Plant Anatomy and Plant Physiology Online Test 10th Science Lesson 12 Questions in English

Plant Anatomy and Plant Physiology Online Test 10th Science Lesson 12 Questions in English

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Question 1
Which of the following is not organised correctly?
  1. Molecules into organelles
  2. Cells into tissues
  3. Tissues into organs
 
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
None
Question 1 Explanation: 
Plants exhibits varying degrees of organization. Atoms are organized into molecules, molecules into organelles, organelles into cells, cells into tissues and tissues into organs.
Question 2
Who among the following is known as Father of Plant Anatomy?
A
Carl Linnaeus
B
William Brown
C
Nehemiah Grew
D
Robert Brown
Question 2 Explanation: 
The first account of internal structure of plants was published by English Physician Nehemiah Grew. He is known as Father of Plant Anatomy. Plant anatomy (Gk Ana = as under; Temnein = to cut) is the study of internal structure of plants.
Question 3
Which of the following statement about Tissues is correct?
  1. Tissues are the group of cells that are similar in structure and origin alone
  2. Plant tissues can be broadly classified into Meristematic tissue and Permanent tissue
 
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 3 Explanation: 
Tissues are the group of cells that are similar or dissimilar in structure and origin, but perform similar function. Plant tissues can be broadly classified into two, based on their ability to divide. They are i) Meristematic tissue ii) Permanent tissue.
Question 4
Who among the following classified tissue system in plants into three types?
A
Carl Linnaeus
B
William Brown
C
Sachs
D
Robert Brown
Question 4 Explanation: 
Sachs (1875) classified tissue system in plants into three types: Dermal or Epidermal tissue system Ground tissue system Vascular tissue system
Question 5
Which of the following statement about Dermal Tissue System is correct?
  1. It consists of epidermis, stomata and epidermal outgrowths
  2. Epidermis is the outer most layer
  3. Trichomes and root hairs are the epidermal outgrowths
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 5 Explanation: 
Dermal or Epidermal Tissue System consists of epidermis, stomata and epidermal outgrowths. Epidermis is the outer most layer. It has many minute pores called stomata. Cuticle is present on the outer wall of epidermis to check evaporation of water. Trichomes and root hairs are the epidermal outgrowths.
Question 6
Which of the following are the functions of Dermal Tissue System?
  1. Protection
  2. Regeneration
  3. Prevention of water loss
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 7
Which of the following are included in Ground Tissue System?
  1. Xylem tissue
  2. Collenchyma tissue
  3. Parenchyma tissue
  4. Sclerenchyma tissue
A
1, 2, 3
B
2, 3, 4
C
1, 3, 4
D
All the above
Question 8
Which of the following are the functions of Vascular Tissue System?
  1. Support
  2. Transport of water and minerals
  3. Transport of food
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 9
_____ helps in transpiration.
A
Cuticle
B
Root hairs
C
Epidermis
D
Stomata
Question 9 Explanation: 
Functions of Epidermal Tissue System: Epidermis protects the inner tissues Stomata helps in transpiration. Root hairs help in absorption of water and minerals.
Question 10
Which of the following are not included in Ground Tissue System?
  1.  Cortex
  2. Endodermis
  3. Pith
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 10 Explanation: 
Ground Tissue System includes all the tissues of the plant body except epidermal and vascular tissues like (i) Cortex (ii) Endodermis (iii) Pericycle (iv) Pith
Question 11
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Phloem conducts water and minerals to different parts of the plant
  2. Xylem conducts food materials to different parts of the plant.
 
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 11 Explanation: 
Vascular Tissue System It consists of xylem and phloem tissues. They are present in the form of bundles called vascular bundles. Xylem conducts water and minerals to different parts of the plant. Phloem conducts food materials to different parts of the plant.
Question 12
How many types of vascular bundles are there in Vascular Tissue System?
A
5
B
3
C
2
D
6
Question 12 Explanation: 
In Vascular Tissue System, there are three different types of vascular bundles namely (i) Radial (ii) Conjoint (iii) Concentric
Question 13
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. In Radial Bundles, Xylem and phloem are present in different radii alternating with each other
  2. In Conjoint bundles, Xylem and phloem lie on the same radius.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 13 Explanation: 
Radial Bundles: Xylem and phloem are present in different radii alternating with each other. e.g. roots Conjoint bundles: Xylem oem lie on the saand phlme radius. There are two types of conjoint bundles.
Question 14
Which of the following statement about Collateral conjoint bundles is correct?
  1. Xylem lies towards the centre and phloem lies towards the periphery.
  2. When cambium is present in collateral bundles, it is called open.
  3. When collateral bundle without cambium is called closed.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 14 Explanation: 
Collateral conjoint bundles: Xylem lies towards the centre and phloem lies towards the periphery. When cambium is present in collateral bundles, it is called open. e.g. dicot stem and collateral bundle without cambium is called closed. e.g. monocot stem
Question 15
Which of the following is an example of Bicollateral Conjoint bundles?
A
Onion
B
Rice
C
Cucurbita
D
Garlic
Question 15 Explanation: 
In Bicollateral type of bundle, the phloem is present on both outer and inner side of xylem. e.g. Cucurbita
Question 16
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. In Dracaena, Xylem surrounds phloem.
  2. In Ferns, Phloem surrounds xylem
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 16 Explanation: 
In Concentric Vascular bundle is one in which xylem completely surrounds the phloem or vice-versa is called concentric vascular bundle. It is of two types: Amphivasal: Xylem surrounds phloem. e.g. Dracaena Amphicribral: Phloem surrounds xylem. e.g. Ferns
Question 17
In which of the following, Protoxylem lies towards the centre and metaxylem lies towards the periphery?
A
Roots
B
Stem
C
Leaf
D
All the above
Question 17 Explanation: 
Endarch: Protoxylem lies towards the centre and metaxylem lies towards the periphery. e.g. stem. Exarch: Protoxylem lies towards the periphery and metaxylem lies towards the centre. e.g. roots.
Question 18
Which of the following are absent in Epiblema of Dicot Root?
  1. Cuticle
  2. Stomata
  3. Unicellular root hairs
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 18 Explanation: 
A thin transverse section of dicot root shows the following structures: Epiblema: It is the outermost layer. Cuticle and stomata are absent. Unicellular root hairs are present. It is also known as Rhizodermis or Piliferous layer
Question 19
Which of the following stores food and water?
A
Cortex
B
Endodermis
C
Epiblema
D
Stele
Question 19 Explanation: 
Cortex is a multi-layered large zone made of thin-walled parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. It stores food and water.
Question 20
Which of the following statement about Endodermis is correct?
  1. It is the innermost layer of cortex.
  2. It helps in the movement of water and dissolved salts from cortex into xylem
  3. The cells are barrel - shaped, closely packed
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 20 Explanation: 
Endodermis is the innermost layer of cortex. The cells are barrel - shaped, closely packed, and show band like thickenings on their radial and inner tangential walls called casparian strips. It helps in the movement of water and dissolved salts from cortex into xylem
Question 21
Which of the following includes pericycle and vascular bundle?
A
Cortex
B
Endodermis
C
Epiblema
D
Stele
Question 21 Explanation: 
Stele is a part of dicot root. All tissues inner to endodermis constitute stele. It includes pericycle and vascular bundle
Question 22
______ is the site of origin of lateral roots.
A
Pericycle
B
Vascular bundle
C
Pith
D
All the above
Question 22 Explanation: 
Pericycle: Inner to endodermis lies a single layer of pericycle. It is the site of origin of lateral roots. Pith: Young root contains pith whereas in old root pith is absent.
Question 23
The tissue present between xylem and phloem is called________
A
Piliferous layer
B
Rhizo-dermis
C
Conjunctive tissue
D
None
Question 23 Explanation: 
Vascular bundle is radial. Xylem is exarch and tetrach. The tissue present between xylem and phloem is called conjunctive tissue. In dicot root, it is made up of parenchyma.
Question 24
Which of the following statement about Rhizo-dermis of monocot root is correct?
  1. It is the outermost layer of the root, and is made up of single layer of thin walled, parenchymatous cell.
  2. Stomata and cuticle are present
  3. The root hair helps in absorption of water and minerals from the soil
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 24 Explanation: 
Epiblema or Rhizo-dermis is the outermost layer of the root, and is made up of single layer of thin walled, parenchymatous cell. Stomata and cuticle are absent. The root hair helps in absorption of water and minerals from the soil. This layer also protects the inner tissues.
Question 25
The cortex of monocot root is composed of______ cells
A
Chlorenchyma
B
Pollenchyma
C
Parenchymatous
D
None
Question 25 Explanation: 
Cortex is multi-layered large zone, composed of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. It stores water and food material.
Question 26
Casparian strips of Endodermis are band like thickening made of______
A
Suberin
B
Cutin
C
Stomata
D
Lignin
Question 26 Explanation: 
Endodermis is the innermost layer of cortex with characteristic casparian strips and passage cells. Casparian strips are band like thickening made of suberin.
Question 27
Which of the following statement about internal Structure of Monocot Root is correct?
  1. Pericycle is a single layer of thin-walled cells
  2. Vascular tissues consist of many patches of xylem and phloem arranged radially
  3. Stele includes pericycle, vascular tissues and pith
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 27 Explanation: 
Stele of Monocot Root: All the tissues inner to endodermis constitute stele. It includes pericycle, vascular tissues and pith. Pericycle: It is a single layer of thin-walled cells. The lateral roots originate from this layer. Vascular tissues: It consists of many patches of xylem and phloem arranged radially. The xylem is exarch and poly-arch. The conjunctive tissue is made up of sclerenchyma.
Question 28
_______ contains abundant amount of starch grains
A
Endodermis
B
Stele
C
Pith
D
Cortex
Question 28 Explanation: 
Pith is present at the centre. It is made up of parenchyma cells with intercellular spaces. It contains abundant amount of starch grains. It stores food.
Question 29
Which of the following statement is correct about internal Structure of Dicot Stem?
  1. Epidermis is the outermost layer
  2. It is made up of single layer of Collenchyma cells
  3. It is protective in function.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 29 Explanation: 
Epidermis in internal Structure of Dicot Stem (Sunflower) is the outermost layer. It is made up of single layer of parenchyma cells, its outer wall is covered with cuticle. It is protective in function.
Question 30
Which of the following statement correct about Cortex of Dicot Stem?
  1. It is divided into three regions
  2. Hypodermis consists of 3 - 6 layers of collenchyma cells
  3. Hypodermis gives mechanical support
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 30 Explanation: 
Cortex is divided into three regions. Hypodermis consists of 3 - 6 layers of collenchyma cells. It gives mechanical support. Middle cortex is made up of few layers of chlorenchyma cells. It is involved in photosynthesis due to the presence of chloroplast. Inner cortex is made up of few layers of parenchyma cells. It helps in gaseous exchange and stores food materials.
Question 31
_______ is the inner most layer of cortex
A
Epidermis
B
Endodermis
C
Ectodermis
D
Hypodermis
Question 31 Explanation: 
Endodermis is the inner most layer of cortex it consists of a single layer of barrel shaped cells, these cells contain starch grains. So, it is also called starch sheath.
Question 32
Which of the following are the parts of Stele?
  1. Pericycle
  2. Vascular bundle
  3. Pith
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 32 Explanation: 
The central part of the stem inner to endodermis is known as stele. It consists of pericycle, vascular bundle and pith.
Question 33
Pericycle is made of_____ kind of cells
  1. Parenchymatous
  2. Sclerenchyma
  3. Collenchyma
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 33 Explanation: 
Pericycle occurs between vascular bundle and endodermis. It is multi-layered, parenchymatous with alternating patches of sclerenchyma.
Question 34
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Vascular bundles are conjoint, collateral, endarch and open.
  2. The large central parenchymatous zone with intercellular spaces is called pith
 
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 34 Explanation: 
Vascular bundles are conjoint, collateral, endarch and open. They are arranged in the form of a ring around the pith. The large central parenchymatous zone with intercellular spaces is called pith. It helps in the storage of food materials.
Question 35
_________ provides mechanical support to plant
A
Parenchyma
B
Collenchyma
C
Sclerenchyma
D
Chlorenchyma
Question 35 Explanation: 
Hypodermis of internal Structure of Monocot Stem is made up of few layers of sclerenchyma cells interrupted by chlorenchyma. Sclerenchyma provides mechanical support to plant.
Question 36
Which of the following is absent in Internal Structure of Monocot Stem?
A
Stomata
B
Cuticle
C
Multicellular hairs
D
None
Question 36 Explanation: 
Epidermis of internal Structure of Monocot Stem is the outermost layer. It is made up of single layer of parenchyma cells. It is covered with thick cuticle. Multicellular hairs are absent and stomata are also less in number.
Question 37
Xylem vessels in Monocot Stem is arranged in____ shape
A
X
B
V
C
Y
D
X or Y
Question 37 Explanation: 
Xylem consists of metaxylem and protoxylem. Xylem vessels are arranged in V or Y shape. In mature vascular bundle, the lower most protoxylem disintegrates and form a cavity. This is called protoxylem lacuna.
Question 38
Which of the following are absent in phloem in Monocot Stem?
  1. Sieve tube elements
  2. Companion cells
  3. Phloem parenchyma
  4. Phloem fibers
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
3,4
D
All the above
Question 38 Explanation: 
Phloem of monocot stem consists of sieve tube elements and companion cells. Phloem parenchyma, and phloem fibers are absent.
Question 39
Which of the following is not differentiated in monocot stems?
A
Vascular Bundle
B
Cortex
C
Pith
D
Protoxylem lacuna
Question 39 Explanation: 
In Ground tissue of the monocot stem, the entire mass of parenchyma cells next to hypodermis and extending to the centre is called ground tissue. It is not differentiated into endodermis, cortex, pericycle and pith. Pith is not differentiated in monocot stems.
Question 40
Which of the following is not correctly matched?
A
Number of Xylem in dicot root is Tetrarch
B
Cambium in dicot root is absent
C
Cambium in monocot root is absent
D
Pith is absent in dicot root
Question 41
Match the following tissues with their presence in monocot stem:
  1. Hypodermis                        1. Present
  2. Vascular bundles               2. Collenchymatous
  3. Ground tissue                     3. Uniform in size
  4. Pith                                       4. Differentiated
A
2, 1, 3, 4
B
2, 3, 4, 1
C
4, 1, 2, 3
D
3, 1, 2, 4
Question 42
Which of the following statement about upper epidermis of Dicot leaf is correct?
  1. They are single layered parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces
  2. Stomata are less in number
  3. The outer wall of the cells are cuticularized
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
1,3
D
All the above
Question 42 Explanation: 
Upper epidermis in dicot leaf is the outermost layer made of single layered parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. The outer walls of the cells are cuticularized. Stomata are less in number.
Question 43
Which of the following statement about Lower epidermis of dicot leaf is incorrect?
  1. It contains numerous stomata.
  2. The loss of water vapour is facilitated through this chamber
  3. The lower epidermis helps in the exchange of gases
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
1,3
D
None
Question 43 Explanation: 
Lower epidermis of dicot leaf is a single layer of parenchymatous cells with a thin cuticle. It contains numerous stomata. Chloroplasts are present only in guard cells. The lower epidermis helps in the exchange of gases. The loss of water vapour is facilitated through this chamber
Question 44
The tissue present between the upper and lower epidermis is called_______
A
Esonophil
B
Mesophyll
C
Epiphyll
D
Exophyll
Question 44 Explanation: 
The tissue present between the upper and lower epidermis is called mesophyll. It is differentiated into Palisade parenchyma and Spongy parenchyma.
Question 45
Which of the following statement about Palisade parenchyma is correct?
  1. It is found just below the upper epidermis.
  2. The cells do not have intercellular spaces and they take part in photosynthesis
  3. The cells are elongated
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
1,3
D
All the above
Question 45 Explanation: 
Palisade parenchyma is found just below the upper epidermis. The cells are elongated. These cells have more number of chloroplasts. The cells do not have intercellular spaces and they take part in photosynthesis
Question 46
Which of the following statement about Spongy parenchyma is correct?
  1. It is found below the palisade parenchyma tissue
  2. It helps in gaseous exchange
  3. Cells are almost spherical or oval and are regularly arranged
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
1,3
D
All the above
Question 46 Explanation: 
Spongy parenchyma is found below the palisade parenchyma tissue. Cells are almost spherical or oval and are irregularly arranged. Cells have intercellular spaces. It helps in gaseous exchange.
Question 47
In vascular bundle of Dicot leaf xylem lies towards____ and phloem lies towards____
A
Lower epidermis, upper epidermis
B
Upper epidermis, Lower epidermis
C
Lower epidermis, Lower epidermis
D
Upper epidermis, Upper epidermis
Question 47 Explanation: 
Vascular bundle (Dicot leaf) of mid-rib is larger. Vascular bundles are conjoint, collateral and closed. Each vascular bundle is surrounded by a sheath of parenchymatous cells called bundle sheath. Each vascular bundle consists of xylem lying towards the upper epidermis and phloem towards the lower epidermis.
Question 48
Which of the following statement about epidermis of monocot leaf is correct?
  1. Monocot leaf has upper and lower epidermis.
  2. Epidermis is made up of Collenchyma cells.
  3. Some cells of upper epidermis are large and thin walled they are known as bulliform cells
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
1,3
D
All the above
Question 48 Explanation: 
Monocot leaf has upper and lower epidermis. Epidermis is made up of parenchyma cells. Cuticle is present on the outer wall stomata are present on both upper and lower epidermis. Some cells of upper epidermis are large and thin walled they are known as bulliform cells.
Question 49
Which of the following statement about Mesophyll of Monocot leaf is correct?
  1. It is the ground tissue that is present between both epidermal layers.
  2. These cells contain chloroplasts
  3. Mesophyll is not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
1,3
D
All the above
Question 49 Explanation: 
Mesophyll of monocot leaf is the ground tissue that is present between both epidermal layers. Mesophyll is not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. The cells are irregularly arranged with inter-cellular spaces. These cells contain chloroplasts.
Question 50
Which of the following is Isobilateral leaf?
A
Monocot leaf
B
Dicot leaf
C
Both a and b
D
a or b
Question 51
Which of the following is responsible for preparation and storage of food?
A
Mitochondria
B
Plastids
C
Stele
D
Stomata
Question 51 Explanation: 
Plastids are double membrane bound organelles found in plants and some algae. They are responsible for preparation and storage of food.
Question 52
Match the following:
  1. Chloroplast                         1. Colourless
  2. Chromoplast                      2. Green coloured
  3. Leucoplast                          3. yellow, red, orange coloured
A
1, 3, 2
B
2, 1, 3
C
2, 3, 1
D
3, 1, 2
Question 52 Explanation: 
There are three types of plastids: Chloroplast - green coloured plastids Chromoplast - yellow, red, orange-coloured plastids Leucoplast - colourless plastids
Question 53
Which of the following statement about Chloroplast is correct?
  1. Chloroplasts are green plastids containing green pigment called chlorophyll
  2. Their thickness is about 1-2 micro-meter
  3. Chloroplasts are oval shaped organelles
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
1,3
D
All the above
Question 53 Explanation: 
Chloroplasts are green plastids containing green pigment called chlorophyll. Chloroplasts are oval shaped organelles having a diameter of 2-10 micro-meter and a thickness of 1-2 micro-meter.
Question 54
What type of ribosome does Stroma have?
A
70 S
B
65 S
C
50 S
D
80 S
Question 54 Explanation: 
Matrix present inside to the membrane is called stroma. It contains DNA, 70 S ribosomes and other molecules required for protein synthesis.
Question 55
Thylakoids forms a stack of disc like structures called a________
A
Stroma
B
Envelope
C
Grana
D
Stele
Question 55 Explanation: 
Thylakoids consists of thylakoid membrane that encloses thylakoid lumen. Thylakoids forms a stack of disc like structures called a grana (singular-granum).
Question 56
Which of the following are the functions of Chloroplast?
  1. Photosynthesis
  2. Storage of lipids
  3. Synthesis of fatty acids
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
1,3
D
All the above
Question 56 Explanation: 
Functions of Chloroplast: Photosynthesis Storage of starch Synthesis of fatty acids Storage of lipids Formation of chloroplasts
Question 57
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Photosynthesis (Photo = light; synthesis = to build)
  2. It is a process by which autotrophic organisms like green plants, algae and chlorophyll containing bacteria utilize the energy from sunlight to synthesize their own food
  3. During this process oxygen is released as a by-product
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
1,3
D
All the above
Question 57 Explanation: 
Photosynthesis (Photo = light; synthesis = to build) is a process by which autotrophic organisms like green plants, algae and chlorophyll containing bacteria utilize the energy from sunlight to synthesize their own food. In this process, carbon dioxide combines with water in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll to form carbohydrates. During this process oxygen is released as a by-product.
Question 58
Which of the following are accessory pigments?
  1. Chlorophyll a
  2. Chlorophyll b
  3. Carotenoids
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2,3
D
All the above
Question 58 Explanation: 
Other pigments such as chlorophyll b and carotenoids are called accessory pigments as they pass on the absorbed energy to chlorophyll a (Chl.a) molecule. Reaction centres (Chl. a) and the accessory pigments (harvesting centre) together are called photosystems.
Question 59
Which of the following is/are primary pigment?
A
Chlorophyll a
B
Chlorophyll b
C
Carotenoids
D
Chlorophyll c
Question 59 Explanation: 
Pigments involved in photosynthesis are called Photosynthetic pigments. Photosynthetic pigments are of two classes namely, the primary pigments and accessory pigments. Chlorophyll a is the primary pigment that traps solar energy and converts it into electrical and chemical energy. Thus, it is called the reaction centre.
Question 60
The entire process of photosynthesis takes place inside________
A
Mitochondria
B
Ribosome
C
Chloroplast
D
All the above
Question 60 Explanation: 
The entire process of photosynthesis takes place inside the chloroplast. The structure of chloroplast is such that the light dependent (Light reaction) and light independent (Dark reaction) take place at different sites in the organelle
Question 61
Photosynthetic pigments absorb the light energy and convert it into_____
  1. ATP
  2. ADP
  3. NAD
  4. NADPH2
A
1, 2
B
1, 4
C
2,3
D
All the above
Question 61 Explanation: 
Photosynthetic pigments absorb the light energy and convert it into chemical energy ATP and NADPH2. These products of light reaction move out from the thylakoid to the stroma of the chloroplast
Question 62
Who discovered Light reaction?
A
Robert Brown
B
Robert Hill
C
Robert Whitaker
D
Thomas Roe
Question 62 Explanation: 
Light dependent photosynthesis was discovered by Robin Hill (1939). This reaction takes place in the presence of light energy in thylakoid membranes (grana) of the chloroplasts.
Question 63
Light independent reactions are carried out in_____
A
Stomata
B
Stroma
C
Chloroplast
D
Ribosome
Question 63 Explanation: 
The second steps (dark reaction or biosynthetic pathway) is carried out in the stroma. During this reaction CO2 is reduced into carbohydrates with the help of light generated ATP and NADPH2. This is also called as Calvin cycle and is carried out in the absence of light.
Question 64
What is the input of Calvin cycle?
A
O2
B
CO2
C
H2O
D
COOH
Question 64 Explanation: 
In Calvin cycle the inputs are CO2 from the atmosphere and the ATP and NADPH2 produced from light reaction.
Question 65
When was Melvin Calvin awarded with Nobel Prize?
A
1962
B
1961
C
1991
D
1999
Question 65 Explanation: 
Melvin Calvin, an American biochemist, discovered chemical pathway for photosynthesis. The cycle is named as Calvin cycle. He was awarded with Nobel Prize in the year 1961 for his discovery.
Question 66
Which of the following internal factors affect Photosynthesis?
  1. Accumulation of carbohydrates
  2. Hormones
  3. Light
  4. Leaf age
A
1, 2
B
1,2, 4
C
2,3
D
All the above
Question 66 Explanation: 
Factors Affecting Photosynthesis: Internal Factors: Pigments ii) Leaf age iii) Accumulation of carbohydrates iv) Hormones External Factors: Light ii) Carbon dioxide iii) Temperature iv) Water v) Mineral elements
Question 67
Who was awarded Bharat Ratna for his work in Artificial photosynthesis?
A
M.S. Swaminathan
B
C.N.R. Rao
C
Verghese Kurien
D
B.R. Ambedkar
Question 67 Explanation: 
Artificial photosynthesis is a method for producing renewable energy by the use of sunlight. Indian scientist C.N.R. Rao who was conferred the Bharat Ratna (2013) is also working on similar technology of artificial photosynthesis to produce - Hydrogen fuel (renewable energy).
Question 68
Which of the following statement about Mitochondria is correct?
  1. Mitochondria are filamentous or granular cytoplasmic organelles present in cells.
  2. The mitochondria were first discovered by Kolliker in 1857
  3. Mitochondria are organelles within eukaryotic cells that produce adenosine triphosphate
 
A
1, 2
B
1,3
C
2,3
D
All the above
Question 68 Explanation: 
Mitochondria are filamentous or granular cytoplasmic organelles present in cells. The mitochondria were first discovered by Kolliker in 1857 as granular structures in striated muscles. Mitochondria (singular: mitochondrion) are organelles within eukaryotic cells that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which form the energy currency of the cell, for this reason, the mitochondria is referred to as the “Power house of the cell”.
Question 69
Match the composition of mitochondria:
  1. Protein                   1. 5-7%
  2. Lipids                     2. 60-70%
  3. RNA                        3. 25-30%
A
1, 3, 2
B
2, 1, 3
C
3, 2, 1
D
2, 3, 1
Question 69 Explanation: 
Mitochondria vary in size from 0.5 µm to 2.0 µm. Mitochondria contain 60-70% protein, 25-30% lipids, 5-7% RNA and small amount of DNA and minerals.
Question 70
Which of the following statement about Mitochondria is correct?
  1. It consists two membranes called inner and outer membrane.
  2. Each membrane is 60-70A˚ thick
  3. It has porin molecules (proteins) which form channels for passage of molecules through it.
 
A
1, 2
B
1,3
C
2,3
D
All the above
Question 70 Explanation: 
Mitochondrial Membranes consists two membranes called inner and outer membrane. Each membrane is 60-70A˚ thick. Outer mitochondrial membrane is smooth and freely permeable to most small molecules. It contains enzymes, proteins and lipids. It has porin molecules (proteins) which form channels for passage of molecules through it.
Question 71
What % of proteins and lipids does Inner mitochondrial membrane has?
A
40
B
80
C
99
D
30
Question 71 Explanation: 
Inner mitochondrial membrane is semi permeable membrane and regulates the passage of materials into and out of the mitochondria. It is rich in enzymes and carrier proteins. It consists of 80% proteins and lipids.
Question 72
The finger like projections of inner mitochondrial membrane are called as____
A
Stelle
B
Pith
C
Cristae
D
Stroma
Question 72 Explanation: 
The inner mitochondrial membrane gives rise to finger like projections called cristae. These cristae increase the inner surface area (fold in inner membrane) of the mitochondria to hold variety of enzymes.
Question 73
Which of the following statement about Oxysomes is incorrect?
  1. They involve in ATP synthesis.
  2. They are present in outer mitochondrial membrane
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 73 Explanation: 
The inner mitochondrial membrane bear minute regularly spaced tennis racket shaped particles known as oxysomes (F1particle). They involve in ATP synthesis
Question 74
Which of the following are the functions of Mitochondria?
  1. ATP factory of the cell.
  2. It helps the cells to maintain normal concentration of calcium ions
  3. It regulates the metabolic activity of the cell.
A
1, 2
B
1,3
C
2,3
D
All the above
Question 74 Explanation: 
Functions of Mitochondria: Mitochondria is the main organelle of cell respiration. They produce a large number of ATP molecules. So, they are called as power houses of the cell or ATP factory of the cell. It helps the cells to maintain normal concentration of calcium ions. It regulates the metabolic activity of the cell.
Question 75
Which of the following statement about Oxysomes is incorrect?
  1. They involve in ATP synthesis.
  2. They are present in outer mitochondrial membrane
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 75 Explanation: 
The inner mitochondrial membrane bear minute regularly spaced tennis racket shaped particles known as oxysomes (F1particle). They involve in ATP synthesis
Question 76
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Respiration involves exchange of gases between the organism and the external environment
  2. Biochemical process occurs within cells where the food is oxidized to obtain energy, this is known as cellular respiration
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 76 Explanation: 
Respiration involves exchange of gases between the organism and the external environment. The plants obtain oxygen from their environment and release carbon dioxide and water vapour. This exchange of gases is known as external respiration. It is a physical process. Biochemical process occurs within cells where the food is oxidized to obtain energy, this is known as cellular respiration.
Question 77
What is the by-product of Aerobic respiration?
  1. Carbon dioxide
  2. Water
  3. Oxygen
  4. ATP
A
2, 1, 3, 4
B
2, 3, 4, 1
C
4, 1, 2, 3
D
1, 2, 4
Question 77 Explanation: 
Aerobic respiration is the type of cellular respiration in which organic food is completely oxidized with the help of oxygen into carbon dioxide, water and energy. It occurs in most plants and animals. C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
Question 78
Breaking down of glucose into pyruvic acid is called as____
A
Glycolysis
B
Krebs Cycle
C
Calvin cycle
D
None
Question 78 Explanation: 
Glycolysis (Glucose splitting) is the breakdown of one molecule of glucose (6 carbon) into two molecules of pyruvic acid (3 carbon). Glycolysis takes place in cytoplasm of the cell. It is the first step of both aerobic and anerobic respiration.
Question 79
Which of the following is also known as Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle?
A
Glycolysis
B
Krebs Cycle
C
Calvin cycle
D
None
Question 79 Explanation: 
Krebs Cycle occurs in mitochondria matrix. At the end of glycolysis, 2 molecules of pyruvic acid enter into mitochondria. The oxidation of pyruvic acid into CO2 and water takes place through this cycle. It is also called Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA).
Question 80
What is the by-product of Anaerobic respiration glucose?
A
Acetic acid
B
Formic acid
C
Lactic acid
D
Lactate
Question 80 Explanation: 
Anaerobic respiration takes place without oxygen. Glucose is converted into ethanol (in plants) or lactate (in some bacteria) C6H12O6 → 2CO2 + 2C2H5OH + Energy (ATP)
Question 81
Respiratory quotient =
A
Volume of CO2 liberated/ Volume of O2 consumed
B
Volume of O2 liberated/ Volume of CO2 consumed
C
Volume of CO liberated/ Volume of O2 consumed
D
Volume of CO2 liberated Volume of H2O consumed
Question 81 Explanation: 
Respiratory quotient is the ratio of volume of carbon dioxide liberated and the volume of oxygen consumed during respiration. It is expressed as RQ = Volume of CO2 liberated/ Volume of O2 consumed
Question 82
Which of the following statement about Electron Transport Chain is correct?
  1. This is accomplished through a system of electron carrier complex called electron transport chain (ETC) located on the inner membrane of the mitochondria
  2. NADH2 and FADH2 molecules formed during glycolysis and Krebs cycle are oxidised to NAD+ and FAD+ to release the energy via electrons
  3. This is accomplished through a system of electron carrier complex called electron transport chain (ETC) located on the inner membrane of the mitochondria
A
1, 2
B
1,3
C
2,3
D
All the above
Question 82 Explanation: 
Electron Transport Chain is accomplished through a system of electron carrier complex called electron transport chain (ETC) located on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. NADH2 and FADH2 molecules formed during glycolysis and Krebs cycle are oxidised to NAD+ and FAD+ to release the energy via electrons. The electrons, as they move through the system, release energy which is trapped by ADP to synthesize ATP. This is called oxidative phosphorylation. In this process, O2 the ultimate acceptor of electrons gets reduced to water.
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