Nuclear Physics Online Test 10th Science Lesson 6 Questions in English

Nuclear Physics Online Test 10th Science Lesson 6 Questions in English

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Question 1
Which Greek philosopher in 400 BC(BCE) believed that matter is made up of tiny indestructible units called atoms?
A
Parmenides
B
Pythagoras
C
Democritus
D
Plato
Question 1 Explanation: 
Humans are very much interested in knowing about atoms. Things around us are made up of atoms. A Greek Philosopher 'Democritus' in 400 BC(BCE) believed that matter is made up of tiny indestructible units called atoms.
Question 2
In 1803, who considered that elements consist of atoms, which are identical in nature?
A
John Dalton
B
J J Thomson
C
James Chadwick
D
Henri Becquerel
Question 2 Explanation: 
In 1803, John Dalton considered that elements consist of atoms, which are identical in nature.
Question 3
In 1896, which French physicist finished his research for the week and stored a certain amount of uranium compound away in a drawer for the week end?
A
Rutherford
B
Henri Becquerel
C
J J Thomson
D
James Chadwick
Question 3 Explanation: 
In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel finished his research for the week and stored a certain amount of uranium compound away in a drawer for the week end. By chance, an unexposed photographic plate was also stored in the same drawer. After a week he returned and noticed that the film had been exposed to some radiation. He discovered that he could reproduce the effect whenever he placed uranium near a photographic film.
Question 4
The uranium radiated something that could affect a photographic plate. This phenomenon was called as ______
A
Optimist
B
Radioactivity
C
Conductivity
D
Relativity
Question 4 Explanation: 
The uranium radiated something that could affect a photographic plate. This phenomenon was called as Radioactivity. Uranium was identified to be a radioactive element.
Question 5
Which polish physicist detected radioactivity in 'Pitchblende', a tiny black substance?
A
Gerty Theresa and Carl Ferdinand Cori
B
Antoine and Marie-Anne Lavoisier
C
Fredric Joliot and Irene Joliot Curie
D
Marie Curie and Pierre Curie
Question 5 Explanation: 
The Polish physicist Marie Curie and her husband Pierre Curie detected radioactivity in 'Pitchblende', a tiny black substance. They were not surprised at the radioactivity of pitchblende, which is known as an ore of uranium. Later, they discovered that the radiation was more intense from pure uranium. Also, it was found that the pitchblende had less concentration of uranium.
Question 6
Marie Curie and her husband Pierre Curie concluded that some other substance was present in pitchblende. After separating this new substance, they discovered that it emitted radiations spontaneously like uranium. They named this new substance as ______
A
Thorium
B
Plutonium
C
Radium
D
Francium
Question 6 Explanation: 
Marie Curie and her husband Pierre Curie concluded that some other substance was present in pitchblende. After separating this new substance, they discovered that it had unknown chemical properties and it also emitted radiations spontaneously like uranium. They named this new substance as 'Radium'. The radioactive elements emit harmful radioactive radiations like alpha rays or beta rays or gamma rays.
Question 7
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. The nucleus of some elements is unstable. Such nuclei undergo nuclear decay and get converted into more stable nuclei. During this nuclear reaction, these nuclei emit certain harmful radiations and elementary particles.
  2. The phenomenon of nuclear decay of certain elements with the emission of radiations like alpha, beta, and gamma rays is called 'radioactivity' and the elements, which undergo this phenomenon are called 'radioactive elements'.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 8
The elements whose atomic number is more than what undergo spontaneous radioactivity?
A
70
B
74
C
78
D
82
Question 8 Explanation: 
The elements such as uranium and radium undergo radioactivity and emit the radiations on their own without any human intervention. This phenomenon of spontaneous emission of radiation from certain elements on their own is called 'natural radioactivity'. The elements whose atomic number is more than 82 undergo spontaneous radioactivity.
Question 9
Which among the following is not the radioactive element?
A
Gallium
B
Technetium
C
Nobelium
D
Astatine
Question 9 Explanation: 
Gallium is not the radioactive element.
Question 10
Which among the following radioactive element have been identified as radioactive substances with atomic number less than 82?
A
Curium
B
Thorium
C
Technetium
D
Astatine
Question 10 Explanation: 
There are only two elements, which have been identified as radioactive substances with atomic number less than 82. They are technetium (Tc) with atomic number 43 and promethium (Pm) with atomic number 61.
Question 11
Who among the following first discovered 'artificial radioactivity' or 'man-made radioactivity?
A
Gerty Theresa and Carl Ferdinand Cori
B
Antoine and Marie-Anne Lavoisier
C
Fredric Joliot and Irene Curie
D
Marie Curie and Pierre Curie
Question 11 Explanation: 
The phenomenon by which even light elements are made radioactive, by artificial or induced methods, is called 'artificial radioactivity' or 'man-made radioactivity'. This kind of radioactivity was discovered by Irene Curie and Fredric Joliot in 1934.
Question 12
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Artificial radioactivity is induced in certain lighter elements like boron, aluminium etc., by bombarding them with radiations such as 'alpha particles' emitted during the natural radioactivity of uranium. This also results in the emission of invisible radiations and elementary particles.
  2. During such a disintegration, the nucleus which undergoes disintegration is called 'daughter nucleus' and that which is produced after the disintegration is called a 'parent nucleus'. When the projectile hits the parent nucleus, it is converted into an unstable nucleus, which in turn decays spontaneously emitting the daughter nucleus along with an ejected particle.
  3. If you denote the parent and daughter nuclei as X and Y respectively, then the nuclear disintegration is represented as follows: X (P, E) Y. Here, P and E represent the projectile particle and ejected particle respectively.
A
Both 1 and 2
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 12 Explanation: 
During such a disintegration, the nucleus which undergoes disintegration is called 'parent nucleus' and that which is produced after the disintegration is called a 'daughter nucleus'. When the projectile hits the parent nucleus, it is converted into an unstable nucleus, which in turn decays spontaneously emitting the daughter nucleus along with an ejected particle.
Question 13
How many radioactive substances discovered so far?
A
24
B
27
C
29
D
32
Question 13 Explanation: 
There have been 29 radioactive substances discovered so far. Most of them are rare earth metals and transition metals.
Question 14
The particle, which is used to induce the artificial disintegration is termed as ____
A
Projectile
B
Ejectile
C
Conserve
D
Cone
Question 14 Explanation: 
The particle, which is used to induce the artificial disintegration is termed as projectile and the particle which is produced after the disintegration is termed as ejected particle.
Question 15
Which among the following is not the property of Natural radioactivity?
A
Emission of radiation due to self-disintegration of a nucleus.
B
Alpha, beta and gamma radiations are emitted
C
It is a spontaneous process.
D
This can be controlled.
Question 15 Explanation: 
Natural radioactivity properties are 1. Emission of radiation due to self-disintegration of a nucleus, 2. Alpha, beta and gamma radiations are emitted, 3. It is a spontaneous process, 4. Exhibited by elements with atomic number more than 83 and 5. This cannot be controlled.
Question 16
Which among the following is not the units of Radioactivity?
A
Lavoisier
B
Curie
C
Rutherford
D
Becquerel
Question 16 Explanation: 
The units of Radioactivity are 1. Curie, 2. Rutherford, 3. Becquerel and 4. Roentgen.
Question 17
Which among the following is the SI unit of Radioactivity?
A
Curie
B
Rutherford
C
Becquerel
D
Roentgen
Question 17 Explanation: 
The SI unit of radioactivity is becquerel. It is defined as the quantity of one disintegration per second.
Question 18
Which is defined as the quantity of radioactive substance which produces a charge of 2.58 × 10-4 coulomb in 1 kg of air under standard conditions of pressure, temperature and humidity?
A
One curie
B
One Rutherford
C
One Becquerel
D
One Roentgen
Question 18 Explanation: 
The radiation exposure of γ and x-rays is measured by another unit called roentgen. One roentgen is defined as the quantity of radioactive substance which produces a charge of 2.58 × 10-4 coulomb in 1 kg of air under standard conditions of pressure, temperature and humidity.
Question 19
Which is defined as the quantity of a radioactive substance, which produces 106 disintegrations in one second?
A
Curie
B
Rutherford
C
Becquerel
D
Roentgen
Question 19 Explanation: 
Rutherford (Rd) is another unit of radioactivity. It is defined as the quantity of a radioactive substance, which produces 106 disintegrations in one second.
Question 20
Which among the following is not the property of Artificial radioactivity?
A
Emission of radiation due to disintegration of a nucleus through induced process.
B
Mostly elementary particles such as neutron, positron, etc. are emitted.
C
It is a spontaneous process.
D
This can be controlled.
Question 20 Explanation: 
The property of Artificial radioactivity is 1. Emission of radiation due to disintegration of a nucleus through induced process, 2. Mostly elementary particles such as neutron, positron, etc. are emitted, 3. It is an induced process, 4. Exhibited by elements with atomic number less than 83 and 5. This can be controlled.
Question 21
Which is the traditional unit of radioactivity?
A
Curie
B
Rutherford
C
Becquerel
D
Roentgen
Question 21 Explanation: 
Curie is the traditional unit of radioactivity. It is defined as the quantity of a radioactive substance which undergoes 3.7 × 1010 disintegrations in one second. This is actually close to the activity of 1 g of radium 226. 1 curie = 3.7 × 1010 disintegrations per second.
Question 22
Which among the following particles is not comprised in radiations emitted by radioactive nucleus?
A
Alpha
B
Beta
C
Gamma
D
Delta
Question 22 Explanation: 
When a radioactive nucleus undergoes radioactivity, it emits harmful radiations. These radiations are usually comprised of any of the three types of particles. They are alpha(α), beta (β) and gamma(γ) rays.
Question 23
Who among the following German chemist discovered Uranium in a mineral called pitchblende?
A
William Gregor
B
Carl Mosander
C
Martin Klaproth
D
Hamphry Davy
Question 23 Explanation: 
Uranium, named after the planet Uranus, was discovered by Martin Klaproth, a German chemist in a mineral called pitchblende.
Question 24
Which among the following is not the property of α rays?
A
Helium nucleus (2He4) consisting of two protons and two neutrons.
B
Positively charged particles. Charge of each alpha particle = +2e
C
Penetrating power is greater than that of β rays. They can penetrate through a thin metal foil.
D
Deflected by both the fields. (in accordance with Fleming’s left hand rule)
Question 24 Explanation: 
Low penetrating power (even stopped by a thick paper). Ionising power is 100 time greater than β rays and 10,000 times greater than γ rays.
Question 25
Which among the following is not the property of γ rays?
A
They are electromagnetic waves consisting of photons.
B
Negatively charged particles. Charge of each beta particle = –e
C
They have a very high penetrating power greater than that of β rays. They can penetrate through thick metal blocks.
D
They are not deflected by both the fields
Question 25 Explanation: 
Neutral particles. Charge of each gamma particle = zero. Very less ionization power
Question 26
Which among the following is not the property of β rays?
A
They are electrons (-1e0), basic elementary particle in all atoms.
B
Negatively charged particles. Charge of each beta particle = –e
C
Deflected by only one field; but the direction of deflection is same as that of alpha rays. (in accordance with Fleming’s left hand rule)
D
They travel with the speed of light.
Question 26 Explanation: 
Deflected by both the fields; but the direction of deflection is opposite to that for alpha rays. (in accordance with Fleming’s left hand rule). Penetrating power is greater than that of α rays. They can penetrate through a thin metal foil. Penetrating
Question 27
Which among the following statement is incorrect
  1. α rays speed ranges from 1/10 to 1/20 times the speed of light
  2. γ rays speed can go up to 9/10 times the speed of light.
  3. β rays travel with the speed of light.
A
Both 1 and 2
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 27 Explanation: 
β rays speed can go up to 9/10 times the speed of light. γ rays travel with the speed of light.
Question 28
29 Complete the following equation: 92U238 >>> _____
  1. 90Th234 +2He 4
  2. 90Pm234 +2He 4
  3. 90Np234 +2He 4
  4. 90Rf234 +2He 4
A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
Question 28 Explanation: 
92U238 >>> 90Th234 +2He4
Question 29
Which among the following statement is correct regarding Gamma decay
A
In the radioactive nucleus the atomic number is greater than the mass number
B
In the radioactive nucleus the mass number is greater than the atomic number
C
The atomic number and mass number of the radioactive nucleus remain the same
D
None of the above
Question 29 Explanation: 
In a γ - decay, only the energy level of the nucleus changes. The atomic number and mass number of the radioactive nucleus remain the same.
Question 30
Which German scientists discovered that when a uranium nucleus is bombarded with a neutron, it breaks up into two smaller nuclei of comparable mass along with the emission of a few neutrons and energy?
A
Otto Hahn and F. Strassman
B
Irene Curie and F. Joliot
C
Antoine and Marie-Anne Lavoisier
D
Adair Crawford and Humphry Davy
Question 30 Explanation: 
In 1939, German Scientist Otto Hahn and F. Strassman discovered that when a uranium nucleus is bombarded with a neutron, it breaks up into two smaller nuclei of comparable mass along with the emission of a few neutrons and energy.
Question 31
The process of breaking (splitting) up of a heavier nucleus into two smaller nuclei with the release of a large amount of energy and a few neutrons is called ____
A
Nuclear fission
B
Nuclear fusion
C
Nuclear Spike
D
All the above
Question 31 Explanation: 
The process of breaking (splitting) up of a heavier nucleus into two smaller nuclei with the release of a large amount of energy and a few neutrons is called ‘nuclear fission'.
Question 32
Complete the following Equation: 92U235 + 0n1 >> _____
  1. 92U235 + 0n1 >> 56Cf141 + 36Rn92 + 30n1 + Q
  2. 92U235 + 0n1>>56Pm141 + 36Np92 + 30n1 + Q
  3. 92U235 + 0n1>>56Ba141 + 36Kr92 + 30n1 + Q
  4. 92U235 + 0n1>>56Po141 + 36Tc92 + 30n1 + Q
A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
Question 32 Explanation: 
Nuclear fission of a uranium nucleus (U235): 92U235 + 0n1 >>> 56Ba141 + 36Kr92 + 30n1 + Q. The average energy released in each fission process is about 3.2 × 10-11 J. Nuclear fission is pictorially represented.
Question 33
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. A fissionable material is a radioactive element, which undergoes fission in a sustained manner when it absorbs a neutron. It is also termed as 'fissile material'. E.g.: U235, plutonium (Pu239 and Pu241)
  2. All isotopes of uranium undergo nuclear fission when they absorb a neutron. For example, natural uranium consists of 99.28 % of 92U238 and 0.72 % of 92U235. Of these two, U238 and U235 undergoes fission at different rate.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 33 Explanation: 
All isotopes of uranium do not undergo nuclear fission when they absorb a neutron. For example, natural uranium consists of 99.28 % of 92U238 and 0.72 % of 92U235. Of these two, U238 does not undergo fission whereas U235 undergoes fission. Hence, U235 is a fissionable material and U238 is non fissionable.
Question 34
There are some radioactive elements, which can be converted into fissionable material. They are called as _____
A
Coil material
B
Morse material
C
Reserve material
D
Fertile material
Question 34 Explanation: 
There are some radioactive elements, which can be converted into fissionable material. They are called as fertile materials. E.g.: Uranium-238, Thorium-232, Plutonium-240.
Question 35
How many kinds of chain reactions are possible in Nuclear fission?
A
One
B
Two
C
Three
D
Six
Question 35 Explanation: 
Two kinds of chain reactions are possible. They are: (i) controlled chain reaction and (ii)uncontrolled chain reaction.
Question 36
A uranium nucleus (U-235) when bombarded with a neutron undergoes fission producing three neutrons. These three neutrons in turn can cause fission in three other uranium nuclei present in the sample, thus producing nine neutrons. This is known as _____
A
Critical reaction
B
Mass reaction
C
Liquid reaction
D
Chain reaction
Question 36 Explanation: 
A uranium nucleus (U-235) when bombarded with a neutron undergoes fission producing three neutrons. These three neutrons in turn can cause fission in three other uranium nuclei present in the sample, thus producing nine neutrons. These nine neutrons in turn may produce twenty-seven neutrons and so on. This is known as 'chain reaction'. A chain reaction is a self-propagating process in which the number of neutrons goes on multiplying rapidly almost in a geometrical progression.
Question 37
Which among the following statement is incorrect
  1. In the controlled chain reaction, the number of neutrons released is maintained to be one. This is achieved by absorbing the extra neutrons with a neutron absorber leaving only one neutron to produce further fission. Thus, the reaction is sustained in a controlled manner.
  2. The energy released due to a controlled chain reaction can be utilized for constructive purposes. Controlled chain reaction is used in the atom bomb to produce an explosion energy in a sustained manner.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 37 Explanation: 
The energy released due to a controlled chain reaction can be utilized for constructive purposes. Controlled chain reaction is used in a nuclear reactor to produce energy in a sustained and controlled manner.
Question 38
Which kind of chain reaction is used in Atom bomb?
A
Controlled chain reaction
B
Uncontrolled chain reaction
C
Both Controlled and Uncontrolled
D
Semi Controlled chain reaction
Question 38 Explanation: 
In the uncontrolled chain reaction, the number of neutrons multiplies indefinitely and causes fission in a large amount of the fissile material. This results in the release of a huge amount of energy within a fraction of a second. This kind of chain reaction is used in the atom bomb to produce an explosion.
Question 39
Which among the following statement is correct?
  1. During a nuclear fission process, about 2 to 3 neutrons are released. But all these neutrons may not be available to produce further fission. Some of them may escape from the system, which is termed as 'leakage of neutrons' and some may be absorbed by the non-fissionable materials present in the system.
  2. These two factors lead to the loss of neutrons. To sustain the chain reaction, the rate of production of neutrons due to nuclear fission must be more than the rate of its loss. This can be achieved only when the size (i.e., mass) of the fissionable material is equal to a certain optimum value. This is known as 'critical mass'.
  3. The minimum mass of a fissile material necessary to sustain the chain reaction is called 'critical mass (m c)'. It depends on the nature, density and the size of the fissile material.
A
Both 1 and 2
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 40
If the mass of the fissile material is less than the critical mass, it is termed as _____
A
Micro critical
B
Subcritical
C
Super critical
D
Sonic critical
Question 40 Explanation: 
If the mass of the fissile material is less than the critical mass, it is termed as 'subcritical'.
Question 41
If the mass of the fissile material is more than the critical mass, it is termed as ____
A
Sonic critical
B
Scope critical
C
Super critical
D
All the above
Question 41 Explanation: 
If the mass of the fissile material is more than the critical mass, it is termed as 'supercritical'.
Question 42
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. The atom bomb is based on the principle of uncontrolled chain reaction. In an uncontrolled chain reaction, the number of neutrons and the number of fission reactions multiply almost in a geometrical progression. This releases a huge amount of energy in a very small time interval and leads to an explosion.
  2. An atom bomb consists of a piece of fissile material whose mass is subcritical. This piece has a cylindrical void. It has a cylindrical fissile material which can fit into this void and its mass is also subcritical. When the bomb has to be exploded, this cylinder is injected into the void using a conventional explosive. Now, the two pieces of fissile material join to form the supercritical mass, which leads to an explosion.
  3. During this explosion tremendous amount of energy in the form of heat, light and radiation is released. A region of very high temperature and pressure is formed in a fraction of a second along with the emission of hazardous radiation like γ rays, which adversely affect the living creatures. This type of atom bombs was exploded in 1947 at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan during the World War II.
A
Both 1 and 2
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 42 Explanation: 
During this explosion tremendous amount of energy in the form of heat, light and radiation is released. A region of very high temperature and pressure is formed in a fraction of a second along with the emission of hazardous radiation like γ rays, which adversely affect the living creatures. This type of atom bombs was exploded in 1945 at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan during the World War II.
Question 43
Which is the unit used in nuclear physics to measure the energy of small particles?
A
Mass Valent
B
Critical Joule
C
Electron Volte
D
Ohm Electron
Question 43 Explanation: 
Electron Volt (eV) is the unit used in nuclear physics to measure the energy of small particles. It is nothing but the energy of one electron when it is accelerated using an electric potential of one volt. 1eV = 1.602 × 10-19 joule. 1 million electron volt = 1 MeV = 106 eV (mega electron volt). The energy released in a nuclear fission process is about 200 MeV.
Question 44
The energy can be produced when two lighter nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus. This phenomenon is known as _____
A
Nuclear fission
B
Nuclear fusion
C
Nuclear Spike
D
All the above
Question 44 Explanation: 
The energy can be produced when two lighter nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus. This phenomenon is known as nuclear fusion.
Question 45
Nuclear fusion reaction. 1 H2 + 1 H2 >>2 He4 + Q (Energy). Here, 1H2 represents an isotope of hydrogen known as _____
A
Neuterium
B
Deuterium
C
Poterium
D
Santerium
Question 45 Explanation: 
Here, 1 H2 represents an isotope of hydrogen known as 'deuterium'. The average energy released in each fusion reaction is about 3.84 × 10-12 J.
Question 46
The mass of the daughter nucleus formed during a nuclear reaction (fission and fusion) is lesser than the sum of the masses of the two parent nuclei. This difference in mass is called ____
A
Mass effect
B
Mass corrupt
C
Mass retreat
D
Mass defect
Question 46 Explanation: 
The mass of the daughter nucleus formed during a nuclear reaction (fission and fusion) is lesser than the sum of the masses of the two parent nuclei. This difference in mass is called mass defect. This mass is converted into energy, according to the mass-energy equivalence.
Question 47
Who discovered cathode rays, known as electrons, experimentally?
A
John Dalton
B
J J Thomson
C
Goldstein
D
Rutherford
Question 47 Explanation: 
J J Thomson discovered cathode rays, known as electrons, experimentally.
Question 48
Who discovered positive rays, which were named as protons by Rutherford?
A
John Dalton
B
James Chadwick
C
Goldstein
D
Rutherford
Question 48 Explanation: 
Goldstein discovered positive rays, which were named as protons by Rutherford.
Question 49
Who proposed the relation between mass and energy i.e., E = mc2?
A
Newton
B
Einstein
C
Pascal
D
Marie Curie
Question 49 Explanation: 
The concept of mass-energy equivalence was proposed by Einstein in 1905. It stated that mass can be converted into energy and vice versa. The relation between mass and energy proposed by Einstein is E = mc2 where c is the velocity of light in vacuum and is equal to 3 × 108 m s–1.
Question 50
The nuclear bomb that was dropped in Hiroshima during World War II was called as ____
A
Fat man
B
Small man
C
Little boy
D
Old boy
Question 50 Explanation: 
The nuclear bomb that was dropped in Hiroshima during World War II was called as 'Little boy'. It was a gun-type bomb which used a uranium core.
Question 51
Nuclear fusion is possible only at an extremely high temperature of the order of 107 to 109 K and a high pressure to push the hydrogen nuclei closer to fuse with each other. Hence, it is named as ___
A
Thermonuclear reaction
B
Subatomic reaction
C
Nerve reaction
D
Nano nuclear reaction
Question 51 Explanation: 
Nuclear fusion is possible only at an extremely high temperature of the order of 107 to 109 K and a high pressure to push the hydrogen nuclei closer to fuse with each other. Hence, it is named as 'Thermonuclear reaction'.
Question 52
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Nuclear fusion is the combination of two lighter nuclei. The charge of both nuclei is negative. According to electrostatic theory, when they come closer, they tend to repel each other.
  2. This repulsive force will be overcome by the kinetic energy of the nuclei at higher temperature of the order of 107 to 109 K.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 52 Explanation: 
Nuclear fusion is the combination of two lighter nuclei. The charge of both nuclei is positive. According to electrostatic theory, when they come closer, they tend to repel each other.
Question 53
The stars like our Sun emit a large amount of energy in the form of light and heat. This energy is termed as ____
A
Constellation energy
B
Stellar energy
C
Basal energy
D
All the above
Question 53 Explanation: 
The stars like our Sun emit a large amount of energy in the form of light and heat. This energy is termed as the stellar energy. All stars contain a large amount of hydrogen. The surface temperature of the stars is very high which is sufficient to induce fusion of the hydrogen nuclei. Fusion reaction that takes place in the cores of the Sun and other stars results in an enormous amount of energy, which is called as 'stellar energy. Thus, nuclear fusion or thermonuclear reaction is the source of light and heat energy in the Sun and other stars.
Question 54
The bomb, which was subsequently dropped over Nagasaki was called as ___
A
Fat man
B
Small man
C
Little boy
D
Old boy
Question 54 Explanation: 
The bomb, which was subsequently dropped over Nagasaki was called as 'Fat man'. It was an explosion type bomb, which used a plutonium core.
Question 55
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Hydrogen bomb is based on the principle of nuclear fusion. A hydrogen bomb is always designed to have an inbuilt atom bomb which creates the high temperature and pressure required for fusion when it explodes.
  2. Then, fusion takes place in the hydrogen core and leads to the release of a very large amount of energy in an uncontrolled manner. The energy released in a hydrogen bomb (or fusion bomb) is much higher than that released in an atom bomb (or fission bomb).
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 56
Which among the following is not the property of Nuclear Fission?
A
The process of breaking up (splitting) of a heavy nucleus into two smaller nuclei is called 'nuclear fission'.
B
Extremely high temperature and pressure is needed.
C
Alpha, beta and gamma radiations are emitted.
D
Fission leads to emission of gamma radiation. This triggers the mutation in the human gene and causes genetic transform diseases.
Question 56 Explanation: 
Nuclear Fission Can be performed at room temperature.
Question 57
In 1932, who discovered the chargeless particles called neutrons?
A
Goldstein
B
Rutherford
C
John Dalton
D
James Chadwick
Question 57 Explanation: 
In 1932, James Chadwick discovered the chargeless particles called neutrons. Presently, a large number of elementary particles like photon, meson, positron and neutrino have been discovered.
Question 58
In 1911, which British scientist explained that the mass of an atom is concentrated in its central part called Nucleus?
A
John Dalton
B
J J Thomson
C
Rutherford
D
Goldstein
Question 58 Explanation: 
In 1911, the British scientist, Ernest Rutherford explained that the mass of an atom is concentrated in its central part called Nucleus.
Question 59
Which among the following is not the property of Nuclear Fusion?
A
Nuclear fusion is the combination of two lighter nuclei to form a heavier nucleus.
B
Extremely high temperature and pressure is needed.
C
Alpha rays, positrons, and neutrinos are emitted.
D
Only heat energy is emitted. Light energy is restricted in this.
Question 59 Explanation: 
In Nuclear Fusion Only light and heat energy is emitted.
Question 60
Which among the following statement is incorrect
  1. Sun fuses about 620 million metric tons of hydrogen each second and radiates about 3.8 × 1026 joule of energy per second.
  2. When this energy is radiated towards the Earth, it decreases in its intensity. When it reaches the Earth, its value is about 1.4 kilo joule per unit area in unit time.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 61
Which among the following radio isotope helps to increase the productivity of crops?
A
Iodine
B
Phosphorous
C
Sodium
D
Iron
Question 61 Explanation: 
The radio isotope of phosphorous (P-32) helps to increase the productivity of crops. The radiations from the radio isotopes can be used to kill the insects and parasites and prevent the wastage of agricultural products. Certain perishable cereals exposed to radiations remain fresh beyond their normal life, enhancing the storage time. Very small doses of radiation prevent sprouting and spoilage of onions, potatoes and gram.
Question 62
Which radio isotope is used for the effective functioning of heart?
A
Radio iron
B
Radio Iodine
C
Radio Phosphorous
D
Radio Sodium
Question 62 Explanation: 
Radio sodium (Na24) is used for the effective functioning of heart.
Question 63
Medical applications of radio isotopes can be divided into how many parts?
A
Two
B
Three
C
Four
D
Five
Question 63 Explanation: 
Medical applications of radio isotopes can be divided into two parts: i) Diagnosis ii) Therapy. Radio isotopes are used as tracers to diagnose the nature of circulatory disorders of blood, defects of bone metabolism, to locate tumours, etc. Some of the radio isotopes which are used as tracers are: hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, etc.
Question 64
Match the following radio isotopes with its respective medical purpose
  1. Radio - Iodine               – 1. used in the treatment of skin diseases.
  2. Radio-iron                      – 2. used to cure goitre.
  3. Radio phosphorous      – 3. are used in the treatment of skin cancer.
  4. Radio cobalt                  – 4. used to diagnose anaemia.
A
4 – 2 – 3 – 1
B
2 – 4 – 1 – 3
C
3 – 1 – 2 – 4
D
4 – 1 – 2 – 3
Question 64 Explanation: 
Radio - Iodine (I131) is used to cure goitre. Radio-iron is (Fe59) is used to diagnose anaemia and also to provide treatment for the same. Radio phosphorous (P32) is used in the treatment of skin diseases. Radio cobalt (Co60) and radio-gold (Au198) are used in the treatment of skin cancer. Radiations are used to sterilize the surgical devices as they can kill the germs and microbes.
Question 65
Which isotope is used in the airlines to detect the explosives in the luggage?
A
Californium
B
Americium
C
Nobelium
D
Dubnium
Question 65 Explanation: 
An isotope of californium (Cf 252) is used in the airlines to detect the explosives in the luggage.
Question 66
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. In industries, radioactive isotopes are used as tracers to detect any manufacturing defects such as cracks and leaks. Packaging faults can also be identified through radio activity. Gauges, which have radioactive sources are used in many industries to check the level of gases, liquids and solids
  2. Using the technique of radio carbon dating, the age of the Earth, fossils, old paintings and monuments can be determined. In radio carbon dating, the existing amount of radio carbon is determined and this gives an estimate about the age of these things.
A
Only 1
B
Only 2
C
Both 1 and 2
D
None
Question 67
Which isotope is used in many industries as a smoke detector?
A
Americium
B
Fermium
C
Nihonium
D
Curium
Question 67 Explanation: 
An isotope of Americium (Am241) is used in many industries as a smoke detector.
Question 68
Identify A, B, C, and D from the following nuclear reactions.
  1. 13Al27 + A --------> 15P30 + B
  2. 12Mg24 + B --------> 11Na24 + C
  3. 92U238 + B --------> 93Np239 + D
 
  1. A = 0n1; B = 2He4; C = –1e0; D = 1 H1
  2. A = 2He4; B= 0n1; C = –1e0; D = 1 H1
  3. A = 2He4; B= 0n1; C = 1 H1; D = –1e0
  4. A = 0n1; B = 2He4; C = 1 H1; D = –1e0
A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
Question 68 Explanation: 
13Al27 + 2He4--------> 15P30 + 0n1 12Mg24 + 0n1 --------> 11Na24 + 1 H1 92U238 + 0n1 --------> 93Np239 + –1e0
Question 69
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. In day-to-day life, you do receive some natural radiation from the Sun. The radioactive elements present in the soil and rocks, the house hold appliances like television, microwave ovens, cell phones and the X-rays used in hospitals. These radiations do not produce any severe effects as they are very low in intensity.
  2. The second source of radiation exposure is man-made. These are due to nuclear reactors and during the testing of the nuclear devices in the atmosphere or in the ground. Improper and careless handling of radioactive materials release harmful radiations in our environment.
  3. These radiations are very harmful to the human body. A person who is exposed to radiations very closely or for a longer duration, is at a greater health risk and can be affected genetically.
A
Both 1 and 2
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 70
Which among the following organisation has recommended certain maximum permissible exposure limits to radiation that is believed to be safe without producing any appreciable injury to a person?
A
ICRP
B
IMF
C
WANO
D
IPSC
Question 70 Explanation: 
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended certain maximum permissible exposure limits to radiation that is believed to be safe without producing any appreciable injury to a person
Question 71
The Safe limit of overall exposure to radiation is given as ____
A
20 milli sievert per year
B
30 milli sievert per year
C
40 milli sievert per year
D
60 milli sievert per year
Question 71 Explanation: 
According to International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) the Safe limit of overall exposure to radiation is given as 20 milli sievert per year. In terms of roentgen, the safe limit of receiving the radiation is about 100 m R per week.
Question 72
Which is a device used to detect the levels of exposure to an ionizing radiation?
A
Anemometer
B
Refractometer
C
Dosimeter
D
Seismograph
Question 72 Explanation: 
Dosimeter is a device used to detect the levels of exposure to an ionizing radiation. It is frequently used in the environments where exposure to radiation may occur such as nuclear power plants and medical imaging facilities. Pocket dosimeter is used to provide the wearer with an immediate reading of his/her exposure to X-rays and γ rays.
Question 73
Which among the following is not the preventive measure for nuclear radiation?
A
Radioactive materials should be kept in a thick walled lead container
B
Iron coated aprons and Iron gloves should be used while working with hazardous radioactive materials.
C
The radioactive materials should be handled only by tongs or by a remote-control device.
D
Dosimeters should be worn by the users to check the level of radiation.
Question 73 Explanation: 
Lead coated aprons and lead gloves should be used while working with hazardous radioactive materials. You should avoid eating while handling radioactive materials.
Question 74
In which country the first nuclear reactor was built in 1942?
A
Russia
B
German
C
USA
D
Japan
Question 74 Explanation: 
A Nuclear reactor is a device in which the nuclear fission reaction takes place in a self-sustained and controlled manner to produce electricity. The first nuclear reactor was built in 1942 at Chicago, USA.
Question 75
A radon specimen emits radiation of 3.7 × 103 G Bq per second. Convert this disintegration in terms of curie. (one curie = 3.7 × 1010 disintegration per second)?
A
50 Curie
B
100 Curie
C
200 Curie
D
300 Curie
Question 75 Explanation: 
1 Bq = one disintegration per second one curie = 3.7 × 1010 Bq 1 Bq = 13.7 ×1010 Curie ∴ 3.7 × 103 G Bq = 3.7 × 103 × 10 9 ×13.71010 = 100 Curie.
Question 76
Which among the following is the type of Nuclear reactor?
A
Breeder reactor
B
Thermal reactor
C
Gas-cooled reactor
D
All the above
Question 76 Explanation: 
Breeder reactor, fast breeder reactor, pressurized water reactor, pressurized heavy water reactor, boiling water reactor, water cooled reactor, gas-cooled reactor, fusion reactor and thermal reactor are some types of nuclear reactors, which are used in different places world-wide.
Question 77
Which among the following in not the essential components of nuclear reactor?
A
Moderator
B
Control rod
C
Coolant
D
Cam shaft
Question 77 Explanation: 
The essential components of a nuclear reactor are (i) fuel, (ii) moderator, (iii) control rod, (iv) coolant and (v) protection wall.
Question 78
92U235 experiences one α - decay and one β - decay. Find number of neutrons in the final daughter nucleus that is formed?
A
Number of neutrons = 100
B
Number of neutrons = 120
C
Number of neutrons = 140
D
Number of neutrons = 160
Question 78 Explanation: 
Let X and Y be the resulting nucleus after the emission of the alpha and beta particles respectively. 92 U235 α decay → 90X231 + 2He4 0X231 β decay→ 91Y231 + -1e0 Number of neutrons = Mass number – Atomic number = 231 – 91 = 140.
Question 79
Which is used to slow down the high energy neutrons to provide slow neutrons?
A
Coolant
B
Moderator
C
Control rod
D
Dynamo
Question 79 Explanation: 
A moderator is used to slow down the high energy neutrons to provide slow neutrons.
Question 80
Which is commonly used fuel material in Nuclear reactor?
A
Uranium
B
Thorium
C
Plutonium
D
Curium
Question 80 Explanation: 
A fissile material is used as the fuel. The commonly used fuel material is uranium.
Question 81
Which among the following is the commonly used moderators?
A
Lead
B
Cesium
C
Graphite
D
Cadmium
Question 81 Explanation: 
Graphite and heavy water are the commonly used moderators.
Question 82
Which among the following statement is correct
  1. Control rods are used to control the number of neutrons in order to have sustained chain reaction. Mostly Xenon or Arsenic rods are used as control rods. They absorb the neutrons.
  2. A coolant is used to remove the heat produced in the reactor core, to produce steam. This steam is used to run a turbine in order to produce electricity.
  3. A thick concrete lead wall is built around the nuclear reactor in order to prevent the harmful radiations from escaping into the environment.
A
Both 1 and 2
B
Both 1 and 3
C
Both 2 and 3
D
All 1, 2 and 3
Question 82 Explanation: 
Control rods are used to control the number of neutrons in order to have sustained chain reaction. Mostly boron or cadmium rods are used as control rods. They absorb the neutrons.
Question 83
Which among the following is not the coolant?
A
Water
B
Air
C
Helium
D
None of the above
Question 83 Explanation: 
Water, air and helium are some of the coolants. Nuclear reactors are widely used in power generation. They are also used to produce radio isotopes, which are used in a variety of applications. Some reactors help us to do research in the field of nuclear physics.
Question 84
Which are used to convert non-fissionable materials into fissionable materials?
A
Gas-cooled reactor
B
Breeder Reactor
C
Thermal reactor
D
Water cooled reactor
Question 84 Explanation: 
Breeder reactors are used to convert non-fissionable materials into fissionable materials.
Question 85
Calculate the amount of energy released when a radioactive substance undergoes fusion and results in a mass defect of 2 kg?
  1. 1.8 × 1017 J
  2. 2.3 × 1021 J
  3. 1.8 × 1021 J
  4. 2.3 × 1017 J
A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
Question 85 Explanation: 
Mass defect in the reaction (m) = 2 kg Velocity of light (c) = 3 × 108 m s-1 By Einstein’s equation, Energy released E = mc2 So, E = 2 × (3 × 108) 2 = 1.8 × 1017 J.
Question 86
When Indian Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was established?
A
1935
B
1945
C
1948
D
1952
Question 86 Explanation: 
Indian Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was established in August 1948 by the Department of Indian Scientific Research committee.
Question 87
Who was the first chairman of Indian Atomic Energy Commission?
A
Raja Raman
B
Homi Jahangir Bhabha
C
Vikram Sarabhai
D
Satyendra Nath Bose
Question 87 Explanation: 
Dr. Homi Jahangir Bhabha was the first chairman of Indian Atomic Energy Commission. Now, it is known as Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC).
Question 88
Which is India’s first nuclear power station?
A
Kaiga Atomic Power Station
B
Kalpakkam Atomic Power Station
C
Narora Atomic Power Station
D
Tarapur Atomic Power Station
Question 88 Explanation: 
Nuclear power is the fifth largest source of power in India. Tarapur Atomic Power Station is India’s first nuclear power station.
Question 89
Which among the following state has two atomic power station?
A
Maharashtra
B
Tamil Nadu
C
Rajasthan
D
Gujarat
Question 89 Explanation: 
Tamil Nadu is the only state with two atomic power station in Kalpakkam and Kudankulam
Question 90
How many power stations are there now in India?
A
Three
B
Four
C
Seven
D
Eight
Question 90 Explanation: 
Now, there are a total of seven power stations, one each in Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and two in Tamil Nadu. In Tamil Nadu, we have nuclear power stations in Kalpakkam and Kudankulam.
Question 91
Which was the first nuclear reactor built in India and Asia?
A
Apsara
B
Cirus
C
Purnima
D
Dhuruva
Question 91 Explanation: 
Apsara was the first nuclear reactor built in India and Asia.
Question 92
How many nuclear reactors are now operating in India?
A
12
B
18
C
22
D
28
Question 92 Explanation: 
Now, there are 22 nuclear reactors which are operating in India.
Question 93
Which among the following is operating reactors in India?
A
Cirus
B
Dhuruva
C
Purnima
D
All the above
Question 93 Explanation: 
Some operating reactors in India are 1. Cirus, 2. Dhuruva and 3. Purnima.
Question 94
Where Indian Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was established in August 1948?
A
Maharashtra
B
Gujarat
C
West Bengal
D
Tamil Nadu
Question 94 Explanation: 
Indian Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was established in August 1948 at Bombay (now Mumbai) in Maharashtra. It is the nodal agency for all the research done in the field of atomic energy.
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