Plant and Animal Hormones Online Test 10th Science Lesson 16 Questions in English

Plant and Animal Hormones Online Test 10th Science Lesson 16 Questions in English

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Question 1
What does the word ‘Hormone’?
A
Message
B
Messenger
C
To excite
D
To react
Question 1 Explanation: 
The word hormone is derived from the Greek word “hormon” meaning “to excite”. Both Plants and animals have hormone.
Question 2
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. The function of control and coordination in plants is performed by chemical substances produced by the plants called plant hormones.
  2. In plants several cells are capable of producing hormones
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 2 Explanation: 
The function of control and coordination in plants is performed by chemical substances produced by the plants called plant hormones. In plants several cells are capable of producing hormones. The phytohormones are transported to different parts of the plants to perform various physiological functions.
Question 3
____ acts through chemical messengers, which are produced by specialized glands
A
Endocrine
B
Exocrine
C
Both a and b
D
None
Question 3 Explanation: 
Endocrine glands in vertebrate animals possess a diversified communication system to co-ordinate physiological and metabolic functions by chemical integration. The endocrine system acts through chemical messengers known as hormones which are produced by specialized glands.
Question 4
Which of the following process are controlled by hormones?
  1. Digestion
  2. Metabolism
  3. Growth
  4. Reproduction
A
1, 2, 4
B
2, 3, 4
C
1, 2, 3
D
All the above
Question 4 Explanation: 
Physiological processes such as digestion, metabolism, growth, development and reproduction are controlled by hormones.
Question 5
Which of the following responses in plants are controlled by plant hormones?
  1. Morphology
  2. Physiology
  3. Biochemical response
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 5 Explanation: 
Plant hormones are organic molecules that are produced at extremely low concentration in plants. These molecules control morphological, physiological and biochemical responses.
Question 6
How many major classes of plant hormones are there?
A
5
B
6
C
3
D
9
Question 6 Explanation: 
There are five major classes of plant hormones. They are: Auxins Cytokinin Gibberellins Abscisic Acid (ABA) Ethylene
Question 7
Which of the following plant hormone inhibit plant growth?
  1. Auxins
  2. Abscisic acid
  3. Ethylene
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 7 Explanation: 
Among all these plant hormones auxins, cytokinin and gibberellins promote plant growth while abscisic acid and ethylene inhibit plant growth.
Question 8
Which of the following was the 1st plant hormone to be discovered?
A
Auxin
B
Ethylene
C
Cytokinin
D
Abscisic acid
Question 8 Explanation: 
Auxins (Gk. auxein = to grow) were the first plant hormones discovered. The term auxin was introduced by Kogl and HaagenSmith (1931).
Question 9
Where does the Auxin are produced?
  1. Petals
  2. Tip of root
  3. Tip of stem
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 9 Explanation: 
Auxins are produced at the tip of stems and at the tip of roots from where they migrate to the zone of elongation.
Question 10
Who concluded that some ‘influence’ was transmitted from tip of the coleoptile to basal region?
A
Darwin
B
Einstein
C
Went
D
Mendel
Question 10 Explanation: 
Charles Darwin (1880), observed unilateral growth and curvature of canary grass (Phalaris canariensis) coleoptiles. He came to the conclusion that some ‘influence’ was transmitted from the tip of the coleoptile to the basal region. This ‘influence’ was later identified as Auxin by Went.
Question 11
Who demonstrated the effect of auxin in plants?
A
Darwin
B
Einstein
C
Went
D
Mendel
Question 11 Explanation: 
Frits Warmolt Went (1903– 990), a Dutch biologist demonstrated the existence and effect of auxin in plants. He did a series of experiments in Avena coleoptiles.
Question 12
What does the term “Auxin” mean?
A
To grow
B
To move
C
To elongate
D
To reach
Question 12 Explanation: 
From his experiments Went concluded that a chemical diffusing from the tip of coleoptiles was responsible for growth, and he named it as “Auxin” meaning ‘to grow”.
Question 13
How many types of Auxins are there?
A
2
B
5
C
4
D
3
Question 13 Explanation: 
Types of Auxins: Auxin is a growth hormone. Auxins are classified into two types, namely natural auxins and synthetic auxins.
Question 14
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Auxins produced by the plants are called natural auxins
  2. 2, 4 D (2,4 Di-chloro-phenoxy Acetic Acid) is natural auxins
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 14 Explanation: 
Natural Auxins: Auxins produced by the plants are called natural auxins. Example: IAA (Indole – 3 - Acetic Acid) Synthetic Auxins: Artificially synthesized auxins that have properties like auxins are called as synthetic auxins. Example: 2, 4 D (2,4 Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid).
Question 15
Which of the following are the effects produced by Auxin?
  1. Formation of seed
  2. Elongation of stems
  3. Apical dominance
  4. Formation of abscission layer
A
1, 2, 3
B
1, 3, 4
C
2, 3, 4
D
All the above
Question 15 Explanation: 
Auxins bring about a variety of physiological effects in different parts of the plant body. Auxins promote the elongation of stems and coleoptiles which makes them to grow. Auxins induce root formation at low concentration and inhibit it at higher concentration. The auxins produced by the apical buds suppress growth of lateral buds. This is called apical dominance. Auxins prevent the formation of abscission layer.
Question 16
Which of the following fruit cannot be produced by Parthenocarpy method?
  1. Watermelon
  2. Lime
  3. Grapes
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 16 Explanation: 
Seedless fruits without fertilization are induced by the external application of auxins. (Parthenocarpy). Examples: Watermelon, Grapes, Lime etc.
Question 17
Which of the following are synthetic acetic acid?
  1. Phenyl Acetic Acid
  2. Indole 3 Butyric Acid
  3. α-Naphthalene Acetic Acid
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 17 Explanation: 
Phenyl Acetic Acid (PAA), and Indole 3 Acetonitrile (IAN) are natural auxins. Indole 3 Butyric Acid (IBA), Indole-3- Propionic Acid, α-Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA), 2, 4, 5-T (2,4,5 Tri-chloro-phenoxy Acetic Acid) are some of the synthetic auxins.
Question 18
Which plant hormones that promote cell division?
A
Auxin
B
Renin
C
Cytokinin
D
Pepsin
Question 18 Explanation: 
Cytokinin (Cytos - cell; kinesis - division) are the plant hormones that promote cell division or cytokinesis in plant cells. It was first isolated from Herring fish sperm
Question 19
Zeatin was the cytokinin isolated from______
A
Rice
B
Wheat
C
Zea Mays
D
Coconut
Question 19 Explanation: 
Zeatin was the cytokinin isolated from Zea mays. Cytokinin is found abundantly in coconut milk.
Question 20
Which of the following are the effects of Cytokinin?
  1. Cell division in absence of Auxin
  2. It delays the process of ageing in plants
  3. It promotes the growth of lateral buds even in the presence of apical bud
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 20 Explanation: 
Physiological effects of Cytokinins: Cytokinin induces cell division (cytokinesis) in the presence of auxins. Cytokinin also causes cell enlargement Cytokinin promote the growth of lateral buds even in the presence of apical bud Application of cytokinin delays the process of ageing in plants. This is called Richmond Lang effect.
Question 21
Which of the following hormones in plant are essential for Morphogenesis?
  1. Auxin
  2. Renin
  3. Cytokinin
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 21 Explanation: 
Both auxins and cytokinin are essential for the formation of new organs from the callus in tissue culture (Morphogenesis).
Question 22
Kurosawa (1926) observed Bakanae disease in____ crops
A
Rice
B
Wheat
C
Maize
D
None
Question 22 Explanation: 
Gibberellins are the most abundantly found plant hormones. Kurosawa (1926) observed Bakanae disease or foolish seedling disease in rice crops
Question 23
Internodal elongation in rice was caused by_______
A
Virus
B
Fungus
C
Bacteria
D
All the above
Question 23 Explanation: 
The internodal elongation in rice was caused by fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. The active substance was identified as Gibberellic acid.
Question 24
Application of which of the following stimulate extraordinary elongation of internode?
A
Auxin
B
Cytokinin
C
Renin
D
Gibberellins
Question 24 Explanation: 
Application of gibberellins on plants stimulate extraordinary elongation of internode. e.g.Corn and Pea.
Question 25
Treatment of rosette plants with____ induces sudden shoot elongation
A
Auxin
B
Cytokinin
C
Renin
D
Gibberellins
Question 25 Explanation: 
Treatment of rosette plants with gibberellin induces sudden shoot elongation followed by flowering. This is called bolting.
Question 26
_________ is a growth inhibitor
A
Auxin
B
Cytokinin
C
Abscisic acid
D
Gibberellins
Question 26 Explanation: 
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a growth inhibitor which regulates abscission and dormancy. It increases tolerance of plants to various kinds of stress.
Question 27
Which of the following is called as stress hormone?
A
Auxin
B
Cytokinin
C
Abscisic acid
D
Gibberellins
Question 27 Explanation: 
Abscisic Acid is also called as stress hormone. It is found in the chloroplast of plants. ABA promotes the process of abscission (separation of leaves, flowers and fruits from the branch). During water stress and drought conditions ABA causes stomatal closure.
Question 28
As the banana continues to ripen, it produces_______ gas
A
Methane
B
Ethylene
C
Methylene
D
Nitrogen
Question 28 Explanation: 
Banana is placed in first bag. Tomato is placed in second bag. As the banana continues to ripen in the first bag, it produces ethylene gas. The gas trapped in the bag will cause tomatoes to ripen. The tomatoes remain unripe in the second bag.
Question 29
Which of the following are the effects of Abscisic acid?
A
Promotes senescence
B
Induces bud dormancy
C
Inhibitor of lateral bud growth
D
All the above
Question 29 Explanation: 
ABA promotes senescence in leaves by causing loss of chlorophyll. ABA induces bud dormancy towards the approach of winter in trees like birch. ABA is a powerful inhibitor of lateral bud growth in tomato.
Question 30
______ is a gaseous plant hormone.
A
Methane
B
Ethylene
C
Methylene
D
Nitrogen
Question 30 Explanation: 
Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone. It is a growth inhibitor. It is mainly concerned with maturation and ripening of fruits.
Question 31
Maximum synthesis of ethylene occurs during ripening of fruits like______
A
Apples
B
Melons
C
Bananas
D
All the above
Question 31 Explanation: 
Maximum synthesis of ethylene occurs during ripening of fruits like apples, bananas and melons.
Question 32
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Endocrine glands in animals possess a versatile communication system to coordinate biological functions
  2. Exocrine glands and endocrine glands are two kinds of glands found in animals.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 32 Explanation: 
Endocrine glands in animals possess a versatile communication system to coordinate biological functions. Exocrine glands and endocrine glands are two kinds of glands found in animals.
Question 33
Which of the following statement is correct about Endocrine gland?
  1. Endocrine glands are found in different regions of the body of animals as well as human beings.
  2. They are ductless glands
  3. Their secretions are called hormones which are produced in minute quantities
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 33 Explanation: 
Endocrine glands are found in different regions of the body of animals as well as human beings. These glands are called ductless glands. Their secretions are called hormones which are produced in minute quantities. They act on specific organs which are referred as target organs.
Question 34
Who is the father of ‘Endocrinology’?
A
Thomas Hardy
B
Thomas Addison
C
E.H. Starling
D
W. M. Bayliss
Question 34 Explanation: 
Th e branch of biology which deals with the study of the endocrine glands and its physiology is known as ‘Endocrinology’. Thomas Addison is known as Father of Endocrinology.
Question 35
Which was the first hormone discovered?
A
Prolactin
B
Vasopressin
C
Secretin
D
GTH
Question 35 Explanation: 
English physiologists W. M. Bayliss and E. H. Starling introduced the term hormone in 1909. They first discovered the hormone secretin.
Question 36
Which of the following is/are exocrine gland?
A
Salivary gland
B
Sweat gland
C
Mammary gland
D
All the above
Question 36 Explanation: 
Exocrine glands have specific ducts to carry their secretions e.g salivary glands, mammary glands, sweat glands.
Question 37
Which of the following is not an Endocrine gland?
A
Pituitary gland
B
Pancreas
C
Gonads
D
Sweat gland
Question 37 Explanation: 
Endocrine glands present in human and other vertebrates are: Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid gland Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans) Adrenal gland (Adrenal cortex and Adrenal medulla) Gonads (Testes and Ovary) Thymus gland
Question 38
Pituitary gland is attached to the base of_____
A
Thalamus
B
Hypothalamus
C
Cerebrum
D
Cerebellum
Question 38 Explanation: 
Th e pituitary gland or hypophysis is a pea shaped compact mass of cells located at the base of the midbrain attached to the hypothalamus by a pituitary stalk.
Question 39
How many lobes does pituitary gland have?
A
2
B
4
C
5
D
1
Question 39 Explanation: 
Th e pituitary gland is anatomically composed of two lobes and perform different functions. They are the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). Th e intermediate lobe is non-existent in humans.
Question 40
Which of the following gland is known as master gland?
A
Pineal gland
B
Pancreas
C
Pituitary gland
D
Liver
Question 40 Explanation: 
The pituitary gland forms the major endocrine gland in most vertebrates. It regulates and controls other endocrine glands and so is called as the “Master gland”.
Question 41
Hormones secreted by ____ lobe of pituitary
A
Anterior
B
Posterior
C
Both a and b
D
None
Question 41 Explanation: 
Hormones secreted by the anterior lobe (Adenohypophysis) of pituitary. Pituitary gland are the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The intermediate lobe is non-existent in humans.
Question 42
Which of the following hormone is not secreted by pituitary gland?
A
Prolactin
B
Growth Hormone
C
Melatonin
D
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Question 42 Explanation: 
The hormones secreted by anterior pituitary are: Growth Hormone Thyroid stimulating Hormone Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Gonadotropic Hormone which comprises the Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone Prolactin
Question 43
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. The anterior pituitary is composed of different types of cells
  2. They secrete hormones which stimulates the production of hormones by other endocrine glands
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 43 Explanation: 
The anterior pituitary is composed of different types of cells and secrete hormones which stimulates the production of hormones by other endocrine glands.
Question 44
Which of the following organ growth are stimulated by Growth Hormone?
  1. Muscles
  2. Bones
  3. Long bones
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 44 Explanation: 
GH promotes the development and enlargement of all tissues of the body. It stimulates the growth of muscles, cartilage and long bones. It controls the cell metabolism.
Question 45
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Dwarfism is caused by over-secretion of growth hormone
  2. The characteristic features are stunted growth, delayed skeletal formation and mental disability
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 45 Explanation: 
Dwarfism is caused by decreased secretion of growth hormone in children. The characteristic features are stunted growth, delayed skeletal formation and mental disability.
Question 46
Which of the following statement is incorrect?
  1. Over-secretion of growth hormone leads to gigantism in adult
  2. Individuals attain abnormal increase in height.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 46 Explanation: 
Over-secretion of growth hormone leads to gigantism in children. It is characterised by overgrowth of all body tissues and organs. Individuals attain abnormal increase in height.
Question 47
Which causes abnormal enlargement of head, face, hands and feet in adult?
A
Dwarfism
B
Gigantism
C
Acromegaly
D
None
Question 47 Explanation: 
Acromegaly: Excess secretion of growth hormone in adults may lead to abnormal enlargement of head, face, hands and feet.
Question 48
____ controls the growth of thyroid gland
A
GT
B
ACTH
C
TSH
D
GTH
Question 48 Explanation: 
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) controls the growth of thyroid gland, coordinates its activities and hormone secretion.
Question 49
______ stimulates adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland for the production of its hormones
A
GT
B
ACTH
C
TSH
D
GTH
Question 49 Explanation: 
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland for the production of its hormones. It also influences protein synthesis in the adrenal cortex.
Question 50
____ hormones are follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.
A
GT
B
ACTH
C
TSH
D
GTH
Question 50 Explanation: 
The gonadotropic hormones are follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone which are essential for the normal development of gonads.
Question 51
_____ stimulates the germinal epithelium of testes for formation of sperms
A
Follicle stimulating hormone
B
Luteinizing hormone
C
Melatonin
D
Oxytocin
Question 51 Explanation: 
In male, Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the germinal epithelium of testes for formation of sperms. In female it initiates the growth of ovarian follicles and its development in ovary.
Question 52
____ causes ovulation in female
A
Follicle stimulating hormone
B
Luteinizing hormone
C
Melatonin
D
Oxytocin
Question 52 Explanation: 
In male, Luteinizing hormone promotes the Leydig cells of the testes to secrete male sex hormone testosterone. In female, it causes ovulation (rupture of mature graafian follicle), responsible for the development of corpus luteum and production of female sex hormones oestrogen and progesterone.
Question 53
_____ is also called lactogenic hormone
A
Follicle stimulating hormone
B
Luteinizing hormone
C
Melatonin
D
Prolactin
Question 53 Explanation: 
Prolactin (PRL) is also called lactogenic hormone. This hormone initiates development of mammary glands during pregnancy and stimulates the production of milk after child birth.
Question 54
_____ is known as a ‘time messenger’.
A
Follicle stimulating hormone
B
Luteinizing hormone
C
Melatonin
D
Prolactin
Question 54 Explanation: 
Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland. It is known as a ‘time messenger’. It signals night time information throughout the body.
Question 55
Exposure to light of____ at night can decrease melatonin production
A
Short wavelength
B
Long wavelength
C
Medium wavelength
D
All the above
Question 55 Explanation: 
Exposure to light at night, especially short-wavelength light, can decrease melatonin production interrupting sleep. Suppression of melatonin has been implicated in sleep disturbances and related metabolic disorders.
Question 56
Which of the following hormones are produced by posterior lobe (Neurohypophysis) of pituitary?
A
Vasopressin
B
Melatonin
C
Oxytocin
D
Both a and c
Question 56 Explanation: 
Hormones secreted by the posterior lobe (Neurohypophysis) of pituitary: The hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary are: Vasopressin or Antidiuretic hormone Oxytocin
Question 57
_____ increases reabsorption of water in kidney tubules
A
Vasopressin
B
Melatonin
C
Oxytocin
D
Both a and c
Question 57 Explanation: 
In kidney tubules it increases reabsorption of water. It reduces loss of water through urine and hence the name antidiuretic hormone or Vasopressin.
Question 58
Deficiency of ADH causes____
A
Diabetes insipidus
B
Diabetes mellitus
C
Both a and b
D
Renal failure
Question 58 Explanation: 
Deficiency of ADH reduces reabsorption of water and causes an increase in urine output (polyuria). This deficiency disorder is called Diabetes insipidus.
Question 59
_____ helps in the contraction of the smooth muscles of uterus at the time of child birth
A
Vasopressin
B
Melatonin
C
Oxytocin
D
Both a and c
Question 59 Explanation: 
Oxytocin helps in the contraction of the smooth muscles of uterus at the time of child birth and milk ejection from the mammary gland after child birth.
Question 60
Which of the following are involved in thyroid formation?
  1. Iodine
  2. Calcium
  3. Amino acid tyrosine
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 60 Explanation: 
An amino acid tyrosine and iodine are involved in the formation of thyroid hormone. The hormones secreted by the thyroid gland are Triiodothyronine (T3) Tetraiodothyronine or Thyroxine (T4)
Question 61
Which of the following about thyroid hormone is correct?
  1. Increases oxygen consumption in tissues
  2. Influences the activity of central nervous system.
  3. Production of energy by maintaining the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) of the body
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 61 Explanation: 
Functions of thyroid hormones: Increases oxygen consumption in tissues Production of energy by maintaining the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) of the body. Helps to maintain normal body temperature. Influences the activity of central nervous system. Controls the growth of body, bone formation and development of gonads.
Question 62
Which of the following regulates carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism?
A
Thyroid Gland
B
Thymus gland
C
Adrenal gland
D
Parathyroid gland
Question 62 Explanation: 
The functions of thyroid hormones are: Essential for normal physical, mental and personality development. It is also known as personality hormone. Regulates carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism.
Question 63
Who among the following first crystallised thyroxine hormone?
A
Edward C. Kendal
B
George Barger
C
Charles Harrington
D
Charles Hammlock
Question 63 Explanation: 
Explanation Edward C. Kendal in 1914 first crystallised thyroxine hormone. Charles Harrington and George Barger identified the molecular structure of thyroxine in 1927. Thyroid gland requires “120 µg” of iodine every-day for the production of thyroxine.
Question 64
Which of the following are the abnormal conditions are simple goitre?
  1. Simple goitre
  2. Cretinism
  3. Myxoedema
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 64 Explanation: 
Hypothyroidism is caused due to the decreased secretion of the thyroid hormones. The abnormal conditions are simple goitre, cretinism and myxoedema.
Question 65
In which of the following region of India Goitre is mostly prevalent?
A
Western ghats
B
Eastern ghats
C
Deccan Plateau
D
Himalayan region
Question 65 Explanation: 
Goitre is caused due to the inadequate supply of iodine in our diet. This is commonly prevalent in Himalayan regions due to low level of iodine content in the soil. It leads to the enlargement of thyroid gland which protrudes as a marked swelling in the neck and is called as goitre.
Question 66
Cretinism is caused in____
A
Adults
B
Children
C
Old age people
D
All the above
Question 66 Explanation: 
Cretinism is caused due to decreased secretion of the thyroid hormones in children. The conditions are stunted growth, mental defect, lack of skeletal development and deformed bones. They are called as cretins.
Question 67
Myxoedema is caused in____
A
Adults
B
Children
C
Old age people
D
All the above
Question 67 Explanation: 
Myxoedema is s caused by deficiency of thyroid hormones in adults. They are mentally sluggish, increase in body weight, puffiness of the face and hand, oedematous appearance.
Question 68
Which of the following statement about Hyperthyroidism?
  1. It is caused due to the excess secretion of the thyroid hormones which leads to Grave’s disease
  2. The symptoms are protrusion of the eyeballs, profuse sweating, loss of body weight and nervousness.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 68 Explanation: 
Hyperthyroidism is caused due to the excess secretion of the thyroid hormones which leads to Grave’s disease. The symptoms are protrusion of the eyeballs (Exopthalmia), increased metabolic rate, high body temperature, profuse sweating, loss of body weight and nervousness.
Question 69
In Which surface of thyroid, parathyroid glands are located?
A
Anterior
B
Posterior
C
Dorsal
D
Ventral
Question 69 Explanation: 
The parathyroid glands are four small oval bodies that are situated on the posterior surface of the thyroid lobes. The chief cells of the gland are mainly concerned with secretion of parathormone.
Question 70
Which of the following metabolism are regulated by parathormone?
  1. Calcium
  2. Iron
  3. Phosphorous
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 70 Explanation: 
The parathormone regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism in the body. They act on bone, kidney and intestine to maintain blood calcium levels.
Question 71
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Removal of parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy (removal of thyroid) causes decreased secretion of parathormone
  2. Muscle spasm known as Tetany (sustained contraction of muscles in face, larynx, hands and feet)
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 71 Explanation: 
The secretion of parathyroid hormone can be altered due to the following conditions. Removal of parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy (removal of thyroid) causes decreased secretion of parathormone. The conditions are: Muscle spasm known as Tetany (sustained contraction of muscles in face, larynx, hands and feet). Painful cramps of the limb muscles.
Question 72
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Pancreas is an elongated, yellowish gland situated in the loop of stomach and Ileum
  2. It is exocrine and endocrine in nature
  3. The endocrine portion is made up of Islets of Langerhans.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 72 Explanation: 
Pancreas is an elongated, yellowish gland situated in the loop of stomach and duodenum. It is exocrine and endocrine in nature. The exocrine pancreas secretes pancreatic juice which plays a role in digestion while, the endocrine portion is made up of Islets of Langerhans.
Question 73
Human insulin was first discovered by____
A
Fredrick Banting
B
Charles Best
C
MacLeod
D
All the above
Question 73 Explanation: 
Human insulin was first discovered by Fredrick Banting, Charles Best and MacLeod in 1921. Insulin was first used in treatment of diabetes on 11th January 1922.
Question 74
The Islets of Langerhans consists of___ types of cells
A
2
B
3
C
4
D
7
Question 74 Explanation: 
The Islets of Langerhans consists of two types of cells namely alpha cells and beta cells. The alpha cells secrete glucagon and beta cells secrete insulin.
Question 75
A balance between____ and____ production is necessary to maintain blood glucose
  1. Insulin
  2. Glucagon
  3. Thyroxine
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 75 Explanation: 
A balance between insulin and glucagon production is necessary to maintain blood glucose concentration.
Question 76
Which of the following statement about Insulin is correct?
  1. It promotes the transport of glucose into the cells.
  2. Insulin helps in the conversion of glucose into glycogen which is stored in Bile
  3. It decreases the concentration of glucose in blood.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 76 Explanation: 
Insulin helps in the conversion of glucose into glycogen which is stored in liver and skeletal muscles It promotes the transport of glucose into the cells. It decreases the concentration of glucose in blood.
Question 77
_____ helps in the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver
A
Insulin
B
Glucagon
C
zona glomerulosa
D
zona fasciculata
Question 77 Explanation: 
Glucagon helps in the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver. It increases blood glucose levels.
Question 78
Match the following:
  1. Hyper-glycemia            1. Increase in appetite
  2. Polyuria            2. Frequent urination
  3. Polydipsia            3. Increase in blood sugar level
  4. Polyphagia            4. Increased thirst
A
2, 1, 3, 4
B
4, 1, 2, 3
C
3, 2, 4, 1
D
3, 4, 2, 1
Question 78 Explanation: 
Increase in blood sugar level (Hyper-glycemia). Excretion of excess glucose in the urine (Glycosuria). Frequent urination (Polyuria). Increased thirst (Polydipsia). Increase in appetite (Polyphagia).
Question 79
Which gland also called supra renal glands?
A
Thyroid
B
Pancreas
C
Adrenal
D
Gonads
Question 79 Explanation: 
The adrenal glands are located above each kidney. They are also called supra renal glands. The outer part is the adrenal cortex and the inner part is the adrenal medulla. The two distinct parts are structurally and functionally different.
Question 80
How many layers are there in adrenal cortex?
A
2
B
4
C
3
D
5
Question 80 Explanation: 
The adrenal cortex consists of three layers of cells. They are zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata and zona reticularis.
Question 81
The glucocorticoids secreted by______
A
Zona glomerulosa
B
Zona fasciculata
C
Zona reticularis
D
All the above
Question 81 Explanation: 
The glucocorticoids secreted by the zona fasciculata are cortisol and corticosterone They regulate carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. It stimulates the formation of glucose from glycogen in the liver. It is an anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic agent.
Question 82
The mineralocorticoids secreted by______
A
Zona glomerulosa
B
Zona fasciculata
C
Zona reticularis
D
All the above
Question 82 Explanation: 
The mineralocorticoids secreted by zona glomerulosa is aldosterone It helps to reabsorb sodium ions from the renal tubules. It causes increased excretion of potassium ions. It regulates electrolyte balance, body fluid volume, osmotic pressure and blood pressure
Question 83
_____ hormones of adrenal cortex serve to maintain the body in living condition
A
Cortisol
B
Corticosterone
C
Epinephrine
D
Norepinephrine
Question 83 Explanation: 
The cortisol hormones of adrenal cortex serve to maintain the body in living condition and recover it from the severe effects of stress reactions. Thus, an increased output of cortisol is “life-saving” in “shock conditions”. It is also known as life-saving hormone
Question 84
_______ is composed of chromaffin cells
A
Pancreas
B
Kidney
C
Adrenal Medulla
D
Adrenal Cortex
Question 84 Explanation: 
The adrenal medulla is composed of chromaffin cells. They are richly supplied with sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.
Question 85
Which of the following hormones are called as Emergency hormones?
  1. Glucocorticoids
  2. Adrenaline
  3. Noradrenaline
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 85 Explanation: 
Adrenaline and Noradrenaline are together called as “Emergency hormones”. It is produced during conditions of stress and emotion. Hence it is also referred as “flight, fright and fight hormone”.
Question 86
Which of the following are the functions of Epinephrine?
  1. It promotes the conversion of glycogen to glucose in liver and muscles.
  2. It decreases blood flow through the skin
  3. It increases heart beat and blood pressure.
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 86 Explanation: 
Functions of adrenal medullary hormones: Epinephrine (Adrenaline): It promotes the conversion of glycogen to glucose in liver and muscles. • It increases heart beat and blood pressure. • It increases the rate of respiration by dilation of bronchi and trachea. • It causes dilation of the pupil in eye. • It decreases blood flow through the skin. Norepinephrine (Noradrenalin): Most of its actions are similar to those of epinephrine.
Question 87
Which of the following statement is incorrect?
  1. The sex glands are of two types the testes and the ovaries
  2. The testes are present in male, while the ovaries are present in female.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 87 Explanation: 
The sex glands are of two types the testes and the ovaries. The testes are present in male, while the ovaries are present in female.
Question 88
Which of the following statement is correct?
  1. Testes are the reproductive glands of the males.
  2. They are composed of seminiferous tubules, Leydig cells and Sertoli cells
  3. They secrete the male sex hormone called progesterone
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 88 Explanation: 
Testes are the reproductive glands of the males. They are composed of seminiferous tubules, Leydig cells and Sertoli cells. Leydig cells form the endocrine part of the testes. They secrete the male sex hormone called testosterone
Question 89
Which of the following are the functions of testosterone?
  1. It influences the process of spermatogenesis.
  2. It stimulates protein synthesis and controls muscular growth.
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 89 Explanation: 
Functions of testosterone: It influences the process of spermatogenesis. It stimulates protein synthesis and controls muscular growth. It is responsible for the development of secondary sexual characters (distribution of hair on body and face, deep voice pattern, etc).
Question 90
Which of the following hormone is not secreted by Ovary?
A
Estrogen
B
Prolactin
C
Progesterone
D
None
Question 90 Explanation: 
The ovaries are the female gonads located in the pelvic cavity of the abdomen. They secrete the female sex hormones: Estrogen Progesterone Prolactin is secreted by Pituitary gland.
Question 91
Which of the following statement is incorrect?
  1. Estrogen is produced by the Graafian follicles of the ovary
  2. Progesterone from the corpus luteum that is formed in the ovary
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 91 Explanation: 
Estrogen is produced by the Graafian follicles of the ovary and progesterone from the corpus luteum that is formed in the ovary from the ruptured follicle during ovulation.
Question 92
Which of the following are the functions of Estrogen?
  1. It brings about the changes that occur during puberty.
  2. It stimulates the maturation of ovarian follicles in the ovary.
  3. It promotes the development of secondary sexual characters
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 92 Explanation: 
Functions of estrogens: It brings about the changes that occur during puberty. It initiates the process of oogenesis. It stimulates the maturation of ovarian follicles in the ovary. It promotes the development of secondary sexual characters (breast development, high pitched voice etc).
Question 93
Which of the following gland is partly an endocrine gland and partly a lymphoid gland?
A
Thyroid
B
Parathyroid
C
Thymus
D
Testes
Question 93 Explanation: 
Thymus is partly an endocrine gland and partly a lymphoid gland. It is located in the upper part of the chest covering the lower end of trachea. Thymosin is the hormone secreted by thymus.
Question 94
Which of the following are the functions of Thymosin?
  1. It has a stimulatory effect on the immune function
  2. It stimulates the production and differentiation of lymphocytes
A
1 alone
B
2 alone
C
1, 2
D
None
Question 94 Explanation: 
Functions of Thymosin: It has a stimulatory effect on the immune function. It stimulates the production and differentiation of lymphocytes.
Question 95
Which of the following are the effects of ethylene?
  1. Promotes the ripening of fruits
  2. Inhibits the elongation of stem and root in dicots
  3. Breaks the dormancy of buds, seeds and storage organs
A
1, 2
B
1, 3
C
2, 3
D
All the above
Question 95 Explanation: 
Physiological effects of ethylene: • Ethylene promotes the ripening of fruits. e.g Tomato, Apple, Mango, Banana, etc. • Ethylene inhibits the elongation of stem and root in dicots. • Ethylene hastens the senescence of leaves and flowers. • Ethylene stimulates formation of abscission zone in leaves, flowers and fruits. This leads to premature shedding • Ethylene breaks the dormancy of buds, seeds and storage organs.
Question 96
How many lobes does thyroid gland have?
A
2
B
3
C
4
D
5
Question 96 Explanation: 
The thyroid gland is composed of two distinct lobes lying one on either side of the trachea. The two lobes are connected by means of a narrow band of tissue known as the isthmus.
Question 97
Which of the following hormone is not secreted by adrenal medulla?
A
Glucocorticoids
B
Adrenaline
C
Noradrenaline
D
All the above
Question 97 Explanation: 
Hormones of Adrenal Medulla: • Epinephrine (Adrenaline) • Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline)
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