10th Social Science Lesson 4
4] The World After World War II
Book Back Questions with Answer and Do You Know Box Content
Do You Know?
Dr. Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925): Born in a poor family near Canton, Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the father of modern china was educated in a mission school and became a Christian. He was then trained as a doctor of medicine in Hong Kong. Evincing interest in politics he took part in a rising against the Manchus in 1895. In 1905 he founded in Tokyo the political party which in 1912 became the Kuomintang or the National People’s Party. Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s three principles were Nationalism, Democracy, and the People’s livelihood with Socialism as the ultimate object.
Mao Tse-tung (1893-1976): Mao was born in Hunan in south-east China. His father was a wealthy peasant, and a firm supporter of the Manchus. Mao, who was very fond of reading, soon showed his ability and entered the Junior College at Changsha. This was the year (1911) when the Revolution had broken out in China. Mao joined the revolutionary army but soon left and enrolled in the Teacher’s Training College in Changsha. In the following year Mao began his full-fledged political activities of Human and emerged as a staunch Communist.
The United States was much concerned that poverty, unemployment, and dislocation caused by the post-World War II period were increasing the appeal of communist parties in Western Europe. The Secretary of State, George C. Marshall, advanced the idea of a European self-help programme to be financed by the United States. Sixteen nations, became part of this programme. Administrative and technical assistance was offered through the Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA) of the United States. Marshall Plan funding ended in 1951.
Cold War: The rivalry that developed after World War II between the US and the USSR and their respective allies created tension which is referred to as Cold War. They did not take recourse to weapons. Instead they waged war on political, economic and ideological fronts.
Zionist Movement: In Palestine, the ancient home of Jews, only a few thousand Jews were living in 1900. Some 15 million were scattered around Europe and North America. (This is referred to as the Diaspora) . In 1896 Thodore Herzel, a Viennese journalist, published a pamphlet called The Jewish State in which he called for the creation of a Jewish national home. Next year (1897) the World Zionist Organisation was founded.
Yasser Arafat (1924-2004): In 1969, Yasser Arafat became chairman of the PLO’s executive committee a position he held until his death in 2004. Yasser Arafat was appointed commander-in-chief of the all Palestinian Arab guerrilla forces in September 1970. Wearing a disguised pistol and carrying an olive branch and dressed in a military uniform, his appearance raised world awareness of the Palestinian cause. Arafat was elected by the central council of the PLO as the first president of the state of Palestine on April 2, 1989.
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): It is an umbrella political organization representing the world’s Palestinians – all Arabs and their descendants who lived in mandated Palestine before the creation of the State of Israel in 1948. It was formed in 1964 to federate various Palestinian groups that previously had operated as clandestine resistance movements. Yasser Arafat was its most prominent leader.
Helmut Kohl, Chancellor of West Germany from 1982 to 1990, and played a crucial role in integrating East Germany into West Germany in 1990. He thus became the first chancellor of a unified Germany after forty five years of division. Which French president Mitterand, Kohl was the architect of the Maastricht Treaty, which established the European Union (EU) and the euro currency.
Perestroika (‘restructuring’) refers to the programme introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in the late 1980s to restructure Soviet economic and political system. Along with the policy of ‘Glasnost’ (‘openness’) , Perestroika was intended to energize Soviet economy which was lagging behind the developed countries of the capitalist world.
Glasnost (‘openness’) was a policy of ideologically openness introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev along with Perestroika in the 1980s. Under Glasnost there was more openness, writers who had been censored earlier were rehabilitated, and there was space for criticism of politics and government.
Yeltsin was first an ally of Gorbachev. However, as Mayor of Moscow, Yeltsin won great popularity as a champion of political and economic freedom. With Gorbachev’s introduction of democratic elections for the Soviet parliament, Yeltsin was returned to power with overwhelming support of a Moscow constituency in 1989. The following year he was elected President of Russia over Gorbachev’s objections. President Yeltsin advocated greater autonomy of the Russian Republic, with executive presidential system that would allow him to govern independently of parliament.
Choose the best answers:
1. Which American President followed the policy of containment of Communism?
(a) Woodrow Wilson
(c) Theodore Roosevelt
(d) Franklin Roosevelt
2. When was People’s Political Consultative Conference held in China?
(a) September 1959
(b) September 1948
(c) September 1954
(d) September 1949
3. The United States and Europeans allies formed ____________ to resist any Soviet aggression in Europe.
(d) Warsaw Pact
4. Who became the Chairman of the PLO’s Executive Committee in 1969?
(a) Hafez al-Assad
(b) Yasser Arafat
(d) Saddam Hussein
5. When was North and South Vietnam united?
6. When was the Warsaw Pact dissolved?
Fill in the blanks:
1. ___________ was known as the “Father of modern China”.
2. In 1918, the society for the study of Marxism was formed in _____________ University.
3. After the death of Dr. Sun Yat Sen, the leader of the Kuomintang party was ______________
4. ___________ treaty is open to any Arab nation desiring peace and security in the region.
5. The treaty of ____________ provided for mandates in Turkish – Arab Empire.
6. Germany joined the NATO in ______________
7. ______________ was the Headquarters of the Council of Europe.
8. _______________ treaty signed on February 7, 1992 created the European Union.
Consider the following the statements and tick the appropriate answer:
1. i) In China (1898) the young emperor, under the influence of the educated minority, initiated a series of reforms known as the 100 days of reforms.
ii) The Kuomintang Party represented the interests of the workers and peasants.
iii) Yuan Shih-Kai had lost prestige in the eyes of Nationalists, when he agreed to the demand of Japan to have economic control of Manchuria and Shantung.
iv) Soviet Union refused to recognize the People’s Republic of China for more than two decades.
(a) i and ii are correct
(b) ii and iii are correct
(c) i and iii are correct
(d) i and iv are correct
2. i) In 1948, the Soviets had established left wing government in the countries of Eastern Europe that had been liberated by the Soviet Army.
ii) The chief objective of NATO was to preserve peace and security in the North Atlantic region.
iii) The member countries of SEATO were committed to prevent democracy from gaining ground in the region.
iv) Britain used the atomic bomb against Japan to convey its destructive capability to the USSR.
(a) ii, iii and iv are correct
(b) i and ii are correct
(c) iii and iv are correct
(d) i, ii and iii are correct
3. Assertion (A): America’s Marshall Plan was for reconstruction of the war-ravaged Europe.
Reason (R): The US conceived the Marshall Plan to bring the countries in the Western Europe under its influence.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are wrong
(c) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(d) (A) is wrong and (R) is correct
Match the following:
1. Dr. Sun Yat-Sen – South Vietnam
2. Syngman Rhee – Kuomintung
3. Anwar Sadat – South Korea
4. Ho-Chi Minh – Egypt
5. Ngo Dinh Diem – North Vietnam
Choose the best answers:
1. Truman 2. September 1949 3. NATO 4. Yasser Arafat 5. 1976 6. 1991
Fill in the blanks:
1. Dr. Sun Yat – Sen 2. Peking 3. Chiang Kai- Shek 4. Central 5. Versailles 6. 1955 7. Strasbourg 8. The Maastricht
Consider the statements given below and choose the correct option:
1. (i) and (iii) are correct 2. (i) and (ii) are correct
3. Both (A) and (R) are correct, but R is not the correct explanation of A
Match the following:
1.Dr. Sun Yat-Sen – Kuomintung
2.Syngman Rhee – South Korea
3.Anwar Sadat – Egypt
4.Ho-Chi Minh – North Vietnam
5.Ngo Dinh Diem – South Vietnam