice of agriculture easier.
32. The invention of plough helped the farming practices. Farming started with the clearing of land and burning the left-over shrubs.
33. Which land area is suitable for agriculture?
By their experience, they understood that land close to the river side was suitable for farming. So they decided to stay there permanently.
34. How domestication occurred in earlier period?
Humans thought of ways to better their skills at hunting. They found out that the dogs could sniff other animals and chase them away. So humans found them useful for hunting. Thus dogs became the first animal to be domesticated by humans. Following the dogs, they started domesticating hen, goat and cow.
35. What is Barter System?
During this period, they have not only learnt agriculture, but slowly developed skills of handicraft. Permanent settlement in a place increased the yield of crops. Now they had grains in excess of what they consumed. The surplus grains were exchanged with other groups for the other things they were in need of. This is called the barter system. Thus trade and commerce developed and towns and cities emerged.